In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, the mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the characteristics of the solvent when the solvent is the fraction of the mixture. The concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution, a solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The particles of solute in a solution cannot be seen by the naked eye, a solution does not allow beams of light to scatter. The solute from a solution cannot be separated by filtration and it is composed of only one phase. Homogeneous means that the components of the form a single phase. Heterogeneous means that the components of the mixture are of different phase, the properties of the mixture can be uniformly distributed through the volume but only in absence of diffusion phenomena or after their completion.
Usually, the present in the greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be gases, liquids or solids, one or more components present in the solution other than the solvent are called solutes. The solution has the physical state as the solvent. If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a set of conditions. An example of a solution is air. Since interactions between molecules play almost no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions, in part of the literature, they are not even classified as solutions, but addressed as mixtures. If the solvent is a liquid, almost all gases, here are some examples, Gas in liquid, Oxygen in water Carbon dioxide in water – a less simple example, because the solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction. Liquid in liquid, The mixing of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant, alcoholic beverages are basically solutions of ethanol in water. Solid in liquid, Sucrose in water Sodium chloride or any other salt in water, solutions in water are especially common.
Counterexamples are provided by liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous, body fluids are examples for complex liquid solutions, containing many solutes
947 (radio station)
947 is a radio station that broadcasts on the 94. 7FM frequency from Johannesburg, South Africa. The station first went on the air on September 1,1964, as the first SABC regional FM service, at that time the station broadcast hourly news bulletins and easy listening music. In September 1996 the SABC sold Radio Highveld to private enterprise, today this station, along with a number of other radio stations in South Africa, is owned by Primedia. On 1 September 2014 the station decided to drop the logo that they have been using for over a decade, the station is no longer known as Highveld Stereo as the name changed to being just 947. 947 is arguably the Gauteng provinces most popular station, broadcasting the often controversial Rude Awakening breakfast show. The target listener demographic is aimed at 25- to 40-year-olds, and as such the station tends to play contemporary soft rock,947 makes a point of giving airtime to local South African musical talent. Other useful services to include news bulletins and traffic reports for Johannesburg.
On 2 August 2010 the station revamped the show by renaming it Breakfast Xpress. Mansfield left the show in July 2010 stating The show needs to move forward. Management and the board have asked if I would assist with off air initiatives, the format of the new breakfast show remains largely unchanged with the rest of the original team remaining as is. Zuma originally filed for R2 million, but this was upped when Highveld Stereo re-broadcast the allegedly offensive skit
Gauteng, which means place of gold, is one of the nine provinces of South Africa. It was formed part of the old Transvaal Province after South Africas first all-race elections on 27 April 1994. It was initially named Pretoria–Witwatersrand–Vereeniging and was renamed Gauteng in December 1994, situated in the Highveld, Gauteng is the smallest province in South Africa, accounting for only 1. 5% of the land area. Nevertheless, it is highly urbanised, containing the countrys largest city, its capital, Pretoria. As of 2015, it has a population of nearly 13.2 million, the name Gauteng is derived from the Sotho name, gauta meaning gold with the locative suffix -eng. There was a thriving industry in the province following the 1886 discovery of gold in Johannesburg. In Sesotho, the name Gauteng was used for Johannesburg and surrounding areas long before it was adopted in 1994 as the name of a province. Gauteng, formerly known as Pretoria–Witwatersrand–Vereeniging, was carved out of the old Transvaal province in 1994, although the terminology PWV, after the discovery of gold in 1886, the region proceeded to become the single largest gold producer in the world and the city of Johannesburg was founded.
