Dorothea of Denmark, Duchess of Prussia
Dorothea of Denmark, was a Duchess of Prussia by marriage to Duke Albert, Duke of Prussia. She was the daughter of King Frederick I of Anna of Brandenburg. After her father's accession to the throne in 1523 a marriage was suggested to the English claimant to the throne, Duke Richard of Suffolk, supported by King Francis of France, but without success. In 1525, she received a proposal from the newly made Duke of Prussia; the marriage was arranged by her father's German chancellor Wolfgang von Utenhof. The wedding was conducted 12 February 1526 and Dorothea arrived with a large entourage in Königsberg in June. Dorothea had a good relationship with Albert and this contributed to a good and active contact between Denmark and Prussia which continued during her brother's reign and until her death. Dorothea and her spouse corresponded with her brother, the king of Denmark, acted as his political advisors. Dorothea and Albert were present at the coronation of Christian III of Denmark in Copenhagen in 1537.
The Königsberg Cathedral has a monument of her. Anna Sophia, married John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow. Katharina. Frederick Albert. Lucia Dorothea. Lucia. Albert. Dansk biografisk Lexikon / IV. Bind. Clemens - Eynden
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin; the kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William, known as "The Great Elector". Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more known as Frederick the Great, the third son of Frederick William I. Frederick the Great was instrumental in starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia and Sweden and establishing Prussia's role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power.
After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a major power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles, many wars; because of its power, Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states under its rule, although whether Austria would be included in such a unified German domain was an ongoing question. After the Napoleonic Wars led to the creation of the German Confederation, the issue of more unifying the many German states caused revolution throughout the German states, with each wanting their own constitution. Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states and Austria; the North German Confederation, which lasted from 1867 to 1871, created a closer union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent. The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were used in the German Empire.
The German Empire lasted from 1871 to 1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony, this was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, with the victory came an overwhelming wave of nationalism which changed the opinions of some of those, against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the legal predecessor of the unified German Reich and as such a direct ancestor of today's Federal Republic of Germany; the formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the fiat of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction, made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the Free State of Prussia, which followed the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of World War I, was a major democratic force in Weimar Germany until the nationalist coup of 1932 known as the Preußenschlag.
The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world. In 1415 a Hohenzollern Burgrave came from the south to the March of Brandenburg and took control of the area as elector. In 1417 the Hohenzollern was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. After the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic towns of the German states, including Prussia, suffered many economic setbacks. Many of the Prussian towns could not afford to attend political meetings outside of Prussia; the towns were poverty stricken, with the largest town, having to borrow money from elsewhere to pay for trade. Poverty in these towns was caused by Prussia's neighbours, who had established and developed such a monopoly on trading that these new towns could not compete; these issues led to feuds, trade competition and invasions. However, the fall of these towns gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west, allowed the urban middle class of Brandenburg to prosper.
It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, as it faced two dangers that the other German territories did not, partition from within and the threat of invasion by its neighbours. It prevented partition by enacting the Dispositio Achillea, which instilled the principle of primogeniture to both the Brandenburg and Franconian territories; the second issue was resolved through expansion. Brandenburg was surrounded on every side by neighbours whose boundaries were political. Any neighbour could consume Brandenburg at any moment; the only way to defend herself was to absorb her neighbours. Through negotiations and marriages Brandenburg but expanded her borders, absorbing neighbours and eliminating the threat of attack; the Hohenzollerns were made rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1518. In 1529 the Hohenzollerns secured the reversion of the Duchy of Pomerania after a series of conflicts, acquired its eastern part following the Peace of Westphalia. In 1618 the Hohenzollerns inherited the Duchy of Prussia, since 1511 ruled by Hohenzollern Albrecht of Brandenburg Prussia, who in 1525 converted the Teutonic Order ruled state to a Protestant Duchy by accepting fiefdom of the crown of Poland.
