Santa Fe Province
The Province of Santa Fe is a province of Argentina, located in the center-east of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the north clockwise Chaco, Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Santiago del Estero. Together with Córdoba and Entre Ríos, the province is part of the economico-political association known as the Center Region. Santa Fe's most important cities are Rosario, the capital Santa Fe, Villa Gobernador Gálvez, Venado Tuerto and Santo Tomé; the adult literacy rate in the province is 96.3% The aboriginal tribes who inhabited this region were the Tobas, Timbúes, Mocovíes, Pilagás, Guaycurúes, Guaraníes. They were nomadic, lived from hunting and fruit recollection; the first European settlement was established in 1527, at the confluence of the Paraná and Carcarañá rivers, when Sebastián Gaboto, on his way to the north, founded a fort named Sancti Spiritus, destroyed two years by the natives. In 1573 Juan de Garay founded the city of Santa Fe in the surroundings of present town Cayastá, but the city was moved in 1651 and 1660 to its present location.
In 1812 the lawyer and general Manuel Belgrano created and displayed for the first time the Argentine flag on the banks of the Paraná River, at Rosario, 160 km south of Santa Fe. In 1815, while Alvear's central government felt due to Ignacio Álvarez Thomas' rebellion, Francisco Candioti, the local militia chief, took over, peacefully, of government, thus starting the era of Santa Fe as an autonomous province; this period was short lived, since that same year Candioti died and central government reestablished the dependent government. However, in 1816, the caudillos Mariano Vera and Estanislao López deposed the governor delegate and proclaimed the sovereignty of the province and its membership into Artigas's Free Peoples League. López drew, in 1818, a provincial constitution of a conservative flavour, after rejecting a project proposed by a provincial assembly. During the civil strifes of 1820, Santa Fe troops were decisive in the defeat of Buenos Aires' centralist army. So, in time, López became the Federation's Patriarch, establishing himself as the central figure of the Federal Party until his death in 1838.
After López's death it was José María Cullen the one elected governor. However, being Cullen a potential rival of Buenos Aires governor and Confederation's Foreign Affairs Representative, Juan Manuel de Rosas, he sought and got Cullen's capture and execution, naming pro-Rosas Juan Pablo López as governor; the new governor maintained in power, alterning with Pascual Echagüe, until the province invasion by Justo José de Urquiza's Great Army in 1851, during his term the province adopted a new constitution in 1841. After the organization of the nation, the province entered an era of prosperity; the political hegemony of the conservative groups was challenged by the new ideas brought by the European immigrants gave birth to the Radical Civic Union and the Progressive Democratic Party, the creation of the Argentine Agrarian Federation. These two parties had many strong electoral contests with the province's conservative parties. After the Electoral Reform of Roque Sáenz Peña in 1912, the UCR reached the government and stayed until the coup of 1930.
During this time, more in 1919, the National University of the Littoral was founded. In 1932 it was the PDP; the contentious 1958 elections brought an ally of President-elect Arturo Frondizi to power in Santa Fe, Dr. Carlos Sylvestre Begnis. Gov. Begnis steered budgets into sorely needed public works, most notably the construction of the Hernandarias Tunnel, a 10-mile -long connection between the city of Santa Fe and neighboring Paraná; the tunnel, most of which runs under the massive Paraná River, is the longest in Argentina. Forced to resign after conservative pressure drove Pres. Frondizi from office in 1962, Begnis had the satisfaction of seeing Hernandarias open in 1969 and voters overwhelmingly return him to office in 1973. Santa Fe suffered the violence of the late'70s and the depression of the 1980s more than most other provinces, it continued to languish economically during the prosperous 1990s, as the revalued Argentine peso put pressure on its productive sectors. Touching bottom around 2002, its economy has grown by 7% a year since then.
