Christian Karl Reinhard of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg
Count Christian Karl Reinhard of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg was a German nobleman. He was a great-great-great-grandfather of Mary of Teck. Christian Karl Reinhard was the son of John, Count of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg, his wife, Countess Johanna Magdalene of Hanau-Lichtenberg. After the early death of the father's Christian guardian, Count Council and Commissioner John Arnold Kielmann, he was invested in June 1701, by Elector Palatine Johann Wilhelm with the Lordship of Broich, his family soon left because of the threat of the War of the Spanish Succession to Schloss Broich. Christian Karl Reinhard married on 27 November 1726 in Mettenheim, to Countess Katharina Polyxena of Solms-Rödelheim, had the following children: Johann Karl Ludwig of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg. "Christian Karl Reinhard", German Wikipedia
Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg
Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg. She was the grandmother and educator of Princess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who became Queen consort of Prussia. Maria Louise Albertine was a daughter of Count Christian Karl Reinhard of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg and his wife Countess Katharina Polyxena of Solms-Rödelheim. After the death of her father, she was heiress to the barony of Broich and began with the architect Nicolas de Pigage, the restoration and expansion of the Broich Castle. In 1806, the government of Broich was dissolved by Napoleon in 1815 and Broich was annexed by Prussia. On 16 March 1748, she married Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt, the brother of the reigning Landgrave Louis IX of Hesse-Darmstadt in Heidesheim am Rhein; as Louis IX stayed exclusively in Pirmasens, she felt obliged, after the death of his wife in 1774, to represent the territory in the capital Darmstadt. Her daughters Friederike and Charlotte were the first and second wives of Prince Charles II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
They both died in childbirth. Charles ended his service as governor-general in Hannover and moved with his children to his wives' mother in Darmstadt. Princess George took over the education and care of Charles's children. Charlotte did not move with her father to Darmstadt. At the age of 16, she had been married the Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, his father visited his two sons and moved to Hildburghausen with his oldest daughter in 1787, after he became president of the local imperial debit commission. Thus, Maria Luise cared for Louise and her sisters Therese and Frederica for whom she provided a secure and informal home in the "Old Palace" at the market square in Darmstadt, she employed regional educational methods. In 1790 she traveled with Louise and George to Frankfurt to see the coronation of Emperor Leopold II, she stayed here with Catharina Elisabeth Goethe. In 1791, she joined an educational trip to the Netherlands. In 1792 she fled for the advancing French army and took the children from Darmstadt to her granddaughter Charlotte in Hildburghausen, where she remained until March 1793.
On the return trip to Darmstadt, she traveled via Frankfurt, where a meeting between Louise and her future husband Frederick William III of Prussia had been arranged. In 1793 she accompanied Frederica to their wedding in Berlin. Maria Louise was described as a magnificent person, warm hearted, cheerful all the time and speaking the Palatinate dialect; the proximity and warmth she has as a surrogate mother during the formative years of her granddaughters passed on to them. Claudia von Gélieu and Christian von Gélieu: The teacher of Queen Louise: Salomé de Gélieu, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2043-2 Carsten Peter Thiede and Eckhard G. Franz: Years with Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Archive for History of Hesse and Archaeology, Vol 43, Darmstadt 1985 http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/womeninpower/Womeninpower1740.htm
Frederick William III of Prussia
Frederick William III was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. He ruled Prussia during the difficult times of the Napoleonic Wars and the end of the Holy Roman Empire. Steering a careful course between France and her enemies, after a major military defeat in 1806, he and reluctantly joined the coalition against Napoleon in the Befreiungskriege. Following Napoleon's defeat he was King of Prussia during the Congress of Vienna, which assembled to settle the political questions arising from the new, post-Napoleonic order in Europe, he was determined to unify the Protestant churches, to homogenize their liturgy, their organization and their architecture. The long-term goal was to have centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches in the Prussian Union of Churches. Frederick William was born in Potsdam in 1770 as the son of Frederick William II of Prussia and Frederica Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, he was considered to be a shy and reserved boy, which became noticeable in his reticent conversations distinguished by the lack of personal pronouns.
This manner of speech subsequently came to be considered appropriate for military officers. He was neglected by his father during his childhood, suffered from an inferiority complex his entire life; as a child, Frederick William's father had him handed over to tutors, as was quite normal for the period. He spent part of the time living at Paretz, the estate of the old soldier Count Hans von Blumenthal, the governor of his brother Prince Heinrich, they thus grew up with the Count's son, who accompanied them on their Grand Tour in the 1780s. Frederick William was happy at Paretz, for this reason in 1795 he bought it from his boyhood friend and turned it into an important royal country retreat, he was a melancholy boy. His tutors included the dramatist Johann Engel; as a soldier, he received the usual training of a Prussian prince, obtained his lieutenancy in 1784, became a lieutenant colonel in 1786, a colonel in 1790, took part in the campaigns against France of 1792–1794. On 24 December 1793, Frederick William married Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who bore him ten children.