It was ruled in a personal union with Brandenburg
Principality of Rügen
The Principality of Rügen was a Danish principality consisting of the island of Rügen and the adjacent mainland from 1168 until 1325. It was governed by a local dynasty of princes of the Wizlawiden dynasty. For at least part of this period, Rügen was subject to the Holy Roman Empire; the Danes conquered the Rani stronghold of Arkona in 1168. The rulers of the Rani became vassals of the Danish king, the Slavic population was Christianized. In the 12th century, the Duchy of Rügen not only functioned as a bridgehead for Danish expansions into Vendland, but Rani forces participated in Danish raids into Circipania and areas conquered by Pomerania's Wartislaw I in the 1120s. After Pomerania became part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1181, it sent out a navy in 1184 to subdue Rügen for the empire, too. A Danish and Rani counterattack destroyed the Pomeranian navy in the Bay of Greifswald, granting Danish access to all of the Wendish Baltic coast and making Denmark the predominant power until 1227. In the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227, the Danes again lost all Wendish lands except for Rügen.
After the Danish conquest, the princes moved their capital from Charenza to nearby Rugard. While the island of Rügen was incorporated into the Danish Archdiocese of Roskilde, the mainland portion was incorporated into the Saxon Bishopric of Schwerin as a compensation for the Duchy of Saxony's aid in the conquest. Tetzlav was mentioned by Saxo Grammaticus in 1164 as a king. After the Danish conquest, he became a prince, in 1170 was succeeded by his brother, Jaromar I. After Jaromar, the succession of Slavic princes under Danish vassalage was as follows: 1218–1221 Barnuta 24 November 1221 – 1249 Wizlaw I 1249–1260 Jaromar II 1260–1302 Wizlaw II 1303–1304 Sambor and Wizlaw III 1304–1325 Wizlaw III When Rügen became a Danish principality, not only religion changed. In the course of the Ostsiedlung, large numbers of German settlers had been encouraged to come to Rügen by the Rani prince Jaromar I and his successors. In the early 13th century, the mainland section of the duchy, which in large parts consisted of woodland, was settled by Germans, who established new villages and towns through large scale deforestation campaigns as well as settling in existing Rani dwellings.
The first German settlements are recorded in the Ryck valley and the Tribsees area in the Trebel valley. The German settlement on the islands of Rügen started only in the 14th century, when the mainland was densely German settled. In the following centuries and German population mixed and shared a common fate; as the Rani language and administration was transformed into German in the 13th century, the Rani ceased to exist as a distinguishable ethnic group. Danes and Danish property are recorded also; the Dargun Abbey, founded 1272 by the Pomeranian dukes, was sponsored by the Rugian dukes with land. Ostsiedlung was enhanced by abbeys founded on behalf of the princes of Rügen: 1193 Bergen Abbey 1199 Hilda abbey 1231 Neuenkamp Abbey 1296 Hiddensee AbbeyThe abbeys were granted vast lands, in part turned over from the former temple estates. Wittow had been Arkona's temple isle before the Danish conquest, the other temples, e.g. in Charenza had rich possessions. Towns were either built within a clearance or near an older Rani burgh and granted Lübeck law when grown to a respective size.
The date Lübeck law was granted is given in the following list as it is seen as the town's anniversary if the town itself was projected and built earlier: 1234 Stralsund 1255 Barth 1258 Damgarten 1270 Rügenwalde 1285 GrimmenOne exception is the town of Greifswald: While projected and built while within the Principality of Rügen, the area was claimed by the Griffin Duchy of Pomerania before it was granted market rights in 1241 by the Rugian and Pomeranian dukes in common and granted Lübeck law not by the Rugians, but by the Pomeranian duke alone. The other exception is the town of Schadegast: Founded close to Stralsund, the town had to be levelled on behalf of the Stralsund burghers in 1269. After the 1168 Danish conquest, the Rugian dukes became a valuable ally to the Danes who participated in many Danish expeditions: 1177 Rugian troops participate in Danish raids of Usedom and the County of Gützkow 1178 Rugian troops participate in a Danish raid of the terra Wusterhusen and Wolgast 1184 Battle of the Bay of Greifswald: The Rugian navy encounters the Pomeranian navy on its way to conquer Rügen and defeats it.
