The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
William Clement Frawley was an American stage entertainer and screen and television actor best known for playing landlord Fred Mertz in the American television sitcom I Love Lucy and Bub in the television comedy series My Three Sons. Frawley began his career in vaudeville in 1914 with Edna Louise Broedt, their comedy act, known as "Frawley and Louise", continued until their divorce in 1927. Frawley performed on Broadway multiple times and signed with Paramount Studios in 1916 to play in silent films, he appeared in more than one hundred films over 35 years. William Clement Frawley was born of Irish ancestry in 1887 in Burlington, the second son of four children of Michael A. Frawley and Mary E. Frawley, he sang in the choir at St. Paul's Catholic Church; as he got older, he played small roles in local theater productions at the Burlington Opera House as well as performed in amateur shows, though his mother, a religious woman, discouraged such activities. Frawley's first job was as a stenographer in an office of the Union Pacific Railroad in Omaha, Nebraska.
After two years working in that position, he relocated to Chicago, where he found a job as a court reporter. Not long after that move, against his mother's wishes, he obtained a singing part in a musical comedy, The Flirting Princess. To appease his mother, Frawley relocated to St. Louis, Missouri, to work for another railroad company. Feeling unfulfilled in that job as well, he continued to hope he would one day be a professional entertainer, he decided to act on that desire by forming a vaudeville act with his brother Paul, but six months Frawley's mother told Paul to return to Iowa. Meanwhile, William wrote and sold a script titled Fun in a Vaudeville Agency, earning more than $500 for his efforts. After his initial success as a scriptwriter, Frawley decided to relocate yet again, this time to the West, settling in Denver, where he was hired as a singer at a café and teamed with pianist Franz Rath; the duo soon moved to San Francisco with their act, "A Man, a Piano, a Nut". During his vaudeville career, Frawley introduced and helped popularize the songs "My Mammy", "My Melancholy Baby", "Carolina in the Morning".
Many years in 1958, he recorded a selection of his old stage songs on an LP, Bill Frawley Sings the Old Ones. Frawley began performing in Broadway theater, his first such show was the musical comedy, Merry, in 1925. He made his first dramatic role in 1932, playing press agent Owen O'Malley in the original production of Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur's Twentieth Century, he continued to be a dramatic actor at various locales until 1933. In 1916, Frawley had appeared in two short subject silent films, he performed subsequently in three other short films, but he had not decided to develop a cinematic career until 1933, beginning with short comedy films and the feature musical Moonlight and Pretzels. He relocated to Los Angeles. Finding much work as a character actor, he had roles in many different genres of films — comedies, musicals and romances, he appeared in Miracle on 34th Street, portraying Judge Harper's political adviser, who warns his client in great detail of the dire political consequences if he rules that there is no Santa Claus.
Some of his other memorable film roles were as the baseball manager in Joe E. Brown's Alibi Ike, as the wedding host in Charlie Chaplin's Monsieur Verdoux, as a hard-nosed insurance investigator in My Home in San Antone, with Roy Acuff and Lloyd Corrigan. By 1951, the 64-year-old Frawley had appeared in over 100 movies, but was starting to find film role offers becoming fewer; when he heard that Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball were casting a new television situation comedy, he applied eagerly to play the role of the cantankerous, miserly landlord Fred Mertz. One evening he telephoned Lucille Ball. Ball was surprised to hear from him — a man she knew. Both Ball and Arnaz agreed it would be great to have Frawley, a motion picture veteran, appear as Fred Mertz. Less enthusiastic were CBS executives, who warned of Frawley's frequent drinking and instability. Arnaz warned Frawley about the network's concerns, telling him that if he was late to work, arrived drunk, or was unable to perform because of something other than legitimate illness more than once, he would be written out of the show.
