Gmunden is a town in Upper Austria, Austria in the district of Gmunden. It has 13,204 inhabitants, it is much frequented as a health and summer resort, has a variety of lake, brine and pine-cone baths, a hydropathic establishment, inhalation chambers, whey cure, etc. It is an important centre of the salt industry in Salzkammergut. Gmunden has a median elevation of 425 metres, it is situated next to the lake Traunsee on the Traun River and is surrounded by high mountains, including the Traunstein, the Erlakogel, the Wilder Kogel and the Höllengebirge. Gmunden is divided into the following boroughs: Gmunden, Gmunden-Ort, Traundorf, Unterm Stein; as of 2001, Gmunden had a population of 13,336. Of that, 88.4% were Austrian in nationality, 1.5% are from other European Union states, 10.2% are other foreigners. Citizens of Bosnia-Herzegovina and the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia placed the strongest foreigner portion, followed by Turks and Germans; the majority confess themselves to the Roman Catholic Church.
Evangelicals are next. 5.9% are Muslims and 3.3% are Orthodox. 10.3% are nonreligious. In 1000 BCE the Illyrians were mining salt here. A settlement was in existence in the fifth century CE. By 1186 Gmunden was a fortified place surrounded by walls, although it did not receive a church until about 1300. In 1278 Gmunden became a town. On November 14, 1626 an army of rebellious peasants was defeated at Gmunden by General Pappenheim, ordered by Maximilian I to suppress the peasant rebellion in Upper Austria; the dead peasant insurgents were buried in nearby Pinsdorf, where an obelisk styled memorial known as the Bauernhügel in their honour can still be seen. Gmunden supplied battleships to Austria during the 17th century and helped wounded soldiers in hospitals in World War I. During World War II, an SS maternity home was located here, "to insure racial purity" in accordance with Nazi racial theories; the local council consists of 37 members. In the last municipal election in September 2015, the following are seats won by the political parties: ÖVP: 20 seats FPÖ: 5 seats SPÖ: 5 seats BIG - Bürgerinitiative Gmunden: 4 seats Die Grünen: 3 seats Mayors: 1946–1955: Fritz Eiblhuber 1955–1956: Alfred Klimesch 1956–1973: Karl Piringer 1973–1979: Karl Sandmeier 1979–1997: Erwin Herrmann 1997–2014: Heinz KöpplThe current mayor is Stefan Krapf from ÖVP party.
He became the mayor of Gmunden since 2014 replacing Heinz Köppl. The city council which includes of the mayor, consists of nine members. There are a great number of excursions and points of interest round Gmunden, specially worth mentioning being the Traun Fall, 10 miles north of Gmunden, a castle called Schloss Ort, a ceramic factory producing Gmundner Keramik branded pottery; the town hall is a popular tourist destination. In Gmunden there are four elementary schools and three Hauptschulen; the three high schools are BG/BRG Gmunden, BRG Schloss Traunsee, Gymnasium Ort. Caspar Erasmus Duftschmid, born in Gmunden Heinrich Schiff and conductor, born in Gmunden Duchess Maria Amalia of Württemberg, born in Gmunden. Media related to Gmunden at Wikimedia CommonsGmunden's official homepage Schloss Ort Gmunden Pictures of Gmunden
Salzburg "salt castle", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Federal State of Salzburg. Its historic centre is renowned for its baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps, with 27 churches, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The city has a large population of students. Tourists visit Salzburg to tour the historic centre and the scenic Alpine surroundings. Salzburg was the birthplace of the 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was film The Sound of Music. Traces of human settlements have been found in the area; the first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were by the Celts around the 5th century BC. Around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the Norican frontier’s collapse, Juvavum declined so that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin.
The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, annexed the manor of Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg", he travelled to evangelise among pagans. The name Salzburg means "Salt Castle"; the name derives from the barges carrying salt on the River Salzach, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. Hohensalzburg Fortress, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence, it was expanded during the following centuries. Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire; as the Reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, the Archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress.
It was besieged for three months in 1525. Tensions were quelled, the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, Paris Lodron, it was in the 17th century that Italian architects rebuilt the city centre as it is today along with many palaces. On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, travelling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia; the rest settled in other Protestant states in the British colonies in America. In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism. In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon.