In the Kronprinzenpalais in Berlin, Frederick William lived a civil life with a problem-free marriage, which did not change when he became King of Prussia in 1797. His wife Louise was loved by the Prussian people, which boosted the popularity of the whole House of Hohenzollern, including the King himself. Frederick William succeeded to the throne on 16 November 1797, he became, in personal union, the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. At once, the new King showed that he was earnest of his good intentions by cutting down the expenses of the royal establishment, dismissing his father's ministers, reforming the most oppressive abuses of the late reign, he had the Hohenzollern determination to retain personal power but not the Hohenzollern genius for using it. Too distrustful to delegate responsibility to his ministers, he reduced the effectiveness of his reign since he was forced to assume the roles he did not delegate; this is a main factor of his inconsistent rule. Disgusted with the moral debauchery of his father's court, Frederick William's first, most successful early endeavor was to restore the moral legitimacy to his dynasty.
The eagerness to restore dignity to his family went so far that it nearly caused sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow to cancel the expensive and lavish Prinzessinnengruppe project, commissioned by the previous monarch Frederick William II. He was quoted as saying the following, which demonstrated his sense of duty and peculiar manner of speech: Every civil servant has a dual obligation: to the sovereign and to the country, it can occur. At first Frederick William and his advisors attempted to pursue a policy of neutrality in the Napoleonic Wars. Although they succeeded in keeping out of the Third Coalition in 1805 Frederick William was swayed by the attitude of the queen, who led Prussia's pro-war party, entered into war in October 1806. On 14 October 1806, at the Battle of Jena-Auerstädt, the French decimated the effectiveness and functionality of the Prussian army led by Frederick William, the Prussian army collapsed soon after. Napoleon occupied Berlin in late October; the royal family fled to Memel, East Prussia, where they fell on the mercy of Emperor Alexander I of Russia.
Alexander, suffered defeat at the hands of the French, at Tilsit on the Niemen France made peace with Russia and Prussia. Napoleon dealt with Prussia harshly, despite the pregnant Queen's personal interview with the French emperor, believed would soften the blow of defeat. Instead, Napoleon took much less mercy on the Prussians than. Prussia lost many of its Polish territories, as well as all territory west of the Elbe, had to finance a large indemnity and to pay for French troops to occupy key strong points within the Kingdom. Although the ineffectual King himself seemed resigned to Prussia's fate, various reforming ministers, such as Baron vom Stein, Prince von Hardenberg and Count Gneisenau, set about reforming Prussia's administration and military, with the encouragement of Queen Luise. In 1813, following Napoleon's defeat in Russia, Frederick William turned against France and signed an alliance with Russia at Kalisz, although he had to flee Berlin, still
Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
Caroline of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken was Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by marriage to Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was famed as one of the most known as The Great Landgräfin. Henriette Caroline was the daughter of Christian III, Duke of Zweibrücken and his wife Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken, she married on 12 August 1741 in Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The marriage was arranged and unhappy: Caroline was interested in music and literature, while her consort was interested in military matters, she lived separated from him at Buchsweiler, she founded a factory to ease the states economy. In 1772, she promoted the politician Karl Friedrich von Moser. Caroline was better known as The Great Landgräfin, a name given to her by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, she befriended several writers and philosophers of her time, such as Johann Gottfried Herder, Christoph Martin Wieland and Goethe. Wieland wished, she had contact with Frederick II of Prussia. She was one of the few women that the Alte Fritz respected, he famously referred to her as the Glory and Wonder of our century.
Marita A. Panzer: Die Große Landgräfin Caroline von Hessen-Darmstadt, Verlag Friedrich Pustet Regensburg, 2005 Karoline Henriette Christine Pfalzgräfin von Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld at thepeerage.com Wikisource: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie "Karoline Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt"
Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden
Charles Frederick was Margrave and Grand Duke of Baden from 1738 until his death. Born at Karlsruhe, he was the son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Baden-Durlach and Amalia of Nassau-Dietz, the daughter of Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz, he succeeded his grandfather as Margrave of Baden-Durlach in 1738 and ruled from 1746 until 1771, when he inherited Baden-Baden from the Bernhard Line. Upon inheriting the latter margraviate, the original land of Baden was reunited, he was regarded as a good example of an enlightened despot, supporting schools, jurisprudence, civil service, economy and urban development. He outlawed torture in 1767, serfdom in 1783, he was elected a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society in 1747 In 1803, Charles Frederick became Elector of Baden, in 1806 the first Grand Duke of Baden. Through the politics of minister Sigismund Freiherr von Reitzenstein, Baden acquired the Bishopric of Constance, the territories of the Bishopric of Basel, the Bishopric of Strassburg, the Bishopric of Speyer that lay on the right bank of the Rhine, in addition to Breisgau and Ortenau.
