The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by Armenians. It is the official language of Armenia. Being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, Armenian is spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots. Armenian is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, it is of interest to linguists for its distinctive phonological developments within that family. Armenian exhibits more satemization than centumization, although it is not classified as belonging to either of these subgroups; some linguists tentatively conclude that Armenian and Indo-Iranian were dialectally close to each other. Armenia was a monolingual country by the 2nd century BC at the latest, its language has a long literary history, with a 5th-century Bible translation as its oldest surviving text. Its vocabulary has been influenced by Western Middle Iranian languages Parthian, to a lesser extent by Greek and Syriac.
There are two standardized modern literary forms, Eastern Armenian and Western Armenian, with which most contemporary dialects are mutually intelligible. Although Armenians were known to history much earlier, the oldest surviving Armenian-language text is the 5th century AD Bible translation of Mesrop Mashtots, who created the Armenian alphabet in 405, at which time it had 36 letters, he is credited by some with the creation of the Caucasian Albanian alphabet. In The Anabasis, Xenophon describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the Armenian people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. W. M. Austin concluded that there was an early contact between Armenian and Anatolian languages, based on what he considered common archaisms, such as the lack of a feminine gender and the absence of inherited long vowels. However, unlike shared innovations, the common retention of archaisms is not considered conclusive evidence of a period of common isolated development.
In 1985, Soviet linguist Igor M. Diakonoff noted the presence in Classical Armenian of what he calls a "Caucasian substratum" identified by earlier scholars, consisting of loans from the Kartvelian and Northeast Caucasian languages. Noting that Hurro-Urartian-speaking peoples inhabited the Armenian homeland in the second millennium BC, Diakonov identifies in Armenian a Hurro-Urartian substratum of social and animal and plant terms such as ałaxin "slave girl", cov "sea", ułt "camel", xnjor "apple"; some of the terms he gives admittedly have an Akkadian or Sumerian provenance, but he suggests they were borrowed through Hurrian or Urartian. Given that these borrowings do not undergo sound changes characteristic of the development of Armenian from Proto-Indo-European, he dates their borrowing to a time before the written record but after the Proto-Armenian language stage. Loan words from Iranian languages, along with the other ancient accounts such as that of Xenophon above led linguists to erroneously classify Armenian as an Iranian language.
Scholars such as Paul de Lagarde and F. Müller believed that the similarities between the two languages meant that Iranian and Armenian were the same language; the distinctness of Armenian was recognized when philologist Heinrich Hübschmann used the comparative method to distinguish two layers of Iranian words from the older Armenian vocabulary. He showed that Armenian had 2 morphemes for the one concept, the non-Iranian components yielded a consistent PIE pattern distinct from Iranian, demonstrated that the inflectional morphology was different from that in Iranian languages; the hypothesis that Greek is Armenian's closest living relative originates with Holger Pedersen, who noted that the number of Greek-Armenian lexical cognates is greater than that of agreements between Armenian and any other Indo-European language. Antoine Meillet further investigated morphological and phonological agreement, postulating that the parent languages of Greek and Armenian were dialects in immediate geographical proximity in the Proto-Indo-European period.
Meillet's hypothesis became popular in the wake of his Esquisse. Georg Renatus Solta does not go as far as postulating a Proto-Graeco-Armenian stage, but he concludes that considering both the lexicon and morphology, Greek is the dialect most related to Armenian. Eric P. Hamp supports the Graeco-Armenian thesis, anticipating a time "when we should speak of Helleno-Armenian". Armenian shares the augment, a negator derived from the set phrase Proto-Indo-European language *ne h₂oyu kʷid, the representation of word-initial laryngeals by prothetic vowels, other phonological and morphological peculiarities with Greek; as Fortson comments, "by the time we reach our earliest Armenian records in the 5th century AD, the evidence of any such early kinship has been reduced to a few tantalizing pieces". Modern studies show that assertions about the proximity of Greek and Phrygian with Armenian are not confirmed in the language material. Graeco--Aryan is a hypoth
Karen Mirzoyan is a citizen of the unrecognized Artsakh Republic. In September 2012 he became the Republic's Minister of Foreign Affairs. On June 6, 2013, Mirzoyan was interviewed by France24, on July 24, 2014 Mirzoyan was interviewed by the European Times. In September 2014, Mirzoyan led a diplomatic mission to the Basque Parliament. Mirzoyan met with Bakartxo Tejeria Otermin—speaker of the Basque Parliament, he toured Guernica. The Basque Parliament and the Nagorno-Karabakh's legislature passed reciprocal motions recognizing one another's right to national autonomy. Remaining Foreign Affairs Minister of the Republic of Artsakh, in March 2017, he visited Greece as part of an event hosted by the Armenian National Committee of Greece. In September 2017, Karen Mirzoyan was succeeded as Foreign Minister of the Artsakh Republic by Masis Mayilyan. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers Foreign relations of Nagorno-Karabakh Official Biography by the government
Republic of Artsakh
The Republic of Artsakh, or Artsakh known by its second official name, the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, is a de facto independent country in the South Caucasus, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan. The region is populated by Armenians and the primary spoken language is Armenian. Artsakh controls most of the territory of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and some of the surrounding area, giving it a border with Armenia to the west and Iran to the south, its capital is Stepanakert. The predominantly Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh was claimed by both the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the First Republic of Armenia when both countries became independent in 1918 after the fall of the Russian Empire, a brief war over Nagorno-Karabakh broke out in 1920; the dispute was shelved after the Soviet Union established control over the area and created the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast within the Azerbaijan SSR in 1923. During the fall of the Soviet Union, the region re-emerged as a source of dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
In 1991, a referendum held in the NKAO and the neighbouring Shahumian region resulted in a declaration of independence based on its right of self-determination. Large-scale ethnic conflict led to the 1991 -- 1994 Nagorno-Karabakh War. Artsakh is a presidential democracy with a unicameral legislature; some have said that its reliance on Armenia means that, in many ways, it functions de facto as part of Armenia. The country is mountainous, averaging 1,097 metres above sea level; the population is predominantly Christian, most being affiliated with the Armenian Apostolic Church. Several historical monasteries are popular with tourists from the Armenian diaspora, as most travel can take place only between Armenia and Artsakh. According to Armenian and Western specialists, inscriptions dating to the Urartian period mention the region under a variety of names: "Ardakh", "Urdekhe", "Atakhuni". In speaking about Armenia in his Geography, the classical historian Strabo refers to an Armenian region which he calls "Orchistene", which again is believed to be a Greek version of the old name of Artsakh.
