Lega Nord, whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania, is a right-wing federalist political party in Italy. In the run-up of the 2018 general election, the party was rebranded as Lega without changing its official name in the party's statute; the party was nonetheless referred to only as "Lega" before the rebranding. The LN is often referred to as Carroccio by the Italian media; the LN was established in 1991 as a federation of regional parties of northern and north-central Italy, notably including Liga Veneta, Lega Lombarda, Piemont Autonomista, Uniun Ligure, Lega Emiliano-Romagnola and Alleanza Toscana. The party's founder was Umberto Bossi, federal secretary from 1991 to 2012. After an internal crisis and struggle, the LN was led by Roberto Maroni. In 2013, Matteo Salvini became secretary. Giancarlo Giorgetti and Lorenzo Fontana are deputy secretaries. Leading members include Attilio Fontana, Luca Zaia, Massimiliano Fedriga, Maurizio Fugatti and Roberto Calderoli. Former leading members include Roberto Cota, Roberto Castelli, Francesco Speroni, Gian Paolo Gobbo, Stefano Stefani, Flavio Tosi, Giancarlo Pagliarini, Gipo Farassino, Marco Formentini, Domenico Comino, Vito Gnutti, Fabrizio Comencini, Irene Pivetti, Franco Rocchetta and Gianfranco Miglio.
The LN advocates the transformation of Italy into a federal state, fiscal federalism and greater regional autonomy for Northern regions. At times, the party has advocated the secession of the North, referred to by party members as "Padania" and Padanian nationalism. However, under Salvini the party has to some extent embraced Italian nationalism and emphasised Euroscepticism, opposition to immigration and other "populist" policies while forming an alliance with right-wing populist parties such as France's National Front, the Netherlands' Party for Freedom and the Freedom Party of Austria at the European level. Salvini established a sister party in southern Italy named Us with Salvini and for the 2018 general election restyled the party's symbol and name, dropping the word "Nord" and introducing "Salvini Premier". All these changes have been harshly criticised by Bossi and the Padanist old guard, which now operates from a minority position within the party. However, under Salvini, the League has reached its highest popularity, both in the North and the rest of Italy.
Furthermore, in northern regions the party still has a strong autonomist outlook in Veneto where Venetian nationalism is stronger than ever. The League maintains its power base in the North, where it gets by far most of its support. In the 2018 general election, the League was the third-largest party behind the Five Star Movement and the Democratic Party. In the most recent regional elections, the LN was the largest party in Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Abruzzo, the second-largest in Aosta Valley, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany and Basilicata, the third-largest in Liguria, Marche and South Tyrol, the fourth-largest in Piedmont and the fifth-largest in Molise. At the 1983 general election, Liga Veneta elected Achille Tramarin. At the 1987 general election, another regional party, Lega Lombarda gained national prominence when its leader Umberto Bossi was elected to the Senate; the two parties, along with other regionalist outfits, ran as Alleanza Nord in the 1989 European Parliament election, gaining 1.8% of the vote.
Lega Nord, first launched as an upgrade of Alleanza Nord in December 1989, was transformed into a party in February 1991 through the merger of various regional parties, notably including Lega Lombarda and Liga Veneta. These continue to exist as "national sections" of the federal party, which presents itself in regional and local contests as Lega Lombarda–Lega Nord, Liga Veneta–Lega Nord, Lega Nord–Piemont and so on; the League exploited resentment against Rome's centralism and the Italian government, common in northern Italy as many Northerners felt that the government wasted resources collected from Northerners' taxes. Cultural influences from bordering countries in the North and resentment against illegal immigrants were exploited; the party's electoral successes began at a time when public disillusionment with the established political parties was at its height. The Tangentopoli corruption scandals, which invested most of the established parties, were unveiled from 1992 on. However, contrary to what many pundits observed at the beginning of the 1990s, Lega Nord became a stable political force and it is now one of the oldest parties among those represented in the Italian Parliament.
Lega Nord's first electoral breakthrough was at the 1990 regional elections, but it was with the 1992 ge
Mayor of Bologna
The Mayor of Bologna is an elected politician who, along with the Bologna’s City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Bologna, the regional capital of Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Since May 16, 2011, Virginio Merola is the current mayor of Bologna; this is a list of mayors of Italy. In 1860 the nascent Kingdom of Italy created the office of the Mayor of Bologna, chosen by the City council. In 1926, the Fascist dictatorship abolished mayors and City councils, replacing them with an authoritarian Podestà chosen by the National Fascist Party. From 1945 to 1995, the Mayor of Bologna was chosen by the City council. Since 1995, under provisions of new local administration law, the Mayor of Bologna is chosen by popular election every four years, since 1999 every five years. Timeline of Bologna
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, artistic legacy, its influence on high culture, it is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Tuscany is a popular destination in Italy, the main tourist spots are Florence, Lucca, Versilia and Chianti; the village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited seaside destination in the region, with seaside tourism accounting for 40% of tourist arrivals. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val d'Orcia are internationally renowned and popular spots among travellers.
