A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Anthony Frank Iommi is an English guitarist and producer. He was lead one of the four founder members of the heavy metal band Black Sabbath, he was sole continual member for nearly five decades. While working in a factory as a teenager, Iommi lost the tips of the middle and ring fingers of his right hand in an accident, an event which crucially affected his playing style. Iommi left Black Sabbath's forerunner, Earth, in 1968 to join Jethro Tull, after which he returned to Black Sabbath in 1969, recording their self-titled debut album. In 2000, he released his first solo album Iommi, followed by 2005's Fused, which featured his former bandmate Glenn Hughes. After releasing Fused, he formed Heaven & Hell, which disbanded after Ronnie James Dio's death in 2010. Iommi was ranked number 25 in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". In 2011, he published his autobiography, entitled Iron Man: My Journey through Heaven and Hell with Black Sabbath. Anthony Frank Iommi was born in the only child of Anthony Frank and Sylvia Maria Iommi.
His mother's family were vineyard owners in Italy. The family were Catholic but attended Mass; the family home in the Park Lane area of Aston housed a shop, a popular meeting place in the neighbourhood. The family living room doubled as the shop's stockroom, his mother ran the shop. Born and raised in Handsworth, Iommi attended Birchfield Road School, where future bandmate Ozzy Osbourne was a student one year behind him. At age 8 or 9, Iommi badly cut his upper lip as another boy chased him; as a result, he gained the nickname "Scarface" which caused him to become self-conscious of the scar, he grew his trademark moustache as a means of covering it. At about age ten, Iommi began working out and learned judo and boxing as a means of protecting himself from the local gangs which congregated in his neighbourhood, he became so good at boxing that he envisioned a future as a bouncer in a nightclub, thus avoiding a career in a boring factory job. Iommi wanted to play the drums, but due to the excessive noise he chose the guitar instead as a teenager, after being inspired by the likes of Hank Marvin and the Shadows.
He has always played guitar left-handed. After completing school, Iommi worked as a plumber and in a factory manufacturing rings, he states that at one point he worked in a music store but quit after being falsely accused of stealing. At the age of 17, Iommi lost the tips of the middle and ring fingers of his right hand in an industrial accident on his last day of work in a sheet metal factory. Iommi described, it was just unbelievable. I sat in the hospital with my hand in this bag and I thought'that's it – I'm finished, but I thought'I'm not going to accept that. There must be a way I can play'." After the injury Iommi considered abandoning the guitar entirely. However, his factory foreman played him a recording of famous jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt, which encouraged him to continue as a musician; as Iommi wrote: My friend said, "Listen to this guy play", I went, "No way! Listening to someone play the guitar is the last thing I want to do right now!" But he kept insisting and he ended up playing the record for me.
I told him I thought it was good and he said, "You know, the guy's only playing with two fingers on his fretboard hand because of an injury he sustained in a terrible fire." I was knocked back by this revelation and was so impressed by what I had just heard that I became inspired to start trying to play again. Inspired by Reinhardt's two-fingered guitar playing, Iommi decided to try playing guitar again, though the injury made it quite painful to do so. Although it was an option, Iommi never considered switching hands and learning to play right-handed. In an interview with Guitar World magazine, he was asked if he was "ever tempted to switch to right-handed playing." Iommi responded: If I knew what I know now I would have switched. At the time I had been playing two or three years, it seemed like I had been playing a long time. I thought; the reality of the situation was that I hadn’t been playing long at all, I could have spent the same amount of time learning to play right handed. I did have a go at it.
It seemed impossible to me. I decided to make do with what I had, I made some plastic fingertips for myself. I just persevered with it. In any case, he decided to continue playing left-handed. To do so, he fitted homemade thimbles to his injured fingers to protect them. First, the thimbles prevented him from feeling the strings, causing a tendency to press down hard on them. Second, he had difficulty bending strings, leading him to seek light-gauge guitar strings to make it easier to do so. However, Iommi recalls that such strings were not manufactured at the time, so he used banjo strings instead, until around 1970–71 when Picato Strings began making light-gauge guitar strings. Furthermore, he used the injured fingers predominantly for fretting chords rather than single-note solos. In 1974, Iommi told Guitar Player magazine that the thimbles "helped with his technique" because he had to use his little finger more than he had before the accident. Late
Black Metal (Venom album)
Black Metal is the second album by English heavy metal band Venom. It was released in November 1982, during the great flourishing of metal music in the UK, the new wave of British heavy metal, is considered a major influence on the thrash metal, death metal and black metal scenes that emerged in the 1980s and early 1990s. Although lending its name to the latter subgenre of heavy metal, today it is still debated if the album's music is thrash metal or black metal. AllMusic has described it as "extreme metal", while Moynihan & Søderlind in their book affirm that the album "carved in stone some of essential features", its lyrics and imagery were a major influence on the early Norwegian black metal scene. The cover art was made by singer Conrad "Cronos" Lant. In 1998, it was voted the 52nd among the 100 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die by the British magazine Kerrang! readers. It was included in Robert Dimery's book 1001 Albums You Must Hear; the title track was featured on the soundtrack of the video game Tony Hawk's American Wasteland.
