Primidone, sold under various brand names, is a medication used to treat seizures including partial and generalized seizures. It may be used for essential tremors; the dose may be based on levels measured in the blood. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include sleepiness, poor coordination and loss of appetite. Severe side effects may include psychosis, a lack of blood cells. Use during pregnancy may result in harm to the baby. Primidone is an anticonvulsant of the barbiturate class. How it works is not clear. Primidone was approved for medical use in the United States in 1954, it is available as a generic medication. A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about 68.40 £ as of 2019. In the United States the wholesale cost of this amount is about US$13.20. In 2016 it was the 237th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 2 million prescriptions. Licensed for generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures in the United Kingdom. In the United States, primidone is approved for adjunctive and monotherapy use in generalized tonic-clonic seizures, simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures, myoclonic seizures.
In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, it is a second-line therapy, reserved for when the valproates or lamotrigine do not work and when other second-line therapies—acetazolamide work either. Open-label case series have suggested. Primidone has been compared to phenytoin, mephobarbital, ethotoin and mephenytoin. In adult comparison trials, primidone has been found to be just as effective. Primidone is considered to be a first-line therapy for essential tremor along with propranolol. In terms of tremor amplitude reduction, it is just as effective as propranolol, reducing it by 50%. Both drugs are well studied for this condition, unlike other therapies, are recommended for initial treatment. 25 mg/day is just as good as 75 mg/day. Primidone is not the only anticonvulsant used for essential tremor. Other pharmacological agents include alprazolam, atenolol, nadolol, clozapine and botulinum toxin A. Many of these drugs were less effective. Only propranolol has been compared to primidone in a clinical trial. In 1965, Monroe and Wise reported using primidone along with a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic and chlordiazepoxide in treatment-resistant psychosis.
What is known is that ten years Monroe went on to publish the results of a meta-analysis of two controlled clinical trials on people displaying out-of-character and situationally inappropriate aggression, who had abnormal EEG readings, who responded poorly to antipsychotics. When they were given various anticonvulsants not only did their EEGs improve, but so did the aggression. In March 1993, S. G. Hayes of the University of Southern California School of Medicine reported that nine out of twenty-seven people with either treatment-resistant depression or treatment-resistant bipolar disorder had a permanent positive response to primidone. A plurality of subjects were given methylphenobarbital in addition to or instead of primidone. Primidone can cause drowsiness, ataxia, visual disturbances, nystagmus and dizziness; these side effects are the most common. Transient nausea and vomiting are common side effects. Dupuytren's contracture, a disease of the fasciae in the palm and fingers that permanently bends the fingers toward the palm, was first noted to be prevalent in epileptic people in 1941 by a Dr. Lund, fourteen years before primidone was on the market.
Lund noted that it was prevalent in individuals with idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsy and that the severity of the epilepsy did not matter. However, only one quarter of the women were affected vs. half of the men. Thirty-five years Critcheley et al. reported a correlation between how long a patient had had epilepsy and his or her chance of getting Dupuytren's contracture. They suspected that this was due to phenobarbital therapy, that the phenobarbital was stimulating peripheral tissue growth factors. Dupuytren's contracture is exclusively found in Caucasians those of Viking descent, highest rates are reported in Northern Scotland, Norway and Australia, it has been associated with alcoholism, heavy smoking, diabetes mellitus, physical trauma, HIV. People with rheumatoid arthritis are less to get this, Drs. Hart and Hooper speculate that this is true of gout due to the use of allopurinol This is the only susceptibility factor, agreed upon. Anticonvulsants do not seem to increase the incidence of Dupuytren's contracture in non-whites.
Primidone has other cardiovascular effects in beyond shortening the QT interval. Both it and phenobarbital are associated with elevated serum levels of homocysteine, an amino acid derived from methionine; this is certainly related to the low folate levels reported in primidone users. Elevated levels of homocysteine have been linked to coronary heart disease. In 1985, both drugs were reported to increase serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, apolipoproteins A and B, it was first reported to exacerbate hepatic porphyria in 1975. In 1981, it was shown that phenobarbital, one of primidone's metabolite
Verecundus was a 6th-century writer and the bishop of Iunca in Roman North Africa. He was an ardent champion of the Three Chapters. Verecundus attended the Synod in Constantinople of 551 called by Justinian where he sided with Pope Vigilius in the Three-Chapter Controversy and went into self-imposed exile with him at the end of the synod for refusing to sign the condemnation of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrrhus and Ibas of Edessa; when the question of the Three Chapters was raised at the Council of Chalcedon, in the beginning of 552. Pope Vigilius's Judicatum having excited universal discontent, both the pope and the Emperor Justinian agreed the question should be settled in a general council to be held at Constantinople. Verecundus, with Primasius of Hadrumeta, went to represent the Province of Byzacena, arrived at Constantinople towards the middle of 551. At once the Greek bishops set out to induce them by promises and threats to anathematize the Three Chapters. Both resisted strenuously at first, and, in the grave difficulties besetting Pope Vigilius, stood by his side.
