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Prime Minister's Office (Singapore)

The Prime Minister's Office is a ministerial level executive agency within the Government of Singapore that handles the ministries and other political matters that are of great importance to the nation, such as corruption and elections. It is headed by their top political staff; the PMO is located in the Istana, the official residence and office for the President of Singapore. The Prime Minister's Office comprises a PMO, Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau, Cyber Security Agency, Elections Department, National Research Foundation, National Security Coordination Secretariat, Public Service Division, Smart Nation and Digital Government Group and Strategy Group; each department functions independently. The main function of PMO is to provide corporate and administrative support to the Prime Minister; the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau is an independent body which investigates and aims to prevent corruption in the public and private sectors in Singapore. Established in 1952, it derives its powers of investigation from the Prevention of Corruption Act.

The bureau is headed by a director, directly responsible to the Prime Minister. The Cyber Security Agency provides dedicated and centralised oversight of Singapore’s efforts in cyber security; the roles of the agency include engaging and working in partnership with the private sector and outreach, strengthening cyber security for the nation’s critical services. It will develop a national cyber security strategy and implementation plans to build up capabilities against cyber threats. In addition, the CSA will perform crisis management and provide incident assistance to businesses and individuals through SingCERT; the Elections Department is responsible for planning and preparing for, managing the conduct of presidential and parliamentary elections and of any national referendum in Singapore. ELD's work extends beyond the period of elections. Between elections, ELD must prepare and maintain readiness of the public service for the conduct of any elections; the National Research Foundation is tasked to coordinate the research of different agencies within the larger national framework in order to provide a coherent strategic overview and direction.

It develops policies and plans to implement the five strategic thrusts for the national R&D agenda and to implement national research and enterprise strategies approved by the Research and Enterprise Council, to allocate funding to programmes that meet the NRF strategic objectives. The National Security Coordination Secretariat is an important central hub located within the Prime Minister's Office, tasked with national security planning, ensuring cooperation between the various security agencies and the coordination of policy and intelligence issues; the Public Service Division sets policy directions for shaping the public service through public sector leadership development and implementing progressive and effective human resource and development policies. The Smart Nation and Digital Government Group ’s role is to take in perspectives and ideas from different sources, integrate them to develop a whole-of-government, whole-of-nation approach to building a Smart Nation. To achieve the Smart Nation objectives, the Office will drive collaboration with and engagement of citizens and industry, oversee the development of cross-cutting Smart Nation enablers and coordinate the Smart Nation initiatives of the various agencies within Government.

Together with the Government Technology Agency, the implementing agency of SNDGO, the group is known as the Smart Nation and Digital Government Group. Inaugurated in January 2011, the National Population and Talent Division strives to achieve a sustainable and integrated population for Singapore. NPTD drives the coordination and implementation of population and talent policies across Government agencies; these include policies in the areas of population augmentation, supporting marriage and parenthood, talent attraction and retention and naturalisation, integration of newcomers, engaging overseas Singaporeans. The NPTD is now part of the Strategy Group since 1 August 2016. Set up on 1 July 2010, the National Climate Change Secretariat is a dedicated agency that refines and executes Singapore's domestic and international policies an strategies to address climate change, it assists the Prime Minister and his Cabinet by being part of the Strategy Group and it functions under the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Climate Change.

The PMO oversees three statutory boards. They are: Government Technology Agency Monetary Authority of Singapore Civil Service College Cabinet of Singapore Government of Singapore Prime Minister of Singapore Official website Singapore Government Directory Interactive — Prime Minister's Office

Indigenous North American stickball

Indigenous North American stickball is considered to be one of the oldest team sports in North America. Stickball and lacrosse are similar to one another, the game of lacrosse is a tradition belonging to tribes of the Northern United States and Canada. S. where the game originated. Although the first recorded writing on the topic of stickball was not until the mid-17th century, there is evidence that the game had been developed and played hundreds of years before that. Traditional stickball games were sometimes major events; as many as 100 to 1,000 men from opposing villages or tribes would participate. The games were played in open plains located between the two villages, the goals could range from 500 yards to several miles apart. Rules for these games were decided on the day before. There was no out-of-bounds, the ball could not be touched with the hands; the goals would be selected as large trees. Playing time was from sun up until sundown; the game began with the ball being tossed into the two sides rushing to catch it.