This made way for the Danes to again loot Wolgast. 1185 Rugian troops participate in Danish raids of the Peene river estituary and Cammin 1219 Rugian troops participate in Danish conquest of Estonia 1259 Rugian troops raid Seeland aiding Christopher I of Denmark in a civil war with the archbishops of Lund, the Rugians sacked Copenhagen, raided Skane and Lolland 1260 Rugian troops take Lilleborg fortress In 1235, Wizlaw I gained half of the terra Wolgast, yet lost it to the Pomeranian dukes before 1250. Wizlaw II did not succeed in inheriting Schlawe-Stolp from his mother, but gained the terra Loitz in 1275 In 1168 after the capture of the fortress and temple on Arkona and Charenza by Valdemar I of Denmark the Rügen princes had to pay feudal homage to the Danes. In addition to handing over the temple treasure to the Danes and transferring the estates owned by the temple to the Church, the Rügen princes were obliged to render knights' service
Baltiysky District, Kaliningrad Oblast
Baltiysky District is an administrative district, one of the fifteen in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Baltiysky Municipal District, its administrative center is the town of Baltiysk, which accounts for 90.7% of the district's total population of 36,047 . It is the westernmost district in Russia, with the abandoned village of Narmeln being the westernmost point. Baltiysky District is located on the Sambia Peninsula in the west of the oblast along the Baltic Sea coast, forms the Vistula Lagoon; the area of the district is 101 square kilometers, with half consisting of the Russian side of the Vistula Spit, an unpopulated exclusion zone except for a small portion on the northern tip, part of Baltiysk. Baltiysky District shares a border with Zelenogradsky District in the north, an international border with Poland in the south. Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №463 от 27 мая 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области», в ред.
Закона №450 от 3 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калининградской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №112, 26 июня 2010 г.. Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №170, 15 сентября 2011 г.. Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №274 от 3 июля 2008 г «Об организации местного самоуправления на территории муниципального образования "Балтийский городской округ"», в ред. Закона №370 от 1 июля 2009 г «О составе территорий муниципальных образований Калининградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №124, 11 июля 2008 г
Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia
Albert Frederick was the Duke of Prussia, from 1568 until his death. He was a son of Anna Marie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, he was the last Prussian duke of the Ansbach branch of the Hohenzollern family. Albert became Duke of Prussia after paying feudal homage to his cousin, the King of Poland, Zygmunt August, on July 19, 1569 in Lublin; the homage was described by the Polish chronicler Jan Kochanowski in his work Proporzec. During the 1573 Polish election, Albert Frederick attempted to gain acceptance to the Polish senate but was opposed by the powerful Jan Zamoyski who feared the influence of Protestants in the Polish legislative body. Albert Frederick refused to recognize the election of Stefan Bathory and supported the candidacy of Maximilian of Habsburg. However, at the Toruń sejm of October 1576 he gave his support to the new monarch; as the great grandson of the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon, as a Duke in Prussia, fluent in Polish, Albert Frederick was considered for a time as a possible candidate for the Polish throne.
He enjoyed the support of Polish Lutherans. In 1572 he began to exhibit signs of mental disorder. In early 1578, the regency was taken over by George Frederick of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. After George Frederick's death in 1603, the Polish king Sigismund III Vasa appointed Joachim Frederick as regent in 1605, permitted his son, John Sigismund, to succeed him in 1611; the latter became Duke of Prussia after Albert Frederick's death in 1618. Albert Frederick was married in 1573 to Marie Eleonore of Cleves, a daughter of Wilhelm, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg and Archduchess Maria of Austria. Maria was a daughter of Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. Albert Frederick and Marie were parents to seven children: Anna of Prussia. Married John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg. Marie of Prussia. Married Christian, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. Albert Frederick of Prussia. Sophie of Prussia. Married Wilhelm Kettler of Courland. Eleanor of Prussia. Married Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg. Wilhelm Frederick of Prussia.
Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia. Married John George I, Elector of Saxony. At his death, the duchy passed to his son-in-law John Sigismund, Margrave of Brandenburg, combining the two territories under a single dynasty and forming Brandenburg-Prussia
East Prussia was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878. Its capital city was Königsberg. East Prussia was the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast; the bulk of the ancestral lands of the Baltic Old Prussians were enclosed within East Prussia. During the 13th century, the native Prussians were conquered by the crusading Teutonic Knights. After the conquest the indigenous Balts were converted to Christianity; because of Germanization and colonisation over the following centuries, Germans became the dominant ethnic group, while Masurians and Lithuanians formed minorities. From the 13th century, East Prussia was part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. After the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466 it became a fief of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1525, with the Prussian Homage, the province became the Duchy of Prussia; the Old Prussian language had become extinct by early 18th century. Because the duchy was outside of the core Holy Roman Empire, the prince-electors of Brandenburg were able to proclaim themselves King beginning in 1701.
After the annexation of most of western Royal Prussia in the First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772, eastern Prussia was connected by land with the rest of the Prussian state and was reorganized as a province the following year. Between 1829 and 1878, the Province of East Prussia was joined with West Prussia to form the Province of Prussia; the Kingdom of Prussia became the leading state of the German Empire after its creation in 1871. However, the Treaty of Versailles following World War I granted West Prussia to Poland and made East Prussia an exclave of Weimar Germany, while the Memel Territory was detached and annexed by Lithuania in 1923. Following Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II in 1945, war-torn East Prussia was divided at Joseph Stalin's insistence between the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of Poland; the capital city Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946. The German population of the province was evacuated during the war or expelled shortly afterwards in the expulsion of Germans after World War II.
An estimated 300,000 died either in war time bombing raids, in the battles to defend the province, or through mistreatment by the Red Army. At the instigation of Duke Konrad I of Masovia, the Teutonic Knights took possession of Prussia in the 13th century and created a monastic state to administer the conquered Old Prussians. Local Old-Prussian and Polish toponyms were Germanised; the Knights' expansionist policies, including occupation of Polish Pomerania with Gdańsk/Danzig and western Lithuania, brought them into conflict with the Kingdom of Poland and embroiled them in several wars, culminating in the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War, whereby the united armies of Poland and Lithuania, defeated the Teutonic Order at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410. Its defeat was formalised in the Second Treaty of Thorn in 1466 ending the Thirteen Years' War, leaving the former Polish region Pomerania/Pomerelia under Polish control. Together with Warmia it formed the province of Royal Prussia. Eastern Prussia as a fief of Poland.
1466 and 1525 arrangements by kings of Poland were not verified by the Holy Roman Empire as well as the previous gains of the Teutonic Knights were not verified. The Teutonic Order lost eastern Prussia when Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and secularized the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order in 1525. Albert established himself as the first duke of the Duchy of Prussia and a vassal of the Polish crown by the Prussian Homage. Walter von Cronberg, the next Grand Master, was enfeoffed with the title to Prussia after the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, but the Order never regained possession of the territory. In 1569 the Hohenzollern prince-electors of the Margraviate of Brandenburg became co-regents with Albert's son, the feeble-minded Albert Frederick; the Administrator of Prussia, the grandmaster of the Teutonic Order Maximilian III, son of emperor Maximilian II died in 1618. When Maximilian died, Albert's line died out, the Duchy of Prussia passed to the Electors of Brandenburg, forming Brandenburg-Prussia.