The older city Pretoria was not subject to the same attention, Pretoria grew at a slower rate and was highly regarded due to its role in the Second Boer War. The Cullinan Diamond which is the largest diamond ever mined was mined near Pretoria in a town called Cullinan in the year 1905. Gauteng has only been documented since the 1800s and as a result. At the Sterkfontein caves, some of the oldest fossils of hominids have been discovered, such as Mrs. Ples, the Apartheid Museum stands testament to these struggles in Johannesburg. Gauteng is governed by the Gauteng Provincial Legislature, a 73-person unicameral legislature elected by party-list proportional representation. The most recent election of the legislature was held on 7 May 2014, and the African National Congress won 53. 59% of the vote. The official opposition is the Democratic Alliance, which won 30. 78% of the vote and 23 seats, other parties represented are the Economic Freedom Fighters with eight seats and the Freedom Front Plus and the Inkatha Freedom Party with one seat each.
Premier David Makhura of the ANC was elected on 21 May 2014, the Gauteng Division of the High Court of South Africa, which has seats in Pretoria and Johannesburg, is a superior court with general jurisdiction over the province. Johannesburg is home to the Constitutional Court, South Africas highest court, Gautengs southern border is the Vaal River, which separates it from the Free State. It borders on North West to the west, Limpopo to the north, Gauteng is the only landlocked province of South Africa without a foreign border
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, it is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio, FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies, the term FM band describes the frequency band in a given country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. Usually 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions, In the former Soviet republics, and some former Eastern Bloc countries, assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz. This band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many countries, in those countries the 87. 5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used, the frequency of an FM broadcast station is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz.
In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines, in some parts of Europe and Africa, only even multiples are used. In the UK odd or even are used, in Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in countries, including 1,10,30,74,500. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system and this can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise. These processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, the amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used, in the Americas and South Korea,75 µs is used. This applies to both mono and stereo transmissions, for stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing.
They cannot be pre-emphasized as much because it would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier, systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis, e. g. dbx in the BTSC TV sound system, or none at all. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing and these original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated
For the South African media group, see Primedia Broadcasting RentPath Inc. is a privately held American media company owned by TPG Capital and Providence Equity Partners LLC. The firm went public in 1995, selling stock 15 million shares at approximately $12 per share, the firm adopted the Primedia name as of November 18,1997 to more clearly focus on its core business. Primedia sold a group of 17 outdoor-oriented magazines to InterMedia Outdoors for $170 million in cash, in a deal that included Guns and Ammo, the deal left Primedia to focus on a series of free print and online consumer guides published by its Consumer Source unit. In 2011, private equity firm TPG Capital bought Primedia for $525 million, in 2013, the company changed its name to RentPath. In 2014, Providence Equity Partners LLC acquired 50% of the company, in July 2015, former CEO of AutoTrader, Chip Perry, was named president and CEO of RentPath. He succeeded Charles Stubbs who has remained on the RentPath board of directors, in November 2015, Chip Perry stepped down as president and CEO of RentPath, to take over as CEO of TrueCar.
RentPaths CFO, Kim Payne, has stepped in as interim president, RentPath named Marc P. Lefar as President and CEO on April 4,2016. 1989 – Founded as K-III Communications, a new venture financed by the investment group Kohlberg, Roberts,2014 - Acquires San Francisco startup Lovely for $13 million. 2014 - Providence Equity Partners LLC becomes a partner with TPG Capital. com, Intellichoice. com
702 is a commercial FM radio station based in Johannesburg, South Africa, broadcasting on FM92.7 and FM106 to the greater Gauteng province. The station is webcast via its website and it claims to be Johannesburgs number one news and talk station, offering news, sport and actuality programming and plenty of phone-in debates. The station itself was established in 1980 and was initially a young adult music station, during South Africas apartheid era it, and Capital Radio 604, were the only independent sources of broadcast news. The station is owned by Primedia Until 2006,702 was broadcast only on 702 kHz AM, in March 2006, it won an application to move to the FM radio frequency, and the first FM broadcast took place on 24 July 2006. The station continued broadcasting on the AM band until 28 June 2007 when it was shut down, 702s sister station is CapeTalk, a Cape Town based AM radio station. The stations signature line was In touch, in tune and independent, SMR was established and operated by the brothers Isaac and Nathaniel Kirsh, the founders of Primedia which owns Radio 702.
