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Prime Directive

In the fictional universe of Star Trek, the Prime Directive is a guiding principle of Starfleet, prohibiting its members from interfering with the internal and natural development of alien civilizations. The Prime Directive applies to civilizations which are below a certain threshold of technological and cultural development. Since its introduction in the first season of the original Star Trek series, it has served as the plot focus of numerous episodes of the various Star Trek series. Although the concept of the Prime Directive has been alluded to and paraphrased by many Star Trek characters during the television series and feature films, the actual directive has never been provided to viewers; the most complete attempts to define the directive have come from non-canonical works and include: The Prime Directive prohibits Starfleet personnel and spacecraft from interfering in the normal development of any society, mandates that any Starfleet vessel or crew member is expendable to prevent violation of this rule and As the right of each sentient species to live in accordance with its normal cultural evolution is considered sacred, no Starfleet personnel may interfere with the normal and healthy development of alien life and culture.

Such interference includes introducing superior knowledge, strength, or technology to a world whose society is incapable of handling such advantages wisely. Starfleet personnel may not violate this Prime Directive to save their lives and/or their ship, unless they are acting to right an earlier violation or an accidental contamination of said culture; this directive takes precedence over any and all other considerations, carries with it the highest moral obligation. Creation of the Prime Directive is credited to original-series producer Gene L. Coon; the Prime Directive reflected a contemporary political view that US involvement in the Vietnam War was an example of a superpower interfering in the natural development of southeast Asian society. Although filmed between 2001 and 2005, Star Trek: Enterprise is a prequel to Star Trek: The Original Series and references are made to the Prime Directive. Most notably in the first-season episode, "Dear Doctor", Captain Jonathan Archer says "Some day, my people are gonna come up with some sort of a doctrine, something that says what we can and can't do out here and shouldn't do.

But until someone tells me that they've drafted that directive, I'm gonna have to remind myself every day that we didn't come out here to play God." Additionally, in the ENT episodes "Fight or Flight" and "Civilization", references are made to a Vulcan policy of non-interference that imply it may have been a model for Starfleet's Prime Directive. In "New Eden", the second episode in season two of Star Trek: Discovery aired in 2019, the away party is selected and briefed to ensure that their interactions with humans from pre-Warp capable Earth does not interfere with their development; the regulation is referred to as General Order 1. The first filmed reference to the Prime Directive occurs in the first season TOS episode "The Return of the Archons", when Spock begins to caution Captain Kirk when he proposes to destroy a computer controlling an entire civilization. Kirk interrupts him after Spock says, "Captain, our Prime Directive of non-interference" with, "That refers to a living, growing culture..."

Kirk argues the computer into self-destruction and leaves behind a team of sociologists to help restore the society to a "human" form. In the TOS second-season episode "The Apple", Spock says of Kirk's plan to destroy Vaal, "If we do what it seems we must, in my opinion, it will be in direct violation of the non-interference directive." In the TOS second-season episode "A Piece of the Action", interference 100 years earlier by the Federation ship, the Horizon, hints that the Prime Directive was not in force at that time. In the TOS second-season episode "A Private Little War", two different factions on a planet were at war with each other and it is discovered that the Klingons were furnishing one faction with advanced weapons. Kirk responded by arming the other faction with the same weapons; this resulted in an arms race on that world, as a fictionalized parallel to the then-current Cold War arms race, in which the United States armed one side of a dispute and the Soviet Union armed the other.

In the TOS second-season episode "Patterns of Force," Federation cultural observer and historian John Gill created a regime based on Nazi Germany on a primitive planet in an effort to create a society which combined the high efficiency of a fascist dictatorship with a more benign philosophy. In doing so, he contaminated the normal and healthy development of the planet's culture, with disastrous effects. In the TOS second-season episode "The Omega Glory", after finding out that Captain Tracy may have violated the Prime Directive, Captain Kirk states, "A starship captain's most solemn oath is that he will give his life his entire crew, rather than violate the Prime Directive." In the TOS second-season episode "Bread and Circuses", the crew discusses that the Prime Directive is in effect, saying, "No identification of self or mission. No interference with the social development of said planet. No references to space, or the fact that there are other worlds, or more advanced civilizations." Captain Jean-Luc Picard of the starship Enterprise states during the Star Trek: The Next

International Association of Black Professional Firefighters

The IABPFF, founded in 1970, is a fraternal organization of black firefighters. The International Association of Black Professional Firefighters represents more than 8000 fire service personnel throughout the United States and the Caribbean, organized in 180 chapters. In September 1969, black and minority fire fighters of all ranks from municipalities across the United States met in New York City for two days of discussion on various problems and injustices affecting African-American firefighters: the recruitment of black youth into the fire service, firefighters-community relations with special emphasis on relations with the residents of neighborhoods inhabited by blacks, inter-group relations and practices in fire departments, the need to improve fire prevention programs in the areas of greatest need; the meeting resulted in the founding of the International Association of Black Professional Fire Fighters. In October 1970, the first convention of Black Professional Fire Fighters was held in Hartford, Connecticut.