Because of a large number of players involved, these games tended to involve a huge mob of players swarming the ball and moving across the field. Passing the ball was thought of as a trick, it was seen as cowardly to dodge an opponent. Medicine men acted as coaches, the women of the tribe were limited to serving refreshments to the players and betting on the sidelines; the historical game played a huge role in the peace kept between tribes. The game was not only used as a way to settle disputes and grievances among the many tribes but was played to toughen young warriors for combat, for recreation, as part of festivals, for the bets involved. Before the game was played terms would be set and agreed upon and the losing team would have no choice but to accept the outcome. If a tribe did not accept the terms of the game, the dispute would end in battle. Although the entire historical timeline of the game is only fragmentary, there have been several documented games throughout history that have not only impacted the tribes but the nation as a whole.

In the mid-17th century, a Jesuit missionary named Jean de Brébeuf was the first to write about the Native American game after witnessing the Huron Indians play. Though the Jesuit despised the game and condemned it for its violent nature, many English colonists were captivated by it and began playing the game themselves. One of the most historical references to the game was in 1763 when the Ottawa tribe used a game of stickball to gain entrance into Fort Mackinac; the chief of the Ottawas, Chief Pontiac invited soldiers from the fort to watch a game in honor of the king's birthday. While the soldiers enjoyed the festivities and entertainment the Ottawa players moved close enough to rush the fort and massacre the soldiers. In 1834 after the Caughnawaga Indians demonstrated a game of stickball in Canada. Many Canadians took interest in the game and in 1856 William George Beers codified the aboriginal game into modern lacrosse; these ancestral games of the Native Americans are still played by many tribes across North America today, however, it was not until around the mid- to late-20th century that the Native American game of stickball began to see a what some have called a "renaissance" across the southern region of North America.

Pre-game rituals were similar to rituals associated with war. The night before the game was to be played a tribal ball dance was held in which most of the community would take part; the dances consisted of conjuring ceremonies and spiritual songs and practices that were believed to bring good luck to the team. The players wore ceremonial regalia, sacrifices were held, sacred expressions were yelled to intimidate opponents; the medicine man performed rituals to prepare their sticks. One by one the Shaman would take each player away from the dance to perform the "mystic rite known as going to the water" at which time the shaman blesses the game and each player receives ritualistic scratches that were said to "cause the blood to flow more freely" during the game, assuring a win for the team. In many instances, winning the game meant winning a dispute with another tribe or community. Players would decorate their bodies with paint and charcoal and their sticks or stick racks with objects representing qualities desired in the game.

In addition to athletic training, strict taboos were held on. Players would fast and be banned from eating certain foods in hopes that the absence of this food would mentally and physically enhance the player's capability to move the team towards a win in the game. On the day of the game, teams were slowed by constant rituals. Before the game, every player was required to place a wager. Items such as handkerchiefs, trinkets and wives and children would be at stake; the bets would be displayed on a rack near the spectators, items would be awarded proportionally to the winner of each quarter. When the game was over another ceremonial dance took place, along with a large feast for the hungry players. In the summer of 1892, we were near Keokuk Falls on North Canadian River and we learned that a ball game was to be staged between the Tulsa and the Theowalthioa Indians so we waited and watched their preparations; the two tribes moved in three days. One tribe camped directly south of the other with a strip of land between them, This strip of land was guarded by Indian Braves on horseback

West Florida Electric Cooperative

West Florida Electric Cooperative, Inc. is a not-for-profit rural electric utility cooperative headquartered in Graceville, Florida. It is a member of the Florida Electric Cooperatives Association, the National Rural Electric Association, PowerSouth Energy Cooperative and the Touchstone Energy Cooperatives alliance. President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Rural Electrification Administration in 1935 by signing Executive Order 7037 to bring electricity to rural areas of the country and to customers not serviced by the large power companies. West Florida Electric Cooperative was organized in 1937 and began distributing electricity in 1939. William Walter Henley served as WFEC's first Board of Directors' President. Since 1937, WFEC has continued to expand. In 1977, WFEC bought Sportsman's Park, home field of the Graceville Oilers baseball team of the Alabama–Florida League and converted it into a pole yard. District offices were opened in Bonifay and Sneads in 1986 and 1988 to meet the needs of West Florida's growing customer base.