In 1805, Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden Provostry. In 1809, the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram. After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich, Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Province of Salzach and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz. In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire; the city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to Hohensalzburg Fortress Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands; this was replaced by the First Austrian Republic after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
The Anschluss took place on 12 March 1938, one day before a scheduled referendum on Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps; the synagogue was destroyed. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the Soviet Union and other enemy nations were organized in the city. During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan, it was an Arbeitserziehungslager. It operated as a Zwischenlager, holding Roma before their deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe. Allied bombing killed 550 inhabitants. Fifteen air strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings those a
Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Louise of Hesse-Kassel was Queen of Denmark by marriage to King Christian IX of Denmark. She was a daughter of Princess Charlotte of Denmark. Louise of Hesse lived in Denmark from the age of three; as a niece of King Christian VIII, who ruled Denmark between 1839 and 1848, Louise was close to the succession after several individuals of the royal house of Denmark who were elderly and childless. As children, her brother Frederik Wilhelm, her sisters and she were the closest relatives of King Christian VIII who were to produce heirs, it was easy to see that the agnatic succession from King Frederick III of Denmark would become extinct within a generation. Louise was one of the females descended from Frederick III of Denmark, she enjoyed the remainder provisions of the succession in the event that his male line became extinct, she and her siblings were not agnatic descendants of the House of Oldenburg and the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein, thus ineligible to inherit the twin duchies, since there existed a number of agnatic lines eligible to inherit those territories.
Louise was married at the Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen on 26 May 1842 to her second cousin Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg. He was soon selected as hereditary prince of Denmark and ascended the throne of Denmark as King Christian IX; the marriage strengthed Christian's efforts to secure the Danish throne, since it joined two competing claimants whose children would have an enhanced connection to the ancient bloodlines of the Danish monarchy. Louise and Christian lived a quiet family life. Louise's mother and siblings renounced their rights to the Danish throne to her. Louise herself in turn renounced her rights to the throne to her spouse Christian. In 1852, this succession order was confirmed by foreign powers in London. In 1847, Prince Christian was, with the approval of Europe's Great Powers, chosen as successor to the Danish throne by Christian VIII; this choice of heir was made more dynastically palatable by the fact that, thanks to the mass renunciations of the Hesses, Christian's wife Louise became the heiress eventual to the crown, meaning that the couple's children would be heirs to the throne both by right of international treaty and by compliance with the Lex Regia.
This resolved the succession to the Danish crown, but not Denmark's claim on the twin duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. German Holstein's historic law of succession was Salic and could not so be reconciled with Christian's claim so long as the Augustenborgs survived and Prussia offered itself as the international champion of German nationalism; the result of this conflict was the Second War of Schleswig. On 3 July 1853, King Frederick VII confirmed this succession. By that act and Christian became Crown Princess and Crown Prince of Denmark. Louise had a tense relationship with King Frederick VII, who contradicted the succession of her spouse, whose marriage to the non-royal Louise Rasmussen she did not approve of. Therefore, the King and the Crown Prince couple did not see each other often. On 15 November 1863, Christian became Queen and King of Denmark; the relationship between Louise and Christian seems to have been at least a marriage of love, is described as happy: she supported him in his struggle to be acknowledged as heir to the throne of Denmark, the couple became attached to each other during the years of succession struggle.
Her loyalty is said to have been of great importance to him, Christian is described as dependent upon her intelligence and psychological strength, all of which were considered to be superior to his own. Their life style is described as simple and puritan, as this suited the contemporary view of an exemplary family life, the royal family was regarded as a morally correct role model; because of this, the pregnancy of her unmarried daughter Thyra in 1870 became a burden. As queen, Louise lived a life isolated from the people and did not seek a relationship with or recognition from the public, she took no part in state affairs. The high status marriages she arranged for her children secured the newly established Danish dynasty international status, connecting Denmark to Great Britain, Russia and Greece. Known as "The Mother-in-law of Europe," her annual family gatherings at Bernstorff and Fredensborg attracted more attention every year and made her a popular symbol of family life. Significant events in her life included her wedding anniversary on 26 May 1867, when she received great public praise.
Louise supported 26 different charity organizations. Among them were Vallø stift. In 1857, she founded the Louisestiftelsen, an orphanage for girls with the purpose of raising them to a life of domestic servants, which illustrated her conservative ideals, her most known project, one which she herself referred to as her most important, was the D
House of Welf
The House of Welf is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century. The House of Welf is the older branch of the House of Este, a dynasty whose earliest known members lived in Lombardy in the late 9th/early 10th century, sometimes called Welf-Este; the first member was Welf Duke of Bavaria. Welf IV was the son of Welf III's sister Kunigunde of Altdorf and her husband Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan. In 1070, Welf IV became duke of Bavaria. Welf II, Duke of Bavaria married Countess Matilda of Tuscany, who died childless and left him her possessions, including Tuscany, Modena and Reggio, which played a role in the Investiture Controversy. Since the Welf dynasty sided with the Pope in this controversy, partisans of the Pope came to be known in Italy as Guelphs. Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, from 1120–1126, was the first of the three dukes of the Welf dynasty called Henry, his wife Wulfhild was the heiress of the house of Billung, possessing the territory around Lüneburg in Lower Saxony.