Many of the presenters on SMR cut their teeth in broadcasting at LM Radio or worked there, like Gary Edwards, John Berks. LM Radio became Radio 5 in 1975 when Mozambique gained independence, SMR was not very successful and was replaced by Radio SR which was the first South African radio station playing entirely music by black South African and American artists. Radio SR was an instant success and broadcast from the SMR studios, rob Vickers of LM Radio fame was the programme manager at Radio SR. John Berks who had spent time on Radio 5 and Capital Radio 604 joined shortly thereafter, Cocky Two-Bull Tlhotlhalemaje, a jazz musician and broadcaster was the first black African to work on Radio 702. He helped to break down the barriers between the youth of all ethnic groups, the stations original weekday line-up was, Clark McKay, Frank Sanders, Jerry Cohen, Paul Stephens, Cocky Two Bull Tlhotlhalemaje, Zuby, & Jim Hicks. Traffic reporter Paul Beresford was included as a question in the South African version of Trivial Pursuit, news was only included to meet the stations licence requirements, but as interest in independent news grew, so did the stations news resources.
The first full-time reporter, Allan Leibowitz, was employed in 1984, the weekend lineup included Martin Woolf, Bill Jones, Frank Sanders and Gary Edwards. In the early days,702 hosted major promotions such as the Concert in the Park to benefit Operation Hunger, over the years as the station evolved into a 24-hour news channel, it pioneered 702 eye-witness news, broadcasting full news bulletins every hour and headlines on the half-hour. Also heard on Radio 702 in the early 1980s was American Top 40 with Casey Kasem, up until the late 1980s,702 was a popular music station. The government run Radio 5 moved from medium wave to FM Stereo in the major centres, by 2016, Bandstand had ended and Solid Gold had become Solid Soul as the station changes the audience it is catering for. In the first 12 years of operation,702 played an important role in bringing news and information to the people of the provinces of the Transvaal. Because the transmitters were located in the nominally Independent homeland of Bophuthatswana, to have done so, would have made a mockery of the independence of the homeland
Johannesburg is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world. It is the capital of Gauteng, which is the wealthiest province in South Africa. While Johannesburg is not one of South Africas three capital cities, it is the seat of the Constitutional Court, the city is located in the mineral-rich Witwatersrand range of hills and is the centre of large-scale gold and diamond trade. In 2011, the population of the city of Johannesburg was 4,434,827, in the same year, the population of Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Area was 7,860,781. Some view the surrounding the city of Johannesburg yet more broadly than the metropolitan area, adding Ekurhuleni, West Rand and Lenasia. The land area of the city is large in comparison with those of other major cities, resulting in a moderate population density of 2. The city was established in 1886 following the discovery of gold on what had been a farm, the city is commonly interpreted as the modern day El Dorado due to the extremely large gold deposit found along the Witwatersrand.
The name is attributed to one or all of three men involved in the establishment of the city, in ten years, the population was 100,000 inhabitants. A separate city from the late 1970s until the 1990s, Soweto is now part of Johannesburg, although eventually incorporated into Johannesburg, had been separated as a residential area for blacks, who were not permitted to live in Johannesburg proper. Lenasia is predominantly populated by English-speaking South Africans of Indian descent, controversy surrounds the origin of the name. There were quite a number of people with the name Johannes who were involved in the history of the city. Among them are the principal clerk attached to the office of the surveyor-general Johannes Rissik, Christiaan Johannes Joubert, another was Stephanus Johannes Paulus Paul Kruger, president of the South African Republic 1883-1900. Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility, precise records for the choice of name were lost. Rissik and Joubert were members of a delegation sent to England to attain mining rights for the area.
