Kronborg is a castle and stronghold in the town of Helsingør, Denmark. Immortalized as Elsinore in William Shakespeares play Hamlet, Kronborg is one of the most important Renaissance castles in Northern Europe and has added to UNESCOs World Heritage Sites list. The castle is situated on the northeastern tip of the island of Zealand at the narrowest point of the Øresund. In this part, the sound is only 4 kilometres wide, the castles story dates back to a stronghold, built by King Eric VII in the 1420s. Along with the fortress Kärnan, Helsingborg on the opposite coast of Øresund, from 1574 to 1585 King Frederick II had the medieval fortress radically transformed into a magnificent Renaissance castle. The main architects were the Flemings Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and Anthonis van Obbergen, in 1629 a fire destroyed much of the castle, but King Christian IV subsequently had it rebuilt. The castle has a church within its walls, in 1658 Kronborg was besieged and captured by the Swedes who took many of its valuable art treasures as war booty.
In 1785 the castle ceased to be a residence and was converted into barracks for the army. The army left the castle in 1923, and after a renovation it was opened to the public. The castles story dates back to a fortress, built in the 1420s by the Danish king, Eric of Pomerania. At the time, the Kingdom of Denmark extended across both sides of the Sound, and on the shore the Helsingborg Castle had been in existence since the Middle Ages. With the two castles and guard ships it was possible to all navigation through the Sound. The castle was built on Ørekrog, a tongue of land stretching into the sea from the coast of Zealand towards the coast of Scania. The castle consisted of a curtain wall with a number of stone buildings inside. The stone building in the northeastern corner contained the kings residence, the building in the southwestern corner contained a large arched banquet hall. The building in the southeastern corner possibly served as the chapel, large portions of the walls of Krogen are contained within the present-day Kronborg Castle.
King Christian III had the corners of the curtain wall supplemented with bastions in 1558-59, from 1574 to 1585 Frederick II had the medieval fortress rebuilt into a magnificent Renaissance castle, unique in its appearance and size throughout Europe. After the conclusion of the Northern Seven Years War in 1570, the main architect was the Flemish architect Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and the fortification works were completed in 1577
Scandinavian Airlines, often shortened to SAS is the flag carrier of Sweden and Denmark, and the largest airline in Scandinavia. Part of the SAS Group and headquartered at the SAS Frösundavik Office Building in Solna, the airlines main hub is at Copenhagen-Kastrup Airport, with connections to over 50 cities in Europe. Stockholm-Arlanda Airport and Oslo Airport, Gardermoen are the major hubs. Minor hubs exist at Bergen Airport, Flesland, Göteborg Landvetter Airport, Stavanger Airport and Trondheim Airport, SAS Cargo is an independent, wholly owned subsidiary of Scandinavian Airlines and its main office is at Copenhagen Airport. In 2012, SAS carried 25.9 million passengers, achieving revenues of SEK36 billion and this makes it the eighth-largest airline in Europe. The SAS fleet consists of Airbus A319, A320, A321, A330 and A340, Boeing 737 Next Generation, in addition, SAS wetleases ATR72, Saab 2000 and Bombardier CRJ900 aircraft. The airline was founded in 1946 as a consortium to pool the operations of Svensk Interkontinental Lufttrafik, Det Norske Luftfartselskap.
The consortium was extended to cover European and domestic cooperation two years later, in 1951, all the airlines were merged to create SAS. SAS is one of the members of the worlds largest alliance. Operations started on 17 September 1946, in 1948 the Swedish flag carrier AB Aerotransport joined SAS and the companies coordinated European operations and finally merged to form the SAS Consortium in 1951. When established, the airline was divided between SAS Danmark, SAS Norge and SAS Sverige, all owned 50% by private investors, in 1954 SAS was the first airline to start scheduled flights on a polar route. The DC-6B flew from Copenhagen to Los Angeles, United States with stops in Søndre Strømfjord, Greenland, by summer 1956 frequency had increased to three flights per week. It was popular with Hollywood celebrities and film people. Thanks to a structure that allowed free transit to other European destinations via Copenhagen. In 1957 SAS started a second polar route when a DC-7C flew from Copenhagen to Tokyo, Japan, SAS publicized this service as round-the-world service over the North Pole.