A different version of this conversation holds that Arnaz contacted the other actor and told Frawley he would get three chances. The first screw-up would be tolerated, the second would result in a severe reprimand, the third would result in his being fired. Contrary to the network's concerns, Frawley never arrived at work drunk, mastered his lines after only one reading. Arnaz became one of Frawley's few close friends. I Love Lucy debuted October 15, 1951, on CBS, was a huge success; the series was broadcast for six years as half-hour episodes changing to hour-long specials from 1957-60 titled The Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Show. Vivian Vance played Frawley's on-screen wife. Although the two actors worked well together, they disliked each other. Most attribute their mutual hatred to Vance's vocal resentment of having to play wife to a man 22 years her senior. Frawley overheard Vance complaining. "She's one of the finest girls to come out of Kansas", he once observed, "But I wish she'd go back there."An avid New York Yankees baseball fan, Frawley had it written into his I Love Lucy contract that he did not have to wor
Tony Randall was an American actor. He is best known for his role as Felix Unger in a television adaptation of the 1965 play The Odd Couple by Neil Simon. In a career spanning about six decades, Randall received six Golden Globe Award nominations and six Primetime Emmy Award nominations. On the May 9, 1990 episode of The Tonight Show, he added, "This is my 95th time on this show." Randall was born to a Jewish family, in Tulsa, the son of Julia and Mogscha Rosenberg, an art and antiques dealer. He attended Tulsa Central High School. Randall attended Northwestern University for a year before going to New York City to study at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre, he studied under choreographer Martha Graham. Randall worked as an announcer at radio station WTAG in Massachusetts; as Anthony Randall, he starred with Jane Cowl in George Bernard Shaw's Candida and Ethel Barrymore in Emlyn Williams's The Corn Is Green. Randall served for four years with the United States Army Signal Corps in World War II, including work at the Signals Intelligence Service.
After the war, he worked at the Olney Theatre in Montgomery County, Maryland before heading back to New York City. In the 1940s, one of his first jobs was playing "Reggie" on the long-running radio series I Love a Mystery. In 1946, Randall was cast as one of the brothers in a touring production of Katharine Cornell's revival of The Barretts of Wimpole Street. Randall appeared on Broadway in Cornell's production of Antony and Cleopatra alongside Cornell and a young Charlton Heston and Maureen Stapleton, he was in Cleopatra with Cedric Hardwicke and Lili Palmer. Randall began appearing on television, notably episodes of One Man's Family. Tony Randall's first major television role was as a history teacher, Harvey Weskit, in Mister Peepers, he continued to guest star on other shows such as The Gulf Playhouse, The Pepsi-Cola Playhouse, Kraft Theatre, The Motorola Television Hour, Armstrong Circle Theatre, Studio One in Hollywood, Appointment with Adventure, The Philco-Goodyear Television Playhouse.
Randall replaced Gig Young in the Broadway hit Oh, Men! Oh, Women!. Randall's first major role in a Broadway hit was in Inherit the Wind portraying Newspaperman E. K. Hornbeck, alongside Ed Begley and Paul Muni. On television he was in Heaven Will Protect the Working Girl co-written by Neil Simon, he guest starred on The Alcoa Hour. Randall's success in Inherit the Wind led to film offers and his first significant big-screen role in Oh, Men! Oh, Women!. It was made at 20th Century Fox who promoted Randall to stardom with Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter? Alongside Jayne Mansfield, he had one of the leads in No Down Payment. In 1958, Randall played the leading role in the Broadway musical comedy Oh, Captain!, taking on a role originated on film by Alec Guinness. Oh, Captain! was a financial failure, but Randall received a Tony Award nomination for his dance turn with prima ballerina Alexandra Danilova. Randall was in Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse, Goodyear Theatre, The United States Steel Hour, Sunday Showcase and Playhouse 90.