In 1806, Baden joined the Confederation of the Rhine. Together with his architect, Friedrich Weinbrenner, Charles Frederick was responsible for the construction of the handsome suite of classical buildings that distinguish Karlsruhe, he died there in 1811, was one of the few German rulers to die during the Napoleonic era. Charles Frederick married Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt on 28 January 1751, she was the daughter of Louis VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt, was born on 11 July 1723 and died on 8 April 1783. Charles Frederick and Caroline Louise had the following children: Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden. Prince Frederick of Baden. Prince Louis of Baden. Louis succeeded his nephew Charles as Louis I, 3rd Grand Duke in 1818. Son. Princess Louise Auguste of Baden. Charles Frederick married Louise Caroline, Baroness Geyer of Geyersberg as his second wife on 24 November 1787, she was the daughter of Lt. Col. Louis Henry Philipp, Baron Geyer of Geyersberg and his wife Maximiliana Christiane, Countess of Sponeck.
She was born on 26 May 1768 and died on 23 July 1820. This was a morganatic marriage, the children born of it were not eligible to succeed. Louise was created Baroness of Hochberg at the time of her marriage and Countess of Hochberg in 1796, they had the following children: Prince Leopold of Baden. Married on 25 July 1819 in Karlsruhe his half-grand-niece, HRH Princess Sophie of Sweden, eldest daughter of the former King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden and Frederica of Baden. Prince William of Baden. Prince Frederick Alexander of Baden. Princess Amalie of Baden. By 1817, the descendants of Charles Frederick by his first wife were dying out. To prevent Baden from being inherited by the next heir, the reigning Grand Duke, changed the succession law to give the Hochberg family full dynastic rights in Baden, they thus became Princes and Princesses of Baden with the style Grand Ducal Highness, like their elder half-siblings. Their succession rights were reinforced when Baden was granted a constitution in 1818, recognised by Bavaria and the Great Powers in the Treaty of Frankfurt, 1819.
Leopold's descendants ruled the Grand Duchy of Baden until 1918. The current pretenders to the throne of Baden are descendants of Leopold. Leopold, the eldest son from the second marriage, succeeded as Grand Duke in 1830. Helen P. Liebel, "Enlightened bureaucracy versus enlightened despotism in Baden, 1750-1792." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 55.5: 1-132
Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden
Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden was heir apparent of the Margraviate of Baden. Born in Karlsruhe, he was the son of Margrave Charles Frederick and Landgravine Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt, the daughter of Landgrave Louis VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt, he was an ancestor of Franz Joseph I of Austria, Elisabeth of Austria-Hungary, Nicholas II of Russia and his wife, Alexandra Feodorovna, Lord Mountbatten and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, among others. On 15 July 1774, Charles Louis married his first cousin Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt, she was the daughter of Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. They had eight children: Princess Amalie of Baden Princess Karoline of Baden. In 1799 her husband became Elector Palatine and Elector of Bavaria, in 1804 King of Bavaria. Princess Louise of Baden. Princess Frederica of Baden, they divorced in 1812. Princess Marie of Baden. Charles Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Baden. Charles, Grand Duke of Baden. Among his descendants are the royal families of Belgium, Yugoslavia, Luxembourg and two branches of the House of Habsburg.
Princess Wilhelmina of Baden. Works of history mention that his children succeeded well in marriage market and that the Hereditary Prince was the force behind that. At the time of his death in Arboga, two of his other daughters were Electress of Bavaria and the newly ascended Empress of Russia
Princess Wilhelmine of Baden
Princess Wilhelmine of Baden, was by birth Princess of Baden and by marriage Grand Duchess consort of Hesse and the Rhine. She was the youngest daughter of Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden and Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt. In Karlsruhe on 19 June 1804, Wilhelmine married the Hereditary Prince Louis of Hesse-Darmstadt; the union proved to be unhappy due to Louis' affairs, they separated after the birth of their three older children. In 1820 she acquired the Heiligenberg Castle, where she met her chamberlain Baron August von Senarclens de Grancy, with whom she maintained a longtime affair. In 1830, following her father-in-law's death, she became Grand Duchess consort of Hesse and the Rhine. Prince Ludwig of Hesse-Darmstadt. Stillborn son. Prince Karl Wilhelm Ludwig of Hesse-Darmstadt. Princess Amalia Elisabeth Luise Karoline Friederike Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt. Stillborn daughter. Prince Alexander Ludwig Georg Friedrich Emil of Hesse-Darmstadt Princess Maximiliane Wilhelmine Auguste Sophie Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Her descendants included both Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, his wife, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, as well as Lord Louis Mountbatten, Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. 21 September 1788 – 19 June 1804: Her Serene Highness Princess Wilhelmine of Baden 19 June 1804 – 13 August 1806: Her Serene Highness The Hereditary Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt 13 August 1806 – 6 April 1830: Her Royal Highness The Hereditary Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine 6 April 1830 – 27 January 1836: Her Royal Highness The Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine Egon Caesar Conte Corti: Unter Zaren und gekrönten Frauen. Schicksal und Tragik europäischer Kaiserreiche an Hand von Briefen, Tagebüchern und Geheimdokumenten der Zarin Marie von Rußland und des Prinzen Alexander von Hessen. Editorial Pustet, 1949. Wilhelmine Louise, princess of Baden in: geneall.net