Soon, the conditions became so unbearable that on 23 December Pope Vigilius, although his residence was watched, managed to escape across the Bosphorus and to reach the Church of St. Euphemia at Chalcedon. Primasius and Verecundus followed him a few days later. Verecundus died shortly afterwards. After Verecundus's death, Primasius was moved by ambition to relent from his unyielding attitude; as an ecclesiastical author, Verecundus is little known. His works, edited by J. B. Pitra, comprise a collection of historical documents on the Council of Chalcedon, "Excerptiones de gestis Chalcedonensis Con cilii", of which we possess two recensions. Verecundus wrote excerpts of the proceedings of the Council of Chalcedon. Isidore of Seville attributes to Verecundus another poem on resurrection and judgment, none other than the "De iudicio Domini" or "De resurrectione mortuorum", found among the works of Tertullian and St. Cyprian. Bardenhewer, Patrology, tr. Shahan. Leclercq, III, ii, 41 sq. Catholic Encyclopedia article This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Quality Dairy Company is a family-owned, dairy and retail / convenience store chain in the Lansing, Michigan metro area. The first Quality Dairy Store was opened in 1936 and as of 2020 there are 29 Mid-Michigan area retail locations. Quality Dairy Company's headquarters is located near REO Town in Lansing and operates its Dairy Plant, Bakery Plant, Injection Plastic Molding Plant from central Lansing as well. Quality Dairy has been one of Mid-Michigan's largest employers for over 50 years and produces over 150 different products in its Lansing area facilities; the chain caters to neighborhood clientele, many of whom do not have the benefit of personal transportation. Quality Dairy draws customers with "loss leader" prices on staples such as milk and bread, but makes its profits from sales of alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, snack foods and beverages, lottery tickets, other convenience items sold at premium prices. Quality Dairy Company was founded in March 1936 by Gregory J. Harvey Mack.
The first store was located at 1406 South Washington Avenue. At the time, milk was most obtained by home delivery; the original company mission included providing bottled milk on a cash and carry basis from small neighborhood milk stores. The price of milk at the time was seven cents a quart. In 1940, Quality Dairy Company started producing and selling ice cream. Quality Dairy stores began to sell candy and gum around the same time. Since the stores have expanded the offering of grocery items, adding cereals, canned vegetables and fruits and more, along with a selection of meat and frozen food items not found outside the major grocery stores. Dipped ice cream was added in 1969. In 1955, Quality Dairy Company’s ownership changed. Harvey Mack sold out to Mr. Martin. Quality Dairy Company operates 31 stores throughout Greater Lansing. All but two locations sell wine and sixteen locations sell packaged liquor. Eight locations offer gasoline and six stores have Laundromats. In addition to retail stores, Quality Dairy Company operates several production and distribution facilities including the Dairy Plant, Bakery and Grocery Distribution Center.
QDC Plastic Container, a division of Quality Dairy Company, is a plastics blow molding facility which services the drink industry. In 2017, the Holt location was temporarily closed because of an electrical fire; the store was renovated with a streamlined design and drive-thru window, walk-up window, arctic beer cave among other new features. The store re-opened in August 2019. There are 29 retail locations in the Greater Lansing area: 400 S. Pennsylvania 2100 N. Larch 1412 W. Mt. Hope 700 N. Pine 720 W. Jolly 917 E. Cavanaugh 645 Waverly 2121 W. Holmes Rd. 4500 W. Saginaw 5930 Marsh Rd. 5100 S. Waverly 6099 S. M. L. K. Blvd. & Miller 2233 S. Cedar 7120 Lansing Rd. 500 E. Saginaw 808 E. Michigan 2600 S. Cedar & Greenlawn 118 S. Main St. 6400 W. St. Joe & Creyts 2400 E. Michigan & Foster 804 W. Willow 3332 Lake Lansing 5010 Dunckel 1109 E. Grand River 173 W. Maple 1699 W. Grand River & Dobie 680 Lansing Road 8512 W. Saginaw 10950 E. Second All 29 stores have Michigan State University Federal Credit Union ATMs.
When Quality Dairy Company was founded in 1936 there were a large number of dairies in Ingham County. Today there is only one – Quality Dairy Company. Quality Dairy distributes milk from local dairy farms to its stores daily; the Dairy produces flavored milks, fruit drinks, chip dip and more. The Dairy makes ice cream in a variety of flavors; the Quality Dairy Bakery started in 1970 in the back room of one of the stores. Not long after, the Bakery moved to a new larger location. Today, the Bakery is housed in a 37,000 sq. ft. facility in Lansing. The Quality Dairy Commissary operates in the same facility; the Bakery produces over 40 varieties of donuts, including classic cake donuts and yeast-raised varieties. It offer cookies, muffins and other baked goods. Customers can order Bakery products online and have them delivered to any retail store; the Quality Dairy Commissary was founded in the mid-1970s. It is operating in the same modern 37,000 sq. ft. facility as the Bakery. The Commissary provides a wide variety of food items to the stores five days a week.
It produces over three dozen varieties of sandwiches as well as salads. The Commissary supplies the stores with a selection of fresh produce. QDC Plastic Container Company is the injection plastic molding division of Quality Dairy Company