Randall co-starred with Debbie Reynolds in The Mating Game at MGM. He was in a huge hit with Pillow Talk supporting Doris Rock Hudson, he starred in an NBC-TV special The Secret of Freedom, filmed during the summer of 1959 in Mount Holly, New Jersey, broadcast on the network during the fall of 1959 and again in early 1960. On TV he was in The Man in the Moon co-written by Mel Brooks. Randall was top billed in MGM's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn had a Pillow Talk style support role in Let's Make Love with Marilyn Monroe and Yves Montand and Lover Come Back with Hudson and Day. Randall continued to guest on TV shows including Checkmate. In 1961 Randall played a dramatic role in "Hangover," an episode of The Alfred Hitchcock Hour in which he portrayed an alcoholic business executive who strangles his wife in a drunken rage, he starred in a TV adaptation of Arsenic & Old Lace, had big screen leading roles in Boys' Night Out, Island of Love. Randall starred as nearly all of the leading characters in the 1964 classic film 7 Faces of Dr. Lao, based on The Circus of Dr. Lao by Charles G. Finney.
In addition to portraying and voicing the eponymous 7 Faces, Randall appeared without makeup in a two-second cameo, as a solemn spectator in the crowd, for a total of 8 roles in the film. The film received an Oscar for William J. Tuttle's makeup artistry, he made one last film with Hudson and Day, Send Me No Flowers. Randall had the lead in a comedy about a lion. Randall returned to Broadway in UTBU, he was in the TV movie The Littlest Angel. Randall returned to television in 1970 as Felix Unger in The Odd Couple, opposite Jack Klugman, a role lasting for five years; the names of Felix's children on The Odd Couple were Edna and Leonard, named for Randall's sister and Randall himself. In 1974, Randall and Jack Klugman appeared in television spots endorsing a Yahtzee spinoff, Challenge Yahtzee, they appeared in character as Felix and Oscar, the TV spots were filmed on the same set as The Odd Couple. During the series ru
Peter Hayden Dinklage is an American actor and producer. Dinklage studied acting at Bennington College, starring in a number of amateur stage productions, his film debut was in Living in Oblivion and his breakthrough came with the comedy-drama The Station Agent. He has since appeared in Elf, Find Me Guilty, Penelope, Death at a Funeral, The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian, X-Men: Days of Future Past and Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, which earned him his first Screen Actors Guild Award. In 2018, he appeared as Eitri in the Marvel Cinematic Universe film Avengers: Infinity War after appearing as Vikings and Hervé Villechaize in the biopic film My Dinner with Hervé. Since shooting the pilot episode in 2010, Dinklage has portrayed Tyrion Lannister on the HBO television series Game of Thrones, for which he won three Primetime Emmys from seven nominations, he received a Golden Globe for the role in 2011. Dinklage is known for his short stature, at only 4′ 5″. Peter Hayden Dinklage was born on June 11, 1969, in Morristown, New Jersey, to John Carl Dinklage, an insurance salesman, Diane Dinklage, an elementary-school music teacher.
He was born with achondroplasia, a common form of dwarfism. Dinklage grew up as the only dwarf in his family in Brookside, New Jersey, with his parents and older brother, Jonathan, he is of German and Irish descent. As a child and his brother performed puppet musicals for people in their neighborhood. Dinklage has described his brother, a violinist, as being the "real performer of the family," saying that his brother's passion for the violin was the only thing that kept him from pursuing acting. Dinklage had his first theatrical success in a fifth-grade production of The Velveteen Rabbit. Playing the lead, he was delighted by the audience's response to the show. Dinklage attended Delbarton School, a Catholic preparatory school for boys, where he developed his acting. In 1984, Dinklage was inspired by a production of the play True West, written by American playwright Sam Shepard, to pursue a career in acting. Dinklage attended Bennington College, where he studied for a drama degree and appeared in numerous productions before graduating in 1991.