PowerSouth Energy Cooperative Alabama Electric Cooperative, is WFEC's generation and transmission co-op. This means; as a member of PowerSouth, WFEC is an owner of the cooperative along with fifteen other electric cooperatives and four municipal electric systems in Alabama and Northwest Florida. PowerSouth's members are: Baldwin EMC. In 1998, WFEC joined the Touchstone Energy Cooperatives’ branding alliance to pools its resources and knowledge with other co-ops from across the U. S. Currently, West Florida Electric serves more than 27,000 customers in portions of four counties, including Jackson, Holmes & Washington in Northwest Florida. During 2005, West Florida Electric partnered with the Cooperative Research Network and the National Rural Telecommunications Cooperative to study Broadband over power lines technology; the trial was to evaluate if BPL worked, how much data it carried, how far and how easy/difficult the technology was to set up. The BPL demonstrations took place on a stretch of medium-voltage overhead power lines at Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative and at WFEC.

In 2007, WFEC began converting its metering system to automated meter reading or AMR. AMR technology helps the cooperative in a variety of ways including reducing outage response times, outage verification, providing timely date for customers and early detection of problems and voltage monitoring. Electric cooperatives Touchstone Energy Wiregrass EC Automatic meter reading Broadband over power lines BPL Deployments West Florida Electric Cooperative Florida Electric Cooperatives Association Touchstone Energy National Rural Electric Association National Rural Telecommunications Cooperative Powersouth Energy Our Energy, Our Future Historical Marker Database – "When The Lights Came On"

John Connolly (hurler)

John Connolly is an Irish retired hurler who played as a full-forward for the Galway senior team. Born in Leitir Móir, County Galway, Connolly first played competitive hurling whilst at school in St. Mary's College, Galway, he arrived on the inter-county scene at the age of seventeen when he first linked up with the Galway minor team, before joining the under-21 side. He made his senior debut in the 1967 championship. Connolly went on to play a key role for Galway for more than a decade, won one All-Ireland medal and one National Hurling League medal, he was an All-Ireland runner-up on three occasions. As a member of the Connacht inter-provincial team at various times, Connolly won one Railway Cup medal in 1980. At club level he is a one-time All-Ireland medallist with Castlegar. In addition to this he won four Connacht medals and six championship medals. Throughout his career Connolly made 26 championship appearances for Galway, his retirement came following the conclusion of the 1981 championship.

Connolly is regarded as one of Galway's greatest-ever hurlers. He has been voted onto teams made up of the sport's greats, including at left full-forward on the Galway Hurling Team of the Millennium; as the eldest of the Connolly dynasty, many of his brothers, Pádraic, Michael, Tom and Murt, played with distinction for Castlegar and Galway. In retirement from playing, Connolly became involved in team coaching, he has served as a coach and selector with the Galway senior team, while at club level he served as manager of the Castlegar senior team. Connolly first enjoyed success with Castlegar in the underage grades, he won a minor championship medal in 1965, before adding an under-21 championship medal to his collection two years later. In 1967 Connolly was a key member of the Castlegar senior team that reached the final of the county championship. A narrow 3–9 to 4–4 defeat of Padraig Pearse's/Oran-Maree gave him a Galway Senior Hurling Championship medal. Castlegar surrendered their championship crown in 1968, the team qualified for the decider again in 1969.

A massive 4–14 to 2–6 defeat of Ardrahan gave Connolly a second championship medal. After a few years out of the spotlight, Castlegar bounced back in 1972. Turloughmore were the opponents in the county decider, however, a 5–5 to 0–8 victory allowed Connolly to add a third championship medal to his collection. Castlegar subsequently contested the provincial club championship for the first time. A massive 7–12 to 2–7 trouncing of Tremane gave Connolly a first Connacht medal. Castlegar dominated the county championship once again in 1973, the decider against Ballinasloe ended in a draw; the replay was a close affair, Connolly picked up a fourth championship medal following a 4–11 to 3–10 victory. Both Castlegar and Tremane contested the subsequent provincial decider for the second year in succession, with Connolly picking up a second Connacht medal following a 7–8 to 1–7 victory. Three-in-a-row proved beyond Castlegar, it would be 1979 before the team reached the championship final again. First-time finalists Kinvara faced an uphill battle against roll of honour leaders Castlegar.