Their son, Henry the Proud was the son-in-law and heir of Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor and became duke of Saxony on Lothair's death. Lothair left his territory around Brunswick, inherited from his mother of the Brunonids, to his daughter Gertrud, her husband Henry the Proud became the favoured candidate in the imperial election against Conrad III of the Hohenstaufen. But Henry lost the election, as the other princes feared his power and temperament, was dispossessed of his duchies by Conrad III. Henry's brother Welf VI, Margrave of Tuscany left his Swabian territories around Ravensburg, the original possessions of the Elder House of Welf, to his nephew Emperor Frederick I and thus to the House of Hohenstaufen; the next duke of the Welf dynasty Henry the Lion recovered his father's two duchies, Saxony in 1142, Bavaria in 1156 and thus ruled vast parts of Germany. In 1168 he married Matilda, the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, sister of Richard I of England, gaining more influence.
His first cousin, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, tried to get along with him, but when Henry refused to assist him once more in an Italian war campaign, conflict became inevitable. Dispossessed of his duchies after the Battle of Legnano in 1176 by Emperor Frederick I and the other princes of the German Empire eager to claim parts of his vast territories, he was exiled to the court of his father-in-law Henry II in Normandy in 1180, but returned to Germany three years later. Henry made his peace with the Hohenstaufen Emperor in 1185, returned to his much diminished lands around Brunswick without recovering his two duchies. Bavaria had been given to Otto I, Duke of Bavaria, the Duchy of Saxony was divided between the Archbishop of Cologne, the House of Ascania and others. Henry died at Brunswick in 1195. Henry the Lion's son Otto of Brunswick was elected King of the Romans and crowned Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV after years of further conflicts with the Hohenstaufen emperors.
He incurred the wrath of Pope Innocent III and was excommunicated in 1215. Otto was forced to abdicate the imperial throne by the Hohenstaufen Frederick II, he was the only Welf to become emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry the Lion's grandson Otto the Child became duke of a part of Saxony in 1235, the new Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, died there in 1252; the duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf. The subordinate states had the legal status of principalities within the duchy, which remained as an undivided imperial fief; each state was named after the ruler's residence, e.g. the rulers of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel lived in Wolfenbüttel. Whenever a branch of the family died out in the male line, the territory was given to another line, as the duchy remained enfeoffed to the family as a whole rather than its individual members. All members of the House of Welf, male or female, bore the title Duke/Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg in addition to the style of the subordinate principality.
By 1705, the subordinate principalities had taken their final form as the Electorate of Hanover and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, these would become the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In 1269 the Principality of Brunswick was formed following the first division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1432, as a result of increasing tensions with the townsfolk of Brunswick, the Brunswick Line moved their residence to Wolfenbüttel Castle, thus the name Wolfenbüttel became the unofficial name of this principality. With Ivan VI of Russia the Brunswick line had a short intermezzo on the Russian imperial throne in 1740. Not until 1754 was the residence moved back to Brunswick, into the new Brunswick Palace. In 1814 the principality became the Duchy of Brunswick, ruled by the senior branch of the House of Welf. In 1432 the estates gained by the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between the Deister and Leine split away as the Principality of Calenberg.
In 1495 it was expanded in 1584 went back to the Wolfenbüttel Line. In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Luneburg residing at Celle Castle. In 1635 it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest II of Lüneburg, who chose Hanover as his residence. New territory was added in 1665, in 1705 the Principality of Luneburg was taken over by the Hanoverians. In 1692 Duke Ernest A
Princess Feodora of Leiningen
Princess Feodora of Leiningen was the only daughter of Emich Carl, Prince of Leiningen, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Feodora and her older brother Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen, were maternal half-siblings to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, she is a matrilineal ancestor of King Felipe VI of Spain. Feodora was born in Amorbach in Bavaria, on 7 December 1807 to Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and her husband, Emich Carl, Prince of Leiningen, her father died in 1814. On 29 May 1818, her mother remarried to Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III of the United Kingdom; the following year, the household moved to the United Kingdom because the duchess's pregnancy reaching full term and so that the new potential heir to the British throne could be born in Britain. Feodora enjoyed a close relationship with Victoria, devoted to her, although Victoria resented the fact that Feodora was one of only a few other children with whom she was allowed regular interaction.