After that he moved to New York City with his friend Ian Bell to build a theater company. Failing to pay the rent, they moved out of their apartment. Dinklage worked at a data processing company for six years before pursuing a career as a full-time actor. Dinklage struggled to find work as an actor because he refused to take the roles offered to actors with his condition, such as "elves or leprechauns." He made his credited film debut in the low-budget independent comedy-drama Living in Oblivion where he performed alongside Steve Buscemi. The film tells the story of a director and cast filming a low-budget independent film in the middle of New York City. Dinklage's role was that of a frustrated actor with dwarfism who complains about his clichéd roles; the film has been well received by critics. The following year he appeared as a building manager in the crime drama Bullet starring rapper Tupac Shakur. After his well-received performance in Living in Oblivion, Dinklage still could not find someone willing to be his agent.
After a recommendation from Buscemi to the director Alexandre Rockwell, Dinklage was cast in the comedy 13 Moons. When interviewed for a theater website, he was asked what his ideal role was, he replied "the romantic lead" who gets the girl. Dinklage found his breakthrough playing Finbar McBride, a quiet, unmarried man in the 2003 Tom McCarthy-directed film The Station Agent. According to co-star Bobby Cannavale, the film took three years to make and was not at first written with Dinklage in mind, Cannavale said McCarthy "set out to tell a story about a guy, a train enthusiast who had chosen to isolate himself from the world," but when McCarthy started "putting pen to paper" for the screenplay he decided to write the role for him. Speaking about the role, Dinklage noted that "roles written for someone my size are a little flat"—often either comical or "sort of Lord of the Rings" type characters filled with wisdom. What attracted him to the character McCarthy had written was that it was not one of the stereotypical roles people with dwarfism play.
The role earned him the Independent Spirit Award and Screen Actors Guild Award for Best Actor nominations. In the New York Observer, reviewer Andrew Sarris wrote, "Dinklage projects both size and intelligence in the fascinating reticence of his face." Besides being Dinklage's highest-rated film on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, The Station Agent was modestly successful at the box office, earning over $8 million against its small budget. Dinklage appeared in the direct-to-DVD film Tiptoes with Gary Oldman and Matthew McConaughey; the film met with negative reviews Oldman's role as a person with dwarfism. According to Dinklage, the original cut of the film was "gorgeous," but the director was fired shortly after turning it in, the film was re-cut into a "rom-com with dwarves." Speaking on the Oldman controversy, Dinklage said, "There was some flak: Why would you put Gary Oldman on his knees? That's like blackface, and I have my own opinions about political correctness, but I was just like, It's Gary Oldman.
He can do whatever he wants, I'm so happy to be here."That year, Dinklage starred in several Off-Broadway p
The Jackie Gleason Show
The Jackie Gleason Show is the name of a series of American network television shows that starred Jackie Gleason, which ran from 1952 to 1970, in various forms. Gleason's first variety series, which aired on the DuMont Television Network under the title Cavalcade of Stars, first aired June 4, 1949; the show's first host was comedian Jack Carter, followed by Jerry Lester. After Lester quit in June 1950, Gleason—who had made his mark on the first television incarnation of The Life of Riley sitcom—stepped into Cavalcade on July 15, 1950 and became an immediate sensation; the show was broadcast live in front of a theater audience, offered the same kind of vaudevillian entertainment common to early television revues. Gleason's guests included New York-based performers of stage and screen, including Bert Wheeler and Dale, Patricia Morison, Vivian Blaine. Production values were modest, owing to a thrifty sponsor. In 1952, CBS president William S. Paley offered Gleason a higher salary; the series was retitled The Jackie Gleason Show and premiered on CBS Television on September 20, 1952.