The IABPFF is led by President Addington Stewart. This is the Challenge. We can change the lives of young Black men and women by giving them a positive outlook and a desire to succeed; this is a national Challenge and north to south. The effort to change and rescue our youth seems not to be recognized as a challenge that we can conquer. We are 8000 Heroes, We save lives for a living! Let us not linger on what we have done in the past but what we have the great potential to accomplish----- in the future Now in these troubled times, We find that no less than the Justice Department of these United States has found that institutionalized racism has found its way into many municipal courts across the land, making a Jim Crow reality for many black youth preventing them from reaching their potential to be as great as their fathers aspired them to be, they are challenged by police as they go about their lives, by I. D. challenges and frisk, black lives matter. This is a fault of not being one of the haves, a poverty in America, compounded by courts making laws to keep the have-nots in place, forever poor.

We should fall back to what made of our generation a black middle class, one that founded the organizations like ours, be guides and mentors to our lost generation of youth. Civil Service made black wealth a reality for a time, but we got complacent, 2008 saw the greatest re-distribution of black wealth in the form of pension losses, home foreclosures and bankruptcies. Our finest minds have gone on, their sons and daughters are not part of that America, for the most part, they are not civil servants. They are Lawyers, Business owners and members of Americas elite; the ones that are civil servants, we call on you to join us. We need you to give of your time, your dollars, your knowledge of Civil Service to the returning veteran, to the students in school, to the parolee just out of our mass incarceration mills and to get them hired; those salaries are returned to the community because these are our neighbors, our relatives, our brothers and sisters. We know how to do this, it is the only way to prevent the cycle of crime and violence that plagued us in our communities as it did during the crack epidemic of the 90's, the fires and riots of the 60's.

It is imperative that we impart our skills to this problem now, as the older generation withers a gap is forming and the old organizations are dying swiftly. Lets invigorate the tree of liberty with the blood and tears of a new generation. Call out your fence sitting friends, bring them out and you come out, we need you now to re-build and re-vitalize your communities. Now that you are no longer a Probie, you have a handle on your finances, join a fraternal organization and give 50 hours a year to mentor youth in test practice classes. Give up 5 hours of overtime a year to shepherd a parolee into a job. Create a better way and lead by going in uniform to schools and showing that we are leaders and people of stature, standing proud of our civil service heritages. Southwest RegionNortheast Region Vulcan Society, The Valiants, Vulcan Blazers, Phoenix Society, Boston Society of Vulcans Southeast RegionCentral Region The Stentorians, Black Firefighters Association The IABPFF Medal of Honor was established to honor those members whom through their contributions in leadership and activism and dedication to the ideals of the IABPFF, is both constant and unyielding.

In 2017 IABPFF conferred it's Medal of Honor Award to Retired NYFD Lt. Ormond Smith, he served the IABPFF in service to these ideals. The IABPFF Medal of Valor was established to recognize Acts upholding the best qualities and aspirations of the professional fire and rescue service. Medal of Valor Recipients: Brenda Denise Cowan, Kentucky's first black female firefighter. Died in the line of duty on February 13, 2004. According to Women in the Fire Service, Lieutenant Cowan is the first black female career firefighter to die in the line of duty, she had served with the Lexington Fire Department for twelve years. She was on her first tour of duty after being promoted when the call came for a domestic dispute with injuries. Legislative action as a result of this Line Of Duty Death In March 2005, the Brenda D. Cowan Act, Senate Bill 217, unanimously passed the Kentucky Senate; the bill would amend KRS 508.025, relating to assault in the third degree, to provide that a person is guilty of assault in the third degree when he causes or attempts to cause physical injury to emergency medical services personnel, or