Seven Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the historic centre of Florence. Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the world's 89th most visited city, with over 1.834 million arrivals. Triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north, Marche to the northeast, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast; the comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna. Tuscany has a western coastline on the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, among, the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of 22,993 square kilometres. Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, with few plains, the region has a relief, dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, mountains, a further 25%, or 5,770 square kilometres.
Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the Arno. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa; the climate is mild in the coastal areas, is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer, giving the region a soil-building active freeze-thaw cycle, in part accounting for the region's once having served as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks; the Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture in the late second millennium BC who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean Sea. Following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before "Orientalization" occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose.
The Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art. The Etruscans lived in the area of Etruria well into prehistory; the civilization grew to fill the area between the Arno and Tiber from the eighth century BCE, reaching its peak during the seventh and sixth centuries B. C. succumbing to the Romans by the first century BCE. Throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, Rome, influenced the civilization to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, ensured peace.
These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, the construction of many buildings, both public and private. However, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather; the Roman civilization in the West of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire collapsed in the fifth century, the region fell to barbarians migrating through the Empire from Eastern Europe and Central Asia of the Goths was re-conquered by the revived Eastern Roman Empire under the strong Emperor Justinian. In the years following 572, the Lombards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their subsequent Tuscia. Pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena between Rome and France brought wealth and development during the medieval period; the food and shelter required by the
The centre-right coalition is a political alliance of political parties in Italy, active—under several forms and names—since 1994, when Silvio Berlusconi entered politics and formed his Forza Italia party. In the 1994 general election, under the leadership of Berlusconi, the centre-right ran with two coalitions, the Pole of Freedoms in northern Italy and Tuscany and the Pole of Good Government in central and southern Italy. In the 1996 general election, after the Northern League had left in late 1994, the centre-right coalition took the name of Pole for Freedoms; the Northern League returned in 2000, the coalition was re-formed as the House of Freedoms. Since 2008, when Forza Italia and National Alliance merged into The People of Freedom, the coalition has not had official names; the new Forza Italia was formed in late 2013. In 2018, the Lega Nord formed a government coalition with the Five Star Movement and without its centre-right allies, which entered the opposition; this led to a deterioration of the centre-right coalition at a national level, although the coalition is still active at the level of local elections.
In 1994, the media magnate Silvio Berlusconi very close to the Socialist Prime Minister Bettino Craxi and having appeared in commercials for the Italian Socialist Party, was studying the possibility of making a political party of his own to avoid what seemed to be the unavoidable victory of the left wing at the next elections. Only three months before the election, he presented, with a televised announcement, his new party, Forza Italia. Supporters believe he wanted to avert a communist victory, opponents that he was defending the ancién regime by rebranding it. Whatever his motives, he employed his power in communication and advanced communication techniques he and his allies knew well, as his fortune was based on advertisement. Berlusconi managed, in a surprise move, to ally himself both to National Alliance and Northern League, without these being allied with each other. Forza Italia teamed up with the League in the North, where they competed against National Alliance, with National Alliance in the rest of Italy, where the League was not present.
This unusual coalition configuration was caused by the deep hate between the League, which wanted to separate Italy and held Rome in deep contempt, the nationalist post-fascists. In the 1994 general election, Berlusconi's coalition won a decisive victory over Occhetto's one, becoming the first center-right coalition to win general election since the Second World War. In the popular vote, Berlusconi's coalition outpolled the Alliance of Progressives by over 5.1 million votes. Pole of Freedoms won in the main regions of Italy. Pole for Freedoms was formed as a continuation of the Pole of Freedoms and Pole of Good Government coalitions, which had both supported the leadership of Silvio Berlusconi at the 1994 general election: the Pole of Freedom was constituted by Forza Italia and Northern League, the Pole of Good Government by Forza Italia and the National Alliance. After that, Lega Nord left the coalition at the end of 1994, the centre-right was forced to reform itself: in 1995, in occasion of the regional elections, an organic alliance was formed.
In 1996 it was named "Pole for Freedoms" and debuted in the 1996 general election. The House of Freedoms was the successor of the Pole of Freedoms/Pole of Good Government and the Pole for Freedoms. In the run-up of the 2001 general election, after a six-year spell in opposition, which Berlusconi called "the crossing of the desert", he managed to re-unite the coalition under the "House of Freedoms" banner. According to its leader, the alliance was a "broad democratic arch, composed of the democratic right, namely AN, the great democratic centre, namely Forza Italia, CCD and CDU, the democratic left represented by the League, the New PSI, the Italian Republican Party; the CdL won the 2001 general election by a landslide and the Berlusconi II Cabinet was formed. In government, FI, whose strongholds included Lombardy as well as Sicily, the LN, active only in the Centre-North, formed the so-called "axis of the North", through the special relationship between three Lombards leaders, Giulio Tremonti and Umberto Bossi.