Paley used the show's position on CBS to showcase artists like Frankie Laine, Frankie Avalon, Doris Day, the teenage guitar prodigy Zane Ashton. In 1953, CBS' own orchestral accordionist John Serry Sr. made a cameo appearance. While much of DuMont's programming archive was destroyed after they ceased broadcasting, a surprising number of Cavalcade of Stars episodes survive, including several episodes at the UCLA Film and Television Archive. Additionally, at least 14 Gleason episodes survive at the Paley Center for Media. In his book The Forgotten Network, author David Weinstein mentions an unusual aspect of the DuMont network, he notes that while Drug Store Productions was technically the sponsor, they in turn sold the commercial air time to various companies and products. Weinstein notes this as an early example of U. S. network television moving away from the single-sponsor system typical of the early 1950s. He quotes former DuMont executive Ted Bergmann describing the DuMont version as featuring six commercial breaks during the hour, with each break comprising a single one-minute commercial.
The show opened with a monologue from Gleason, followed by sketch comedy involving Gleason and a number of regular performers and a musical interlude featuring the June Taylor Dancers. Gleason portrayed a number of recurring characters, including: supercilious, mustachioed playboy millionaire Reginald Van Gleason III friendly Joe the Bartender loudmouthed braggart Charlie Bratten Rum Dum, a hapless dipsomaniac with a walrus mustache mild-mannered Fenwick Babbitt The Bachelor, forever unmarried bombastic Rudy the Repairman a put-upon character known only as the Poor Soul, whom Gleason performed in pantomime. Stanley R. Sogg, late-night movie pitchman for Mother Fletcher's products blowhard Brooklyn bus driver Ralph KramdenThe series was a big hit for CBS, finishing at #8 in the Nielsen ratings for the 1953–1954 season and #2 in 1954–1955; the Jackie Gleason Show earned Emmy nominations for best variety series in 1953, 1954 and 1955, for Gleason as best star in 1954 and 1955, for Audrey Meadows as best supporting actress in 1954 and 1957, Art Carney for best supporting actor in 1957, June Taylor for best choreography in 1956, best writing and best engineering effects in 1955.
The series won Emmys for Meadows as best supporting actress in 1955, Carney as best supporting actor in 1954 and 1955, Taylor for choreography in 1955. Gleason never received an Emmy. By far the most memorable and popular of Gleason's characters was blowhard Brooklyn bus driver Ralph Kramden, featured in a series of Cavalcade skits known as "The Honeymooners", with Pert Kelton as his wife Alice, Art Carney as his upstairs neighbor Ed Norton; these were so popular that in 1955 Gleason suspended the variety format and filmed The Honeymooners as a regular half-hour sitcom, co-starring Carney, Audrey Meadows, Joyce Randolph. Finishing 19th in the ratings, these 39 episodes were subsequently rerun in syndication five nights a week, with the cycle repeating every two months for decades, they are the most familiar body of work from 1950s television with the exception of I Love Lucy starring Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz. The show's original variety format and title returned in September 1956 and continued until June 1957.
In October 1958, Gleason debuted a half-hour version of The Jackie Gleason Show, with Buddy Hackett as a sidekick, but it was short-lived, cancelled in January 1959. In 1961, Gleason began an ill-fated stint as host of a game show called You're in the Picture, which lasted only one episode, was so bad that it led to Gleason offering an on-air apology to his viewers the following week. Committed to filling a quota of episodes, Gleason renamed the series The Jackie Gleason Show and turned it into a short-lived talk show, featuring one-on-one informal interviews with Art Carney, Jayne Mansfield, Bobby Darin, other friends and celebrities, it ran for eight episodes. In 1962, Gleason returned to the tried-and-true variety format with his American Scene Magazine; the official title of the show was, The Jackie Gleason Show. In its first year, Gleason's ratings killed the competition: A revived comedy-western-variety program, The Roy Rogers and Dale Evans Show, on ABC and the legal drama S
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
I Love Lucy
I Love Lucy is an American television sitcom that ran on CBS from October 15, 1951, to May 6, 1957, with a total of 180 half-hour episodes spanning 6 seasons. The show starred Lucille Ball, her real-life husband Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance, William Frawley, it followed the life of Lucy Ricardo, a middle class housewife in New York City, who either concocted plans with her best friends to appear alongside her bandleader husband Ricky Ricardo in his nightclub, or tried numerous schemes to mingle with, or be a part of show business. After the series ended in 1957, a modified version continued for three more seasons with 13 one-hour specials, it was first known as The Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Show and in reruns as The Lucy–Desi Comedy Hour. Following the end of that, Ball divorced Arnaz and appeared in three other sitcoms into 1986. I Love Lucy became the most watched show in the United States in four of its six seasons, it was the first to end its run at the top of the Nielsen ratings; as of 2011, episodes of the show have been syndicated in dozens of languages across the world and remain popular with an American audience of 40 million each year.