Taking advantage of the Swedish invasion of Poland in 1655, instead of fulfilling his vassal's duties towards the Polish Kingdom, by joining forces with the Swedes and subsequent treaties of Wehlau and Oliva, Elector and Duke Frederick William succeeded in revoking the king of Poland's sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia in 1660. The absolutist elector subdued the noble estates of Prussia. Although Brandenburg was a part of the Holy Roman Empire, the Prussian lands were not within the Holy Roman Empire and were with the administration by the Teutonic Order grandmasters under jurisdiction of the Emperor. In return for supporting Emperor Leopold I in the War of the Spanish Succession, Elector Frederick III was allowed to crown himself "King in Prussia" in 1701; the new kingdom ruled by the Hohenzollern dynasty became known as the Kingdom of Prussia. The designation "Kingdom of Prussia" was applied to the
The Vistula Lagoon is a brackish water lagoon on the Baltic Sea 56 miles long, 6 to 15 miles wide, up to 17 feet deep, separated from Gdańsk Bay by the Vistula Spit. It is now known as the Vistula Vistula Gulf; the modern German name, Frisches Haff, is derived from Friesisches Haff. The lagoon is a mouth of a few branches of the Vistula River, notably the Nogat, the Pregolya River, it is connected to Gdańsk Bay by the Strait of Baltiysk. The Poland–Russia border runs across the lagoon. Localities on the lagoon include Kaliningrad and Primorsk in Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Elbląg, Frombork, Krynica Morska in Poland; the Polish port of Elbląg used to see a substantial amount of trading traffic on the lagoon, but that has declined owing to the current border situation. Kaliningrad and Baltiysk are major seaports on the lagoon; the earliest version of the name of Vistula Lagoon has been recorded in historical sources by Wulfstan, an Anglo-Saxon sailor and merchant at the end of the 9th Century as Estmere.
It is an Anglo-Saxon translation of Old Prussian name for the lagoon - *Aīstinmari derived from Aistei - "Ests","Aestii" etc. and *mari - "lagoon, fresh water bay". The Ests were Baltic people who since 9th Century became called in some historical sources Bruzi, Pruteni etc. - Old Prussians. So the oldest known meaning of the name of Vistula Lagoon was "The lagoon or sea of the Ests". Over three hundred years in the first half of the 13th Century, the name of Vistula Lagoon occurs in deeds issued by Teutonic Order in Latin version as Mare Recens in contrast to the contemporary name for the Baltic Sea - Mare Salsum. In 1251 we find record about Mare Recens et Neriam and in 1288 Recenti Mari Hab which as one can see corresponds with German "Frisches Haff" = "Fresh Lagoon". Digging a canal to connect the lagoon with the Baltic Sea is in consideration as a major EU-supported project; the canal, would re-activate the Elbląg river port. It would free its dependence on Russia, which time and again revokes the right of passage for Polish ships through the Strait of Baltiysk as a form of pressure on Polish authorities.
In October 2016 details of the project were confirmed by Jarosław Kaczyński. The 1.3 kilometres long, 80 metres wide and 5 metres deep canal shall be completed by 2020 at an estimated cost of PLN 880 million. However, major ecological considerations stand in the way. For example, mammal migration along the lagoon could be disrupted; the inflow of brackish waters from the Baltic sea could result in serious unbalancing of the lagoon's freshwater ecosystem. From 1772 until 1918, the lagoon was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, which had become part of the German Empire in 1871. Between 1920 and 1946 it was split between the Free City of Danzig. At present state since 1945 its eastern part belongs to Russia, Poland has 43.8% of its area at lagoon's western side. The bordering administrative regions is Polish Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship and modern Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, which had name Königsberg Oblast during half of 1946. While today the Kursenieki known as Kuršininkai are a nearly extinct Baltic ethnic group living along the Curonian Spit, in 1649 Kuršininkai settlement spanned from Memel to Danzig, including the area around the Vistula Lagoon.
The Kuršininkai were assimilated by the Germans, except along the Curonian Spit where some still live. The Kuršininkai were considered Latvians until after World War I when Latvia gained independence from the Russian Empire, a consideration based on linguistic arguments; this was the rationale for Latvian claims over the Curonian Spit and other territories of East Prussia which would be dropped. From January until March 1945 throughout the Evacuation of East Prussia, refugees from East Prussia crossed the frozen lagoon on their way to the west after the Red Army had reached the coast of the lagoon near Elbing on January 26. Attacked by Soviet fighter aircraft thousands of them were killed or broke through the ice. Curonian Lagoon www.en.zalew-wislany.pl – Monitoring the Vistula Lagoon water quality on the basis of satellite remote sensing Battle of Vistula Lagoon