In 2003 the CdL was routed in local elections by The Olive Tree and the LN threatened to pull out. The 2004 European Parliament election were disappointing for FI and the coalition as a whole though AN, the UDC and the LN did better than five years before; as a result, Berlusconi and FI were weaker within the CdL. In 2005 the coalition lost in regional elections, losing six of the eight regions it controlled; the defeat was damaging in the South, while the only two regions which the coalition managed to keep and Veneto, were in the North, where the LN was decisive. This led to a government crisis after the UDC pulled its ministers out
Agazio Loiero is an Italian politician, former President of Calabria and minister in the D'Alema II Cabinet and the Amato II Cabinet. Graduated in Letters and Philosophy, Loiero has worked as a columnist for newspapers such as Il Messaggero, L'Unità and the Gazzetta del Sud. Loiero joined the Christian Democracy. From 1987 to 1994, Loiero was elected to the Chamber of Deputies with the DC. In 1996, Loiero joined Pier Ferdinando Casini's Christian Democratic Centre and is re-elected to the Senate. Two years Loiero left the Pole for Freedoms coalition and joined the Union of Democrats for Europe, being appointed Minister for Parliamentary Relations in the D'Alema II Cabinet and Minister for Regional Affairs in the Amato II Cabinet. In 2001, Loiero returns to the Chamber of Deputies, leaving his seat in Parliament when in the 2005 regional election Loiero is elected President of Calabria. Loiero fails to be re-elected governor in the 2010 regional election. In 2007, Loiero joins the National Leadership of the Democratic Party, giving his support to Rosy Bindi during the 2007 primaries.
Loiero left the party in 2011, after having been critical to secretary Pier Luigi Bersani, joined the Movement for the Autonomies, though he left the movement in 2013 when it made an electoral agreement with the centre-right coalition. Together with his predecessor Giuseppe Chiaravalloti, Loiero has been involved in the Why Not investigation led by judge Luigi de Magistris, created to shed light on alleged wrongdoing in the management of public funds for the development of Calabria. Loiero was charged for the crime of abuse of office but in 2013 he was absolved definitively by the Court of Cassation for not having committed the fact. Files about his parliamentary activities: X, XI, XIII, XIV legislature
Apulia is a region in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, its population is about four million, it is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, Basilicata to the southwest. Across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, its capital city is Bari. Apulia's coastline is longer than that of any other mainland Italian region. In the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic like a'sperone', while in the south, the Salento peninsula forms the'tacco' of Italy's boot; the highest peak in the region is Mount Cornacchia within the Daunian Mountains, in the north along the Apennines. It is home to the Alta Murgia National Park and Gargano National Park. Outside of national parks in the North and West, most of Apulia and Salento is geographically flat with only moderate hills.
The climate is mediterranean with hot and sunny summers and mild, rainy winters. Snowfall on the coast is rare but has occurred as as January 2019. Apulia is among the hottest and driest regions of Italy in summer with temperatures sometimes reaching up to and above 40 °C in Lecce and Foggia; the coastal areas on the Adriatic and in the southern Salento region are exposed to winds of varying strengths and directions affecting local temperatures and conditions, sometimes within the same day. The Northerly Bora wind from the Adriatic can lower temperatures and moderate summer heat while the Southerly Sirocco wind from North Africa can raise temperatures and drop red dust from the Sahara. On some days in spring and autumn, it can be warm enough to swim in Gallipoli and Porto Cesareo on the Ionian coast while at the same time, cool winds warrant jackets and sweaters in Monopoli and Otranto on the Adriatic coast. Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy, it was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks.
A number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the "Crown of Apulia". After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, remained so until the unification of Italy in the 1860s; this kingdom was independent under the House of Anjou from 1282 to 1442 was part of Aragon until 1458, after which it was again independent under a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara until 1501. As a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714; when Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves. The coast of Apulia was occupied at times at other times by the Venetians. In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was "so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin".
The region's contribution to Italy's gross value added was around 4.6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average and represents about 68.1% of the EU average. The share of gross value added by the agricultural and services sectors was above the national average in 2000; the region has industries specialising in particular areas, including food processing and vehicles in Foggia. Between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy; such growth, over several decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Apulia's thriving economy is articulated into numerous sectors boasting several leading companies: Aerospace; the unemployment rate was higher than the national average. There is an estimated 50 to 60 million olive trees in Puglia and the region accounts for 40% of Italy's olive oil production. There are four specific Protected Designation of Origin covering the whole region.
Olive varieties include: Baresane, Brandofino, Carolea, Cellina di Nardò, Cerignola, Cima di Bitonto, Cima di Mola, Coratina grown in Corning, CA. A 2018 Gold Medal New York International Olive Oil Competition winner, Garganica, La Minuta, Moresca, Nocellara Etnea, Nocellara Messinese, Ogliarola Barese, Ogliara Messinese, Peranzana, produced as "Certified Ultra-Premium Extra Virgin Olive Oil", Santagatese, Tonda Iblea, Verdello. There has been an issue of marketed "extra pure" olive oil being imported from Spain, the Balkans and Tunisia; this includes the use of rectified lampante, being allowed due to a controversial 1995 law. The olive oil industry in Puglia is under threat from the pathogen Xy