A colorized version of its Christmas episode attracted more than 8 million viewers when CBS aired it in prime time in 2013—62 years after the show premiered. The show, the first scripted television program to be shot on 35 mm film in front of a studio audience, won five Emmy Awards and received numerous nominations and honors, it was the first show to feature an ensemble cast. It is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential sitcoms in history. In 2012, it was voted the'Best TV Show of All Time' in a survey conducted by ABC News and People magazine. Set in an apartment building in New York City, I Love Lucy centers on Lucy Ricardo and her singer/bandleader husband Ricky Ricardo, along with their best friends and landlords Fred Mertz and Ethel Mertz. During the second season and Ricky have a son named Ricky Ricardo Jr. whose birth was timed to coincide with Ball's real-life birth of her son Desi Arnaz Jr. Lucy is naïve and ambitious, with an undeserved zeal for stardom and a knack for getting herself and her husband into trouble whenever Lucy yearns to make it in show business.
The Ricardos' best friends and Ethel, are former vaudevillians and this only strengthens Lucy's resolve to prove herself as a performer. She has few marketable performance skills, she does not seem to be able to carry a tune or play anything other than off-key renditions of songs such as "Glow Worm" on the saxophone, many of her performances devolve into disaster. However, to say she is without talent would be untrue, as on occasion, she is shown to be a good dancer and a competent singer, she is at least twice offered contracts by television or film companies—first in "The Audition" when she replaces an injured clown in Ricky's act, in Hollywood when she dances for a studio benefit using a rubber Ricky dummy as her dancing partner. The show provided Ball ample opportunity to display her considerable skill at clowning and physical comedy. Character development was not a major focus of early sitcoms, so little was offered about her life before the show. A few episodes mentioned that she was born in Jamestown, New York corrected to West Jamestown, that she graduated from Jamestown High School, that her maiden name was "McGillicuddy", that she met Ricky on a boat cruise with her friend from an agency she once worked for.
Her family was absent, other than occasional appearances by her scatter-brained mother, who could never get Ricky's name right. Lucy exhibited many traits that were standard for female comedians at the time, including being secretive about her age and true hair color, being careless with money, along with being somewhat materialistic, insisting on buying new dresses and hats for every occasion and telling old friends that she and Ricky were wealthy, she was depicted as a devoted housewife and attentive mother. As part of Lucy's role was to care for her husband, she stayed at home and took care of the household chores while her husband Ricky went to work. During the post war era Lucy took jobs outside of the home but in these jobs she was portrayed as being inept outside of her usual domestic duties. Lucy's husband, Ricky Ricardo, is an up-and-coming Cuban American singer and bandleader with an excitable personality, his patience is tested by his wife's antics trying to get into showbiz, exorbitant spending on clothes or furniture.
When exasperated, he reverts to speaking in Spanish. As with Lucy, not much is revealed about his family. Ricky's mother appears in two episodes. Ricky mentions that he had been "practically raised" by his uncle Alberto, that he had attended the University of Havana. An extended flashback segment in the 1957 episode "Lucy Takes a Cruise to Havana" of The Lucille Ball–Desi Arnaz Show filled in numerous details of how Lucy and Ricky met and how Ricky came to the United States; the story, a