A 2–13 to 0–6 victory gave Connolly his fifth championship medal. Old rivals Tremane provided the opposition in the subsequent provincial decider, however, a 4–12 to 0–5 victory gave Connolly a third Connacht medal. Castlegar became the first team from Connacht to qualify for the All-Ireland decider. Antrim and Ulster champions Ballycastle provided the opposition, as Connolly and his four brothers faced six Donnelly brothers on the opposing team. Olcan McLaverty scored a goal in the first half, this failed to ignite the Ballycastle attack. Five minutes into the second half Liam Mulryan turned a Joe Connolly pass into the net to take the lead. Ballycastle cut this lead to just a point, two points from brothers Gerry and Joe Connolly set up a 1–11 to 1–8 victory and an All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championship medal for Connolly. After losing back-to-back championship decider in 1982 and 1983, Castlegar were under pressure to deliver in 1984. A 3–10 to 0–11 victory gave Connolly his sixth championship medal.

Tooreen fell by 2–15 to 2–7 in the subsequent provincial final, giving Connolly a fourth Connacht medal. Castlegar faced St. Martin's of Kilkenny in the All-Ireland decider. Tom Moran scored two goals which seemed to put St. Martin's in the driving seat, however, a goal by Kilkenny man Martin O'Shea for Castlegar secured a draw; the replay saw Tom Moran take centre stage once again, as St. Martin's secured a 1–13 to 1–10 victory. Connolly first came to prominence on the inter-county scene with the Galway minor and under-21 teams during their ill-fated tenure in the respective Munster championships, he made his senior championship debut on 9 July 1967 in a 4–12 to 1–11 Munster semi-final defeat by Clare. In 1971 Connolly was honoured when he was named as midfield partner to Kilkenny's Frank Cummins on the inaugural All-Star team, he was Galway's first recipient of the award. Galway made a long-awaited breakthrough at national level in 1975. A 4–9 to 4–6 defeat of Tipperary gave Connolly, captain of the team, a National Hurling League medal.

Galway qualified for an All-Ireland final meeting with reigning champions Kilkenny, their first appearance in the championship decider in seventeen years and the first seventy-minute final. Playing with the wind in the first half, Galway found themselves 0–9 to 1–3 down at the interval having played poorly. Early in the second half Kilkenny scored an early 1–3 to put this game to bed, although Galway did reply with 1–1 and were only four points behind with twenty-five minutes left on the clock, there was never any doubt in this match. Galway were event

Hominid dispersals in Europe

Hominid dispersals in Europe refers to the colonisation of the European continent by various species of hominid, including hominins and archaic and modern humans. Short and repetitive migrations of archaic humans before 1 million years ago suggest that their residence in Europe was not permanent at the time. Colonisation of Europe in prehistory was not achieved in one immigrating wave, but instead through multiple dispersal events. Most of these instances in Eurasia were limited to 40th parallel north. Besides the findings from East Anglia, the first constant presence of humans in Europe begins 500,000–600,000 years ago. However, this presence was limited to western Europe, not reaching places like the Russian plains, until 200,000–300,000 years ago; the exception to this was discovered in East Anglia, where hominids inhabited 700,000 years ago. Prior to arriving in Europe, the source of hominids appeared to be East Africa, where stone tools and hominid fossils are the most abundant and recorded.

Arising in Europe at least 400,000 years ago, the Neanderthals would become more stable residents of the continent, until they were displaced by a more recent migration of African hominids, in their new home are referred to as European early modern humans, leading to the extinction of Neanderthals about 40,000 years ago. In the early Miocene, Europe had a subtropical climate and was intermittently connected to Africa by land bridges. At the same time, Africa was becoming more arid, prompting the dispersal of its tropical fauna—including primates—north into Europe. Apes first appear in the European fossil record 17 million years ago with Griphopithecus; the related Kenyapithecus is known from fossils in Germany and Turkey. Both Griphopithecus and Kenyapithecus are considered to be ancestral to the great apes. From 13 million to 9 million years ago, hominids flourished in Europe and underwent an adaptive radiation as they diversified in response to a cooling climate. Middle Miocene European hominids include Pierolapithecus, Dryopithecus and Rudapithecus.