Joubert had a park in the city named after him and Rissik Street is today a street where the historically important and dilapidated Post Office, since burnt out. The region surrounding Johannesburg was originally inhabited by San people, the Sotho–Tswana practised farming and extensively mined and smelted metals that were available in the area. The most prominent site within Johannesburg is Melville Koppies, which contains an iron smelting furnace, the main Witwatersrand gold reef was discovered in June 1884 on the farm Vogelstruisfontein by Jan Gerritse Bantjes that triggered the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the start of Johannesburg in 1886. The discovery of gold rapidly attracted people to the area, making necessary a name, Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
Cape Town is a coastal city in South Africa. It is the second-most populous urban area in South Africa after Johannesburg and it is the capital and primate city of the Western Cape province. As the seat of the Parliament of South Africa, it is the capital of the country. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality, the city is famous for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, and for such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point. As of 2014, it is the 10th most populous city in Africa and it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design, in 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both the American New York Times and the British Daily Telegraph. Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town was first developed by the Dutch East India Company as a station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa, India.
Jan van Riebeecks arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa, Cape Town quickly outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa, the earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. It was renamed by John II of Portugal as Cape of Good Hope because of the optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India. Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497, in the late 16th century, French, Danish and English but mainly Portuguese ships regularly stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies. They traded tobacco and iron with the Khoikhoi in exchange for fresh meat, the settlement grew slowly during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour.
This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Indonesia, many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Some of these, including grapes, ground nuts, potatoes and citrus, had an important, the Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary Frances vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803, British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain and it became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded very substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for independence from Britain, with the Cape attaining its own parliament. Suffrage was established according to the non-racial, but sexist Cape Qualified Franchise, the discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, and the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa
Sandton is an affluent area situated within the metro of Johannesburg, South Africa. It is well known for being the richest square mile in Africa, the name comes from the combination of two of its suburbs and Bryanston. In 1969 Sandton was promulgated as a municipality in its own right, the remains of an Iron Age smelter was discovered in Lone Hill, a suburb of northern Sandton. One of the first Voortrekker parties to settle in the area were the Esterhuysen family on the farm Zandfontein, a monument to commemorate them may be found just off Adrienne Street in Sandown where the family cemetery is located. Zandfontein and Rietfontein encumbered what was to become Sandton, the municipal coat of arms of Sandton pays homage to the three farms with three round fountain barrels on its chevron. In the late 19th-century the Wilhelmi family of Hanover, Germany acquired the farm Driefontein No.3 while Rietfontein was owned by the Ehler family, the original Driefontein homestead, now within the confines of the Field & Study Centre, was looted during the Anglo-Boer War.
The ruins are visible on the bank of the Klein Jukskei River. The Wilhemi family, upon return from Germany built the new 1906 Driefontein Farmhouse on what is present-day Fifteenth Street, the farmhouse served as the icon and headquarters for the now defunct Sandton Historical Foundation and is listed as a City of Johannesburg Owned Heritage Site. Sandton was established as a municipality in 1969 by the office of the Administrator of the Transvaal. It had formerly not formed part of Johannesburg but was managed, in part by the parent city, initially it was very much a residential area consisting mostly of small holdings with a rural horsey lifestyle attracting many of the upper-middle classes and Johannesburg elites. It was subsequently dubbed the mink and manure belt, Rivonia had previously been known as Edenburg and was changed to make itself distinct from Edenburg, Free State. It was named for the surname Riven and its constituencies were traditionally relatively more liberal than surrounds.
The construction of Sandton City marked a significant change for the Sandton area and it ushered in rapid commercialisation and industrialisation. Sandton came to symbolise the White Flight movement of Johannesburg and secured itself as Johannesburgs second Central Business District, despite this, Sandton is still unofficially earmarked as a distinct region of the city and operates as a macro-suburb. Urban decay in downtown Johannesburg caused many corporate offices to move from the Johannesburg Central Business District to Sandton in the 1990s and it has become the new financial district of South Africa and Johannesburgs premier business centre. Much of the focus of Johannesburg has shifted from the Central Business District to Sandton. However, three of South Africas four largest banks have kept their offices in downtown Johannesburg, along with Transnet. The other bank, has its headquarters in Sandton, a lot of the new money has moved north to Sandton, including investment banks, financial consultants and the like