According to another hypothesis put forth by David M. Lang, the ancient name of Artsakh derives from the name of King Artaxias I of Armenia, founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty and the kingdom of Greater Armenia. Folk etymology holds that the name is derived from "Ar" and "tsakh"; the earliest record of the region covered by modern-day Artsakh is from Urartian inscriptions referring to the region as Urtekhini. It is unclear if the region was ruled by Urartu, but it was in close proximity to other Urartian domains, it may have been inhabited by Caspian tribes and/or by Scythians. After decades of raids by the Cimmerians and the Medes, Urartu collapsed with the rise of the Median Empire, shortly after, the geopolitical region ruled as Urartu re-emerged as Armenia. By the 5th century BC, Artsakh was part of Armenia under the Orontid Dynasty, it would continue to be part of the Kingdom of Armenia under the Artaxiad Dynasty, under which Armenia became one of the largest realms in Western Asia. At its greatest extent, the Great King of Armenia, Tigranes II, built several cities named after himself in regions he considered important, one of, the city he built in Artsakh.
Following wars with the Romans and Persians, Armenia was partitioned between the two empires. Artsakh was included into the neighbouring satrapy of Arran. At this time, the population of Artsakh consisted of Armenians and Armenicized aborigines, though many of the latter were still cited as distinct ethnic entities; the dialect of Armenian spoken in Artsakh was among the earliest recorded dialects of Armenian, described around this time in the 7th century AD by a contemporary named Stephanos Siunetzi. Artsakh would remain part of Arran throughout Persian rule, during the fall of Iran to the Muslims, following the Muslim conquest of Armenia. Under the Arabs, most of the South Caucasus and the Armenian Highlands, including Iberia and Arran, would be unified into an emirate called Arminiya, under which Artsakh would continue to remain as part of Arran. Despite being under Persian and Arab rule, many of the Armenian territories, including Artsakh, were governed by Armenian nobility. Arran would disappear as a geopolitical entity, its population would be assimilated by neighbouring ethnic groups with whom they shared a common culture and religion.
Many Christians from Arran would form part of the ethnic composition of the Armenians living in modern-day Artsakh. Fragmentation of Arab authority provided the opportunity for the resurgence of an Armenian state in the Armenian Highlands. One particular noble dynasty, the Bagratids, began annexing territories from other Armenian nobles, which, in the half of the 9th century gave rise to a new Armenian kingdom which included Artsakh; the new Kingdom wouldn't stay united for long, due to internal conflicts, civil wars, external pressures, Armenia would find itself fragmented between other noble Armenian houses, most notably the Mamikonian and Siunia families, the latter of which would produce a cadet branch known as the House of Khachen, named after their stronghold in Artsakh. The House of Khachen ruled the Kingdom of Artsakh in
2017 Artsakhian presidential election
Indirect presidential elections were held in the unrecognised Republic of Artsakh on 19 July 2017. The incumbent, Bako Sahakyan, was elected to a third term. After a constitutional referendum in 2017, the country is transitioning from a semi-presidential system to a presidential system; as a result, presidential elections were delayed until 2020 in order to be held alongside legislative elections. In July 2017 the National Assembly elected the President for the next three years until the general election. Two candidates were registered. Democratic Party of Artsakh nominated the incumbent president Bako Sahakyan. Free Motherland and Armenian Revolutionary Federation supported the incumbent. Movement 88 nominated former Stepanakert Mayor Eduard Aghabekyan. 28 members of National Assembly voted for Bako Sahakyan, 4 of them voted for Eduard Aghabekyan, while one of the MPs abstained