The diversity and early appearance of great apes in Europe has led some scientists to theorise that hominids in fact evolved there, before dispersing "back to Africa" in the Middle Miocene. Around 9 million years ago most of Europe's hominid species fell victim to the Vallesian crisis, an extinction event caused by the disappearance of the continent's forests; some hominid species survived the event: Orepithecus. However, both were extinct by 7 million years ago. In 2017, a reanalysis of Graecopithecus fossils from Greece and Bulgaria associated with Ouranopithecus, concluded that the species was in fact a hominin dating to just after the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees; the authors suggested that the origins of the human lineage were therefore in the Mediterranean, not Africa. Others are sceptical of their claims. Although subtropical conditions returned to Europe in the Pliocene, there are no known fossil hominids from this period. Homo erectus populations lived in southeastern Europe by 1.8 million years ago.

The most archaic human fossils from the Middle Pleistocene have been found in Europe. Remains of Homo heidelbergensis have been found as far north as the Atapuerca Mountains in Gran Dolina and the oldest specimens can be dated from 850,000 to 200,000 years ago. Neanderthals evolved from a branch of Homo heidelbergensis that migrated to Europe during the Middle Pleistocene. Neanderthal populations date back at least as far as 400,000 years ago in the Atapuerca Mountains, Spain. While lacking the robustness attributed to west European Neanderthal morphology, other populations did inhabit parts of eastern Europe and western Asia. Between 45,000–35,000 years ago, modern humans replaced all Neanderthal populations in Europe anatomically and genetically; this is evident in the combination of technology and culture. The recent expansion of anatomically modern humans reached Europe around 40,000 years ago, from Central Asia and the Middle East, as a result of cultural adaption to big game hunting of sub-glacial steppe fauna.

Neanderthals were present both in the Middle East and in Europe, the arriving populations of anatomically modern humans have interbred with Neanderthal populations to a limited degree. Modern human remains dating to 43–45,000 years ago have been discovered in Italy and Britain, with the remains found of those that reached the European Russian Arctic 40,000 years ago; the composition of European populations was altered by further migrations, notably the Neolithic expansion from the Middle East, still the Chalcolithic population movements associated with Indo-European expansion. The modern indigenous population of Europe is composed of three major foundational populations, dubbed "Western Hunter-Gatherers", "Early European Farmers" and "Ancient North Eurasian". WHG represents the remnant of the original Cro-Magnon population after they re-peopled Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum. EEF represents the introgression of Near Eastern populations during the Neolithic Revolution, ANE is associated both with the Mesolithic Uralic expansion to Northern Europe and the Indo-European expansion to Europe in the Chalcolithic.

Homo ergaster specimens indicate a change toward a diet more reliant on animal products, evident by greater encephalization with higher energy requirements. This transition to becoming more carnivorous affected the way o

Cisne Branco

For the named official march of the Brazilian Navy, see Cisne Branco Cisne Branco is a tall ship of the Brazilian Navy based at Rio de Janeiro, though she travels worldwide. The name means "white swan." It is a full-rigged ship built in Netherlands by Damen Shipyard. Her keel was laid on 9 November 1998, she was christened and launched on 4 August 1999, delivered to the Brazilian Navy on 4 February 2000, commissioned as a Brazilian naval vessel on March 9, 2000. Cisne Branco is the third Brazilian Navy sail-training yacht; the first Cisne Branco was the classic 15-metre wooden yacht Tritonia, designed by the legendary naval architect Alfred Mylne, built by Alexander Robertson and Sons Ltd in 1910. The yacht arrived in Brazil in 1978, after extensive repairs undertook an extended 8-month voyage across the Atlantic; the second Cisne Branco, which had an aluminium hull, was used by the navy between 1980 and 1986 after which it was passed on to a naval college. Cisne Branco made her maiden voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to Brazil, celebrating the 500th anniversary of the discovery of Brazil by the Portuguese Admiral Pedro Álvares Cabral.

The ship's project is inspired by the design of the 19th century clippers. Cisne Branco is used in national and international representation activities to showcase the Brazilian Navy and Brazilian culture; as well, she is used as an instructional sailing ship by the cadets of the Brazilian Naval School, Academy of Merchant Marine, other naval schools. In 2010 she participated in Velas Sudamerica 2010, a historical Latin American tour by eleven tall ships to celebrate the bicentennial of the first national governments of Argentina and Chile. Stad Amsterdam Brazilian tall ship Cisne Branco at Tall Ships Nova Scotia 2009 Festival. Navio Veleiro "Cisne Branco"