Despite their closeness, Feodora was eager to leave their residence at Kensington Palace permanently, as her "only happy time was driving out" with Victoria and her governess Baroness Louise Lehzen, when she could "speak and look as she liked". In early 1828, Feodora married Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, at Kensington Palace. Prior to that, she had only met him twice. After their honeymoon, she returned to the German Confederation, where she lived until her death in 1872; the prince had no domain, however, as the principality had been mediatised to Württemberg in 1806. The couple lived in Schloss Langenburg. Feodora maintained a lifelong correspondence with her half-sister Victoria and was granted an allowance of £300 whenever she could visit England. Feodora's youngest daughter, the Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen, died in early 1872 of scarlet fever. Feodora died that year. Feodora and Ernest had six children: Carl Ludwig II, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg 25 October 1829–16 May 1907), succeeded his father on 12 April 1860, but abdicated his rights on 21 April to marry unequally.
He married Maria Grathwohl on 22 February 1861. They had three children. Princess Elise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg died at the age of 19. Hermann, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg married Princess Leopoldine of Baden on 24 September 1862, they had three children. Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg married Lady Laura Seymour on 24 January 1861, they had four children. Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg married Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein on 11 September 1856, they had five children. Princess Feodora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg married George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen on 23 October 1858, they had three sons. In 2019, English actress Kate Fleetwood appeared as Feodora in the third season of the Victoria television series. In the programme Feodora is portrayed as a scheming, jealous sister who has fled Langenburg and refuses to return to her home, although this is not accurate. Albert, Harold A.. Queen Victoria's sister: the life and letters of Princess Feodora. London: Hale. Gill, Gillian.
We Two: Victoria and Albert: Rulers, Rivals. New York: Ballatine Books. ISBN 0-345-52001-7. Hibbert, Christopher. Queen Victoria: A Personal History. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-638843-4. Pakula, Hannah. An Uncommon Woman: The Empress Frederick, Daughter of Queen Victoria, Wife of the Crown Prince of Prussia, Mother of Kaiser Wilhelm. New York: Simon and Schuster Inc. ISBN 0-684-84216-5. Vallone, Lynne. Becoming Victoria. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08950-3
Princess Charlotte of Denmark
Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark was a Danish princess, a princess of Hesse-Kassel by marriage to Prince William of Hesse-Kassel. She played an important role in the succession crisis in Denmark in the first half of the 19th century, she was born in Christiansborg Palace to Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark and Norway, Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. On 10 November 1810 in Amalienborg Palace she married Prince William of Hesse-Kassel, her spouse was in Danish service from his youth, the family lived in Denmark. Princess Charlotte was described as a wise and thrifty, kept the finances of her household under strict control, she had some interest in art and poetry, felt herself to be a Danish patriot. Charlotte played some part in the succession crisis which occurred because her cousin, King Frederick, lacked a male heir, she supported the solution that her branch of the family should succeed to the throne, because of this, she opposed the Schleswig-Holstein matter. In 1839, her brother Christian VIII of Denmark succeeded their cousin on the throne, during his reign, Charlotte had an important position at the Danish royal court in Copenhagen because her brother favored that her line of the family should succeed to the throne after his male line had died out.
In 1848, her brother was succeeded by his childless son, her nephew. In 1850, the Danish government was pressured by the Empire of Russia to discontinue its support of her line in the succession order in favor of the Duke of Oldenburg, her son-in-law. Christian of Oldenburg had displayed anti-Danish sentiment during the recent war, when gehejmeråd F. C. Dankwart, on behalf of the government, issued the demand that she should renounce her and her son's right to the throne in favor of her son-in-law, she replied: "It is impossible: the Danish people would under no circumstance accept as King a Prince from a house that has made war against Denmark, and, so hostile toward us". In exchange, she demanded that the House of Oldenburg purchase the Duchy of Hesse and declare it a kingdom, so that her son Frederick could "Switch one Kingdom for another". After having been persuaded that her terms were impossible and that Christian of Oldenburg in fact had good support for his claim, she agreed to renounce her and her son's claims to the throne.
On 18 July 1851, she and her son Frederick renounced their claims to the Danish throne in favour of her daughter Louise, who in turn renounced it in favour of her spouse. Louise Charlotte is the matrilineal great-grandmother of Nicholas II of Russia, William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and George V, she died in Christiansborg Palace. Karoline Friederike Marie of Hesse-Kassel Princess Marie Luise Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel Married Prince Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Dessau. Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Married Christian IX of Denmark Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Adolf, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Married, Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia, a daughter of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia, she died soon after their marriage. He married, Princess Anna of Prussia Auguste Sophie Friederike of Hesse-Kassel (30 October 1823 – 17 July 1899. Married Baron Charles Frederick von Blixen-Finecke. Sophie Wilhelmine of Hesse-Kassel
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth