SENSIO Technologies

SENSIO Technologies, Inc. known as SENSIO, was a Montreal company that developed and marketed stereoscopic image-processing technologies facilitating the creation and delivery of 3D content. To promote widespread 3D adoption, SENSIO was active on several fronts: aggregating and distributing 3D content in its SENSIO® Hi-Fi 3D format. SENSIO’s customers were in the consumer electronics industry, the digital-cinema equipment industry, the semiconductor industry and the broadcast equipment industry, its partners were film studios and event promoters. SENSIO Technologies Inc. was founded in 1999 by Nicholas Routhier and Richard LaBerge, under the name of Technologies Sensorielles TEG, to manufacture technology capable of allowing 3D to be viewed in the home. Their research and development resulted, in 2002, in the first iteration of what was to become the SENSIO® Hi-Fi 3D technology – a spatial compression codec; the codec was incorporated into a video processor set-top box – the SENSIO® S3D-100 – which earned a 2003 CES Design and Engineering Showcase Honors award.

It was the first full-resolution consumer 3D product. In addition, the codec was applied to encode a library of over 40 movies for which SENSIO had negotiated the rights with Hollywood and independent studios, in order to ensure that purchasers of the equipment had access to 3D content in the correct format; the constitution of this library resulted in the first Hollywood 3D film to be released on DVD: Dimension FilmsSpy Kids 3D: Game Over in 2005. In 2006, the company became publicly listed under the name SENSIO Technologies Inc. offering stock for sale on the TSX Venture Exchange under the symbol SIO. By 2007, SENSIO had discontinued the SENSIO® S3D-100 and was concentrating on providing intellectual property under licence; that year, it demonstrated the first live 3D solution for cinemas with a digital cinema server from International Datacasting, used for the first satellite transmission of 3D content with Cinedigm. At the 2008 Consumer Electronics Show, SENSIO demonstrated the first full HD 3D solution for home entertainment on HD 3D LCD and DLP televisions.

The business model for live 3D in cinemas that SENSIO and its various partners had developed resulted in the first live 3D event in cinemas in 2009: the BCS Bowl. That year, SENSIO supplied the technology for the first live 3D simulcast on multiple platforms – cinema, stadium screen and TV – the NCAA’s USC versus Ohio State championship football game broadcast by ESPN.2009 saw the DVD Forum recognize what was called the SENSIO® 3D format in its 3D video specification – the first 3D technology to be standardized and the only one to be certified in that standard. At the end of 2009, just ahead of the release of James Cameron’s Avatar in cinemas, Ubisoft released James Cameron’s Avatar: The Game; this was the first console game using 3D graphics with stereoscopic effects. Avatar integrated SENSIO® Hi-Fi 3D technology, providing a Full-HD S3D gaming experience for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 users. In 2010, SENSIO® Hi-Fi 3D technology was selected by FIFA for the live 3D broadcast in cinemas of 25 key matches of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ soccer championship.

It was the first worldwide event of its kind. SENSIO federated cinema distributors and operators into what became known as the SENSIO® 3D Live Network, enabling spectators in 33 countries to see the matches in live 3D in 475 cinemas; as of April 2011, the network counts over 800 screens in 35 countries, cinemas in the network have screened matches from the 2011 RBS Six Nations Rugby and 2011 NBA All-Star Weekend. In 2010, SENSIO® Hi-Fi 3D became the first proprietary 3D format to be integrated into a 3DTV. At the end of that year, SENSIO acquired signal-processing technologies and key personnel from Algolith Inc. in order to expand its offer to the broadcast industry. At the 2011 CES, SENSIO announced two new technologies aimed at improving the overall user experience – SENSIO® S2D Switch and SENSIO® Autodetect – as well as a new content solution, the SENSIO® Hi-Fi 3D Content Library available over video-on-demand. Although it has been in business for more than a decade, SENSIO never made any profit.

It relied on new investment to continue operating. The interest in 3D from 2010 going forward did translate in stronger sales, but it fell short of the revenues needed to survive in the long term. Over the course of 2015, SENSIO attempted to raise financing from its largest shareholder as well as by way of private placement of shares. However, these attempts proved unsuccessful. In November 2015, SENSIO engaged a financial advisor to provide financial consulting services in order to initiate a divestiture process. On December 23, 2015, SENSIO executed a letter of intent, selling its rights and interest in some of its intellectual properties to 3DN LLC, a subsidiary of Ottawa-based technology development and intellectual property licensing company WiLAN. On the same day, following the execution of the LOI, the company filed a Notice of Intention to Make a Proposal under the Canadian Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. In the press release announcing the sales process and NOI, SENSIO revealed that co-founder and EVP Richard Laberge had been laid off.

Over the following weeks, S

Straight-five engine

The straight-five engine or inline-five engine is an internal combustion engine with five cylinders aligned in one row or plane, sharing a single engine block and crankcase. The justification for a five cylinder engine is that it is as compact as an inline-four, as smooth as a straight-six engine. A variation of the inline-five is the narrow-angle V5 which has a single cylinder head and cylinder block but uses the narrow-angle cylinder offset to reduce the overall length compared to a conventional inline-five, it was not available within North America. Henry Ford had an inline-five engine developed in the late 1930s to early 1940s for a compact economy car design, which never saw production due to lack of demand for small cars in the United States. Lancia of Italy developed a 5-cylinder diesel engine in the late 1930s for use in their RO truck series to replace the earlier 2-cylinder diesel and 3-cylinder petrol engines used; the subsequent model became known as the 3RO and was used by both Italian and German armed forces during WW2.

This truck remained in production until 1950. A straight-five engine did not see production for passenger cars until Mercedes-Benz introduced the OM617 diesel in 1974; the first production petrol straight-five was the 2.1 R5 introduced by Volkswagen Group in the Audi 100 towards the end of the 1970s, developments of which powered the Audi Quattro rally car. They were used by middle-market brands seeking to extend their engine ranges into higher capacities without going for the six-cylinder option. In recent years the engine has been falling out of favour, with Volvo announcing in 2014 it would discontinue building them, for example; the five-cylinder engine's advantage over a comparable four-cylinder engine is best understood by considering power strokes and their frequency. In a four-stroke cycle the engine fires every cylinder once every 720 degrees — each piston fires for every two rotations of the crankshaft. Assuming an firing engine, divide 720 degrees by the number of cylinders to determine how a power stroke occurs.

For a four-cylinder engine, 720° ÷ 4 = 180° so there is a power stroke every 180 degrees, two power strokes per revolution of the crankshaft. A V8 engine gets a power stroke every 90 degrees: 720° ÷ 8 = 90°, four power strokes for each revolution of the crankshaft. A given power stroke can last no more than 180 degrees of crankshaft rotation, so the power strokes of a four-cylinder engine are sequential, with no overlap. At the end of one cylinder's power stroke another cylinder fires. In a one -, two -, or three-cylinder engine there are times. In a three-cylinder engine a power stroke occurs every 240 degrees. Since a power stroke cannot last longer than 180 degrees, this means that a three-cylinder engine has 60 degrees of "silence" when no power stroke takes place. Five-cylinder engines have a crank with 72 degree angles. Most five-cylinder engines have the firing order 1-2-4-5-3. Firing of one cylinder after another is never used except in 3-cylinder engines where there is no alternative and in some V6 engines.

The reason for this is that the resulting engine will have a strong tendency to rock from end to end, will have poor balance. A five-cylinder engine gets a power stroke every 144 degrees. Since due to camshaft timing each power stroke lasts 120 degrees, this means that there is a short period of about 24 degrees when the crankshaft receives no torque; because of uneven levels of torque during the expansion strokes divided among the five cylinders, there are increased second-order vibrations. At higher engine speeds, there is an uneven third-order vibration from the crankshaft which occurs every 144 degrees; because the power strokes have less downtime, a five-cylinder engine may run more smoothly than a four-cylinder engine, but only at limited mid-range speeds where second and third-order vibrations are lower. Every cylinder added beyond five increases the overlap of firing strokes and makes for less primary order vibration. An inline-six gets a power stroke every 120 degrees, so there is no overlap of power strokes.

However, this increase in smoothness of a six-cylinder engine over a five-cylinder engine is not as pronounced as that of a five-cylinder engine over a four-cylinder engine. The inline-five loses less power to friction as compared to an inline-six, it uses fewer parts, it is physically shorter, so it requires less room in the engine bay, allowing for transverse mounting. A five-cylinder engine is longer and more expensive to manufacture than a comparable four-cylinder engine, but some manufacturers like Volvo feel these costs are outweighed by its greater capacity in a smaller space than a six-cylinder. Five-cylinder turbos have been used on more than one occasion in sport and racing applications for their balance of performance qualities; the Volvo S60 R has a 2.5 litre turbocharged inline-five–cylinder engine, capable of generating 300 bhp and 295 lbf⋅ft of torque across a large amount of its rpm ranges. The Ford Focus RS Mk2 performance car uses the same Volvo 5-cylinder engine, developed to similar power levels, is one of the most powerful FWD production cars created.

Another example of a high-power 5-cylinder car is the Audi RS2, with its 2.2 turbocharged engine making 311 hp. A disadvantage of a straight-five over a straight-six engine is that a straight-five engine