Al-Tawhid Brigade

The al-Tawhid Brigade, named after Tawhid, the "oneness of God," but mistranslated as Unity Brigade, was an armed Islamist insurgent group involved in the Syrian Civil War. The al-Tawhid Brigade was formed in 2012. Backed by Qatar, al-Tawhid was considered one of the biggest groups in northern Syria, dominating much of the insurgency around Aleppo. Affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood, in late 2013 it co-signed a joint statement calling for Sharia law and rejecting the authority of the Syrian National Coalition. Al-Tawhid was composed of four subunits, the Mountain Knights Brigade, the Darat Izza Brigade, the Free North Brigade, the Aleppo Shahba Battalions, its leader Abdul Qader Saleh was killed in November 2013 in a devastating Syrian Air Force airstrike. Its northern branch, the Free North Brigade, was in 2014 "superseded" by the Northern Sun Battalion; the Tawhid Brigade consisted was organized into three branches: The Free North Brigade, as the largest subunit of the Tawhid Brigade, was present in the Kilis Corridor and took over the leadership of several subunits in al-Bab to the east of Aleppo.

On 16 June 2017, remnants of the group using its name joined the Sham Legion. The Mountain Knights Brigade operated in the southwest of Aleppo Governorate near the border with the Idlib Governorate and the city of Atarib; the Darat Izza Brigade, named after the town of Darat Izza, operated in the western part of the city of Aleppo. Around June 2013 the Tawhid Brigade was reorganised into nearly 30 sub-factions. In November 2013, the Elite Islamic Battalion left the Tawhid Brigade. On 2 March 2014, the Northern Storm Brigade announced that they would join the Islamic Front under the leadership of the al-Tawhid Brigade. In 2014, the Euphrates Jarabulus Battalions left to join the Dawn of Freedom Brigades. At some point, the 1st Regiment was a member group of the Tawhid Brigade; the al-Tawhid Brigade was formed in 2012 in order to coordinate the Battle of Aleppo, with the stated mission to found a "civil state in Syria with Islam being the main source of legislation." In November 2012, the Tawhid Brigade announced their support for the Syrian National Coalition but called for greater representation in the coalition.

The brigade's leadership called for "a civil state where the basis of legislation is the Islamic faith, with consideration for all the groups of Syria". They thereby implicitly rejected an earlier statement they had made, with other local factions, which had called for an Islamic state in Syria and denouncing the Syrian National Coalition. In January 2013, the Tawhid Brigade announced on its website that it had become a member of the Syrian Islamic Liberation Front. In May 2013, the hell cannon, a mortar-like improvised firearm designed and built by the insurgent group Free North Brigade, was first noted in the press. In June 2013, Tawhid Brigade sent over 300 fighters under the command of Saleh and the Aleppo Military Council's Obaidi to the Battle of al-Qusayr. In August 2013, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the al-Nusra Front, Ahrar al-Sham, the Suqour al-Sham Brigade, the al-Tawhid Brigade announced that they would besiege the YPG-held city of Kobanî. However, infighting between the groups erupted in January 2014 and some of them began to align with the YPG under the name of the Euphrates Islamic Liberation Front.

In March 2014, ISIL captured Sarrin and several other towns and villages from the YPG and the EILF. Clashes continued through May 2014. On 22 September 2013, the Tawhid Brigade joined the Islamic Front coalition; the group was formed from the Syrian Islamic Front and the Syrian Islamic Liberation Front, both of which were dissolved in the process. On 24 September 2013, the Tawhid Brigade co-signed a statement with 11 other rebel groups which called for Sharia law and, allying with al-Qaeda, rejected the authority of the Syrian National Coalition. On 14 November 2013, a Syrian Air Force airstrike bombarded an army base held by the al-Tawhid brigade in Aleppo killing a commander by the name of Youssef al-Abbas injuring two others including al-Tawhid's head commander Abdul Qader Saleh. Saleh subsequently died of his wounds in a Turkish hospital. Following the death of Saleh, the Tawhid Brigade suffered serious internal divisions and lost considerable members in defections to other rebel factions.

They experienced a sharp reduction in military assistance from Gulf states, due to US pressure to support more moderate rebel groups. On 10 September 2014, the Tawhid Brigade's eastern branch became a founding member group of the Euphrates Volcano operations room based in Kobanî. By October 2014, al-Tawhid had seen many of its eastern Aleppo province affiliates becoming defunct but re-emerging as break-off groups, its northern branch Free North Brigade being "superseded" by the Northern Sun Battalion; some remnants of the Tawhid Brigade near Azaz allied itself with the People's Protection Units and received equipment and training from the CIA in late 2014. Their fighters became a core part of the Levant Front as of 2015. However, in October 2016, 4 "battalions" of rebels in Aleppo using the flag of the Tawhid Brigade left the Levant Front and joined the Nour al-Din al-Zenki Movement. List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War The formation of the Tawhid Brigade on 18 July 2012 Youtube channel