All tracks written by Bray/Dunn/Lant. Alchemist covered "Black Metal" for a tribute album. Blitzkrieg covered "Countess Bathory" on their album Unholy Trinity. Cradle of Filth covered the song "Black Metal" on the special edition of their album Cruelty and the Beast. Dark Forest, a black metal band from Brazil, covered the song "Black Metal" on their demo Sodomized by Depraved Goat from 2003. Dimmu Borgir covered the song "Black Metal", as the Japanese version bonus track on their album In Sorte Diaboli. Heidenland covered "Black Metal" as a hidden track on the 1999 demo cassette Triomftocht voor de glorie van Wodan. Hypocrisy did a cover of the song "Black Metal" on the album Osculum Obscenum. Isegrim made. Machetazo covered "Black Metal". Mayhem, whose guitarist and bandleader Euronymous hailed Venom as an important black metal band, covered "Black Metal" on their Pure Fucking Armageddon demo. Messiah Marcolin did a cover of "Countess Bathory". Necrodeath made a cover of "Countess Bathory" on their album Draculea released in 2007.
Obituary covered "Buried Alive" for their greatest hits compilation, entitled Anthology. Sigh covered multiple songs off of this album on To Hell and Back: Sigh's Tribute to Venom in 1995, on A Tribute to Venom in 2008, along with other EPs and splits; the Soft Pink Truth, Drew Daniel of Matmos' house side project, covered the title track on his 2014 record Why Do The Heathen Rage? Unleashed covered "Countess Bathory" on Shadows in the Deep. Vader covered "Black Metal" on their album Necropolis. Macabre covered "Countess Bathory" for their album Grim Scary Tales. Warpath covered "Black Metal" for their album. Kazjurol covered "Countess Bathory" for their EP Body Slam. Cronos – vocals, bass Mantas – guitars Abaddon – drums Keith Nichol - producer, engineer
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
The Waste Lands (album)
The Waste Lands is the eighth studio album by British heavy metal band Venom. It is the last with bassist/singer Tony "Demolition Man" Dolan and the last before the reunion of the classic Venom line-up from their first four albums, Welcome to Hell, Black Metal, At War with Satan and Possessed. Like the previous album, Temples of Ice, the album was supposed to be produced by ex-Child's Play producer Howard Benson, however he was once again unavailable so the band decided to stay with Kevin Ridley; the working title for this album was Kissing the Beast, but the band changed it when they saw the cover. All songs were written by Tony Dolan and Jeff Dunn. Tony "Demolition Man" Dolan – vocals, bass Jeff "Mantas" Dunn – guitar Steve White – guitar V. X. S. – keyboards and sound effects Anthony "Abaddon" Bray – drums Kevin Ridley - producer, engineer
Temples of Ice
Temples of Ice is the seventh studio album by English heavy metal band Venom. The album was supposed to be produced by ex-Child's Play producer Howard Benson, however he was unavailable so the band decided to stay with Kevin Ridley, who co-produced the band's previous album Prime Evil, it was released on Under One Flag records in 1991, marketed and distributed by Music for Nations. All tracks written except where indicated. VenomTony "Demolition Man" Dolan – vocals, bass Jeff "Mantas" Dunn – guitar Al Barnes – guitar Anthony "Abaddon" Bray – drumsProductiomEngineered by Kevin Ridley Mixed by Kevin Ridley and Pete Peck at Great Linford Manor, England Venom official website
Eine kleine Nachtmusik (album)
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik is a live album released by English heavy metal band Venom in 1986. It contains partial recordings of two different concerts with two different setlists; the first disc contains a show recorded at Hammersmith Odeon in London on 8 October 1985 and the second disc recorded at The Ritz in New York City on 4 and 5 April 1986. The title Eine Kleine Nachtmusik is German for "A Little Night Music"; the title is taken from Mozart's piece of the same name. All songs written by Anthony Bray, Jeffrey Dunn and Conrad Lant, except tracks 1, 2, 5 and 9 by Dunn and Lant. All songs written by Anthony Bray, Jeffrey Dunn and Conrad Lant, except tracks 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8 by Dunn and Lant. Cronos – bass, vocals Mantas – guitar Abaddon – drums