The heart of Argentina's lucrative soy harvest, the province's importance has continued to grow, now rivaling Buenos Aires Province as the nation's leading agricultural producer, with Rosario as one of the most important ports in Argentina. Most of the province consists of green flatlands, part of the humid Pampas, bordering to the north with the Gran Chaco region. There are low sierras to the west; the north has higher temperatures, with an annual average of 19 °C and precipitations of up to 1,100 millimetres in the east, decreasing towards the west, where there is a distinctive dry season during the winter. The south presents lower temperatures, averaging 14 °C, less precipitations. Summers are hot and humid throughout the province, with average highs ranging from 30 °C in the south to 34 °C
Club Almirante Brown
Club Almirante Brown is an Argentine sports club headquartered in the San Justo district of La Matanza Partido, in Greater Buenos Aires. Although other sports are practised at the club, Almirante Brown is known for its football team, which plays in the Primera B Metropolitana, the 3rd division of the Argentine football league system; the football stadium is located in the Isidro Casanova district of the same partido. Other activities hosted by the institution are women's field hockey, martial arts, roller skating and tennis; the club was founded on 1 January 1912 as "Club Atlético Almirante Brown". The first uniform kit acquired by the club were the striped black and yellow worn by Uruguayan CURCC, that were the only available in stores. On 21 March 1915 the club changed its name to "Almirante Brown Athletic Club" and one year it affiliated to Amateur Football Association where the team took part of Tercera de Ascenso, the last division of Argentine football league system, it only lasted one season so the club would be inactive since 1919.
In 1921, four dissident members of neighbor club Huracán de San Justo met with some former members of old club Almirante Brown with the purpose of reestablishing the institution. It was set up on 17 January 1922 as "Centro Atlético Almirante Brown", being named Segundo Boragno as president of the club, he managed Almirante Brown until his death on June 1930. Almirante Brown played football in several regional leagues, winning the first cup in 1926. In 1929 the team won the La Matanza Partido league. In 1931 Almirante Brown acquired the right to participate in the Amateur Argentina de Football to Club Almafuerte, wearing the same name and colors of the "porteño" club. In 1932 and 1933 the club took part of the championship. In 1934 the club was noticed that another institution of Adrogué named "Almirante Brown", had disaffiliated from the Association. In an assembly held short the club decided to return to tournaments using its original name and colours but Almirante Brown was not allowed to take part due to there was no place for new teams.
Therefore, the club began a long period of inactivity that extended to 1942, when some young people from Club Juventud Unida promoted the re-opening of the club Almirante Brown. This was formalised in April 1942 with the merger of both institutions; the club affiliated to the Association again, winning two championships and being designed as Buenos Aires Province representative to play the Argentine Amateur championship held in Cañada de Gómez. During the decade of 1940 Almirante Brown acquired a land to build its headquarters in San Justo. In 1956 the club affiliated to Argentine Football Association filling the vacant left by defunct Deportivo San Justo, merged to Almirante Brown. In 1956 Almirante made its debut at "Tercera de Ascenso", the fourth division of the league system, winning its first official title that same season; the roster was formed by Juan Gallino, Ándres Bosco, Segundo Boragno, Claudio Iobbi, Pedro Ángel Costa, Juan Carlos Zoppi, Oscar Villalba, Quirino Toledano, Julio César Berrutti, Onofre, Juárez, Alejandro Harguinteguy, Ricardo Varío, Juan Carlos Hernández and A. González.
The coach was Ángel Martínez Almirante Brown got promotion to play at "Segunda División de Ascenso" where it remained until 1965 when the team won its second title promoting to Primera B Metropolitana. The team totalized 54 points in 34 games played, having won 23 and lost only 3; the squad scored 68 goals and received only 28. Some of the players were Oscar Cadars, E. Ibarra, Miguel Cervello, Roberto Álvarez, Juan Carlos Ronchi, Risso, Vicente Monteagudo, Roberto Emilio Migliore, Horacio Darío Onzari, Orlando Sicca, G. Kopiska, Federczuk, F. Ruffa, Juan Carlos Faedda, O. Grela, José Benigno Sanez, N. Montero, Risso, De Masi, Osvaldo Guenzatti, Alberto Violi, Francisco Sánchez, Alfredo Martínez, Diego Zavaleta, R. Román, Leiga, H. García, R. Lázaro and Villarino, all of them coached by Marcos Busico. On 29 July 1967 the club renamed "Club Almirante Brown". In 1986 the Association made a restructuring of the lower divisions, creating the Primera B Nacional that became the second division. Almirante Brown did not qualify to play in the created league, remaining in Primera B Metropolitana that became the third division after the restructuring.
The team was near to promote to Primera División in 1991–92 season when it played the final with San Martín de Tucumán, which won the series promoting to the top division of Argentine football. In 1998 Almirante was relegated to Primera B Metropolitana, returning to the second division in July 2007, after defeating Estudiantes de Buenos Aires 1–0 at Racing Club stadium in Avellaneda. During the match, Almirante Brown supporters throw a bomb to the field, that caused player Cáceres and Cubito lost consciousness. After that, a big struggle was started by Almirante Brown supporters, throwing seats and other objects to the other part of the attendance. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Primera B: 2006–07, 2009–10 Primera C: 1965 Primera D: 1956 Official website Almirante Pasión
Unión de Santa Fe
Club Atlético Unión is a sports club from Santa Fe, the capital city of the Santa Fe Province, in Argentina. The club plays in the Argentine Primera División. Although Unión is known for its football team, that plays in Primera División, the club hosts other sports such as archery, field hockey, martial arts, roller skating and volleyball. In 1965, the squad was promoted to the Segunda División Argentina for the first time; the team has played there for many years. Unión's supporters are called "unionistas", "tatengues", while the squad is nicknamed "El Tate"; the colours of the club consist of white vertical stripes. In 1979 Unión played the final matches of the Nacional championship, but lost at the hands of River Plate, because the goal scored by River in the first match ended up in an average over Union according to the away goals rule applied to that tournament; the most famous footballers who played for Unión are Leopoldo Luque, World Cup winner with Argentina in 1978, Nery Pumpido, the goalkeeper of the national team that won the World Cup in Mexico 1986.
Apart from football, basketball is the foremost sport practised at the institution, with Union's team in the third division. Carlos Delfino is its most famous basketball player, Mario Elie, champion in NBA played in the Argentine League, for Unión de Santa Fe.. Unión and Colón are the two largest football clubs in Santa Fe; the Clásico Santafesino is known as one of football's fiercest and most important rivalries in Argentina. Unión and Colón have played 105 games all time against each other in the Professional Era, with Unión winning 37, Colón winning 31 and 37 draws; as of 7 April 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. To appear in this section a player must have played at least 50 games for the club and/or played for their national team. Primera B: 1966 Liga Santafesina de Fútbol: 1915, 1917, 1919, 1920, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1932, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1942, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, Classificatorio 1971, Selectivo 1971, 1971, 1974, 1979, 1994, Apertura 2000, Apertura 2003, Apertura 2010 Official website Tatequerido Tatengues.com Mundo Rojiblanco LosTates
San Martín de Tucumán
Club Atlético San Martín is an Argentine sports club founded in 1909 and based in the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán Province. The club is notable for its football team, which plays in the Argentine Primera B Nacional, the second division of the Argentine football league system. Other sports practised at the club are field hockey, martial arts, rugby union, swimming and volleyball. San Martin played every season in the Nacional championship between 1968 and 1985. El Santo has played 3 seasons in the Argentine Primera División, in 1988–89, 1991–92 and in 2008–09; the club's most notable victory was a 6–1 win over Boca Juniors in La Bombonera on November 20, 1988. After playing the 2008–09 season in Argentina's First Division, San Martín was relegated to Primera B Nacional. In 2011, after losing the Promoción, San Martín was relegated again to a lower division, the Torneo Argentino A; as of 7 April 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Copa Gral. P. Ramírez: 1944 Primera B Nacional: 2007–08 Torneo Argentino B: 2005 Torneo Argentino C: 1: 1988 Federación Tucumana de Fútbol: 1919, 1923, 1940, 1941, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1947, 1949, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1974, 1976 Liga Tucumana de Fútbol: 1980, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1987, 2004 Copa Competencia: 1921, 1922, 1936, 1940, 1947, 1948, 1964 Copa de Honor: 1922, 1943, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1955, 1965, 1973, 1974 Copa de Preparación: 1975 Official website Unofficial website Santo de la Ciudadela La Banda del General Dale Santo Los Cirujas
Promotion and relegation
In sports leagues and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between multiple divisions based on their performance for the completed season. The best-ranked team in the lower division are promoted to the higher division for the next season, the worst-ranked team in the higher division are relegated to the lower division for the next season. In some leagues, playoffs or qualifying rounds are used to determine rankings; this process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between levels 1 and 2, levels 2 and 3, levels 3 and 4, so on. During the season, teams that are high enough in the league table that they would qualify for promotion are sometimes said to be in the promotion zone, those at the bottom are in the relegation zone. An alternate system of league organisation, used in the US and Canada is a closed model based on licensing or franchises; this maintains the same teams from year to year, with occasional admission of expansion teams and relocation of existing teams, with no team movement between the major league and minor leagues.
The number of teams exchanged between the divisions is always identical. Exceptions occur when the higher division wishes to change the size of its membership, or has lost one or more of its clubs and wishes to restore its previous membership size, in which case fewer teams are relegated from that division, or more teams are accepted for promotion from the division below; such variations cause a "knock-on" effect through the lower divisions. For example, in 1995 the Premier League voted to reduce its numbers by two and achieved the desired change by relegating four teams instead of the usual three, whilst allowing only two promotions from Football League Division One. In the absence of such extraordinary circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European sports league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. For example, in a higher league with a large geographical footprint and multiple feeder leagues each representing smaller geographical regions, should most or all of the relegated teams in the higher division come from one particular region the number of teams to be promoted or relegated from each of the feeder leagues may have to be adjusted, or one or more teams playing near the boundary between the feeder leagues may have to transfer from one feeder league to another to maintain numerical balance.
The system is said to be the defining characteristic of the "European" form of professional sports league organization. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions, according to the relative strength of their teams, they maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, a low-ranked US or Canadian team's final games serve little purpose, in fact losing may be beneficial to such teams, yielding a better position in the next year's draft. Although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated; this occurs for one of two reasons: first, the club can't move underperforming players on, or second, the club is gambling on being promoted back straight away and is prepared to take a financial loss for one or two seasons to do so.
Some leagues offer "parachute payments" to its relegated teams for the following year. The payouts are higher than the prize money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. In some countries and at certain levels, teams in line for promotion may have to satisfy certain non-playing conditions in order to be accepted by the higher league, such as financial solvency, stadium capacity, facilities. If these are not satisfied, a lower-ranked team may be promoted in their place, or a team in the league above may be saved from relegation. While the primary purpose of the promotion/relegation system is to maintain competitive balance, it may be used as a disciplinary tool in special cases. On several occasions, the Italian Football Federation has relegated clubs found to have been involved in match-fixing.
This occurred most in 2006, when the season's initial champions Juventus were relegated to Serie B, two other teams were relegated but restored to Serie A after appeal. In some Communist nations several in Europe after World War II, clubs were promoted and relegated for political reasons rather than performance; this was made evident in the late eighties by teams such as Romanian Steaua București and Yugoslav Red Star Belgrade, both winners of the European Champions League despite the rampant level of corruption in their Communist local leagues. Promotion and relegation may be used in international sports tournaments. In tennis, the Davis Cup and Fed Cup have promotion and relegation, with a'World Group' (split into two divisions in the Fe
Greater Buenos Aires
Greater Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area or Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and the adjacent 24 partidos in the Province of Buenos Aires. Thus, it does not constitute a single administrative unit; the conurbation spreads south and north of Buenos Aires city. To the east, the River Plate serves as a natural boundary. Urban sprawl between 1945 and 1980, created a vast conurbation of 9,910,282 inhabitants in the 24 conurbated partidos, as of 2010, a total of 12,801,365 including the City of Buenos Aires, a third of the total population of Argentina and generating more than half of the country's GDP; the term Gran Buenos Aires was first used in 1948, when Governor of Buenos Aires Province Domingo Mercante signed a bill delineating as such an area covering 14 municipalities surrounding the City of Buenos Aires. The term is related to other expressions that are not well-defined: the "Buenos Aires' conurbation", the "Greater Buenos Aires Agglomeration", the "Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires".
The National Institute of Statistics and Censuses has defined Greater Buenos Aires. There are three main groups within the Buenos Aires' Conurbation; the first two groups comprise the traditional conurbation, or the "conurbation proper". The third group of six partidos is in process of becoming integrated with the rest. Fourteen urbanized partidos Ten partidos urbanized Six partidos not yet conurbatedAs urbanization continues and the conurbation grows, six additional urbanized partidos now are connected with the conurbation: Buzai, G. D. and Marcos, M.. "The social map of Greater Buenos Aires as empirical evidence of urban models". Journal of Latin American Geography. Volume 11 Number 1, pp. 67–78, DOI 10.1353/lag.2012.0012 Keeling, D.. Buenos Aires: Global Dreams, Local Crisis. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons
The South American Football Confederation is the continental governing body of football in South America and it is one of FIFA's six continental confederations. The oldest continental confederation in the world, its headquarters are located in Luque, near Asunción. CONMEBOL is responsible for the organization and governance of South American football's major international tournaments. With 10 member football associations, it has the fewest members of all the confederations in FIFA. CONMEBOL national teams have won nine FIFA World Cups, CONMEBOL clubs have won 22 Intercontinental Cups and four FIFA Club World Cups. Argentina and Uruguay have won two Olympic gold medals each, Brazil has won one Olympic gold medal, it is considered one of the strongest confederations in the world. The World Cup qualifiers of CONMEBOL have been described as the "toughest qualifiers in the world", for their simple round-robin system, entry of some of the top national teams in the world, leveling of the weaker national teams, climate conditions, geographic conditions, strong home stands and passionate supporters.
The Confederation is planning to create the first women's qualification to the FIFA Women's World Cup to replace the Copa América Femenina. Juan Ángel Napout was the president of CONMEBOL until 3 December 2015 when he was arrested in a raid in Switzerland as part of the U. S. Justice Department's bribery case involving FIFA. Wilmar Valdez was interim president until 26 January 2016 when Alejandro Domínguez was elected president; the Vice presidents are Ramón Jesurum, Laureano González, Arturo Salah. In 1916, the first edition of the "Campeonato Sudamericano de Fútbol", now known as the "Copa América", was contested in Argentina to commemorate the centenary of the Argentine Declaration of Independence; the four participating associations of that tournament gathered together in Buenos Aires in order to create a governing body to facilitate the organization of the tournament. Thus, CONMEBOL was founded on 9 July 1916 under the initiative of Uruguayan Héctor Rivadavia Gómez, but approved by the football associations of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay.
The first Constitutional Congress on 15 December of that same year, which took place in Montevideo, ratified the decision. Over the years, the other football associations in South America joined, with the last being Venezuela in 1952. Guyana and the French overseas department of French Guiana, while geographically in South America, are not part of CONMEBOL. Consisting of a French territory, a former British territory, a former Dutch territory, they are part of the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football due to historical and sporting reasons. With ten member nations, CONMEBOL is the smallest and the only continental land-based FIFA confederation; the main competition for men's national teams is the Copa América, started in 1916. CONMEBOL runs national competitions at Under-20, Under-17 and Under-15 levels. For women's national teams, CONMEBOL operates the Copa América Femenina for senior national sides, as well as Under-20 and Under-17 championships. In futsal, there is the Copa América de Futsal and Campeonato Sudamericano de Futsal Sub-20.
The Campeonato Sudamericano Femenino de Futsal is the women's equivalent to the man's tournament. CONMEBOL runs the two main club competitions in South America: the Copa Libertadores was first held in 1960 and the Copa Sudamericana was launched by CONMEBOL in 2002 as an indirect successor to the Supercopa Libertadores. A third competition, the Copa CONMEBOL, started in 1992 and was abolished in 1999. In women's football CONMEBOL conducts the Copa Libertadores Femenina for club teams; the competition was first held in 2009. The Recopa Sudamericana pits the past year's winners of the Copa Libertadores against the winners of the Copa Sudamericana, came into being in 1989; the Intercontinental Cup was jointly organised with UEFA between the Copa Libertadores and the UEFA Champions League winners. Legend1st – Champion 2nd – Runner-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place QF – Quarterfinals R16 – Round of 16 R2 – Second round GS – Group stage 1S – First Knockout Stage Q – Qualified for upcoming tournament • – Did not qualify – Did not enter / Withdrew / Banned – Hosts Legend1st – Champions 2nd – Runners-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place GS – Group stage Q – Qualified for upcoming tournament •• – Qualified but withdrew • – Did not qualify × – Did not enter / Withdrew from the Copa América or withdrew from the Confederations Cup / Banned – Hosts Legend1st – Champions 2nd – Runners-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place QF – Quarterfinals R2 – Round 2 R1 — Round 1 Q — Qualified for upcoming tournament – Hosts Legend1st – Champions 2nd – Runners-up 3rd – Third place 4th – Fourth place QF – Quarterfinals R1 – Round 1 q – Qualified for upcoming tournament •• – Qualified but withdrew • – Did not qualify – Hosts On 27 May 2015, several CONMEBOL leaders we