SAS entered the jet age in 1959 when the Caravelle entered service, in 1971, SAS put its first Boeing 747 jumbo jet into service. In 1989, SAS acquired 18. 4% of Texas Air Corporation, parent company of Continental Airlines, during the 1990s, SAS bought a 20% stake in British Midland. SAS bought 95% of Spanair, the second largest airline in Spain, in May 1997 SAS formed the global Star Alliance network with Air Canada, Thai Airways International and United Airlines
Christian X of Denmark
Christian X was the King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and the only king of Iceland, between 1918 and 1944. Among his siblings was King Haakon VII of Norway and his character as a ruler has been described as authoritarian and he strongly stressed the importance of royal dignity and power. His reluctance to embrace democracy resulted in the Easter Crisis of 1920, in which he dismissed the democratically elected cabinet with which he disagreed, and instated one of his own choosing. He became the subject of a persistent urban legend according to which, during Nazi occupation, Danish Jews were not forced to wear the Star of David. However, the legend stems from a 1942 British report that claimed he threatened to don the star if this was forced upon Danish Jews. I stated that I could not meet such a demand towards Danish citizens, if such a demand is made, we would best meet it by all wearing the Star of David. In addition, he helped finance the transport of Danish Jews to unoccupied Sweden, Christian was born on 26 September 1870 at Charlottenlund Palace in Gentofte Municipality north of Copenhagen, during the reign of his paternal grandfather, King Christian IX.
He was born as the oldest son and child of Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark and his wife Louise of Sweden and he was baptised in the Chapel of Christiansborg Palace on 31 October 1870 by the Bishop of Zealand, Hans Lassen Martensen. She eventually became his queen consort, the couple received Marselisborg Palace in Aarhus as a wedding present from the people of Denmark in 1898. In 1914, the King built the villa Klitgården in Skagen, on 29 January 1906, King Christian IX died, and Christians father ascended the throne as King Frederick VIII. Christian himself now became crown prince, on 14 May 1912, King Frederick VIII died after collapsing from shortness of breath while taking a walk in a park in Hamburg, Germany. He had been returning from a stay in Nice, France. Christian was in Copenhagen when he heard about his fathers demise, in April 1920, Christian instigated the Easter Crisis, perhaps the most decisive event in the evolution of the Danish monarchy in the Twentieth Century. Danish claims to the region persisted to the end of World War I, according to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the disposition of Schleswig was to be determined by two plebiscites, one in Northern Schleswig, the other in Central Schleswig.
In Northern Schleswig, seventy-five percent voted for reunification with Denmark, in this vote, the entire region was considered to be an indivisible unit, and the entire region was awarded to Denmark. In Central Schleswig, the situation was reversed with eighty percent voting for Germany, in this vote, each municipality decided its own future, and German majorities prevailed everywhere. Christian X agreed with these sentiments, and ordered Prime Minister Zahle to include Flensburg in the re-unification process, as Denmark had been operating as a parliamentary democracy since the Cabinet of Deuntzer in 1901, Zahle felt he was under no obligation to comply. He refused the order and resigned days after a heated exchange with the King
Copenhagen Zoo is a zoological garden in Copenhagen, Denmark. Founded in 1859, it is one of the oldest zoos in Europe and is a member of EAZA and it comprises 11 hectares and is located in the municipality of Frederiksberg, sandwiched between the parks of Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. With 1,161,388 visitors in 2008 it is the most visited zoo, the zoo is noted for its new Elephant House designed by the world-famous British architect Sir Norman Foster. The zoo maintains and promotes a number of European breeding programmes, Copenhagen Zoo was founded by the ornithologist Niels Kjærbølling in 1859. He was given the garden of Prinsess Vilhelmines Have by the chief directorate of Copenhagen. The animals that the visitors could contemplate at the opening were eagles, ducks, rabbits, a fox, a seal in a bathtub, one of the most notable animals kept there was a male slow worm that lived there from 1892 to 1946. The Elephant House and 1. 5-hectare Savanna are results of these efforts, the Savanna includes a Hippopotamus House where the hippos can be watched underwater.
The zoo has preserved many of its historical buildings, the oldest building still in use, a stable for yaks, was erected in 1872, and now houses the bactrian camels. A Herbivore House built in 1875 still houses herbivores, namely tapirs, an owl tower from 1885 is today left as a memorial commemorating how zoo animals were once kept. A notable and highly visible feature of the zoo is the observation tower. 43.5 metres high, it views of the surrounding parklands. The tower was built in 1905 and is one of the tallest observation towers built of wood in the world and its base is similar to that of Eiffel Tower. In the part of the zoo called The Nordics, visitors can see such as harbour seals, musk oxen, Eurasian eagle-owls, brown bears. The Arctic Ring, which opened in 2013, has an exhibit for polar bears, in the Asia section, visitors can see red pandas, Malayan tapirs, Oriental small-clawed otters, tigers, Asian elephants, and other animals. The new Elephant House, which opened in June 2008, is designed by Norman Foster in cooperation with the Danish landscape architect Stig L.
Andersson and it houses Asian elephants and contains two glass-domed enclosures. One is for six cows and calves and measures 45 by 23 metres, the other is 30 by 15 metres and is for two bulls, kept in separate pens during the mating season for fear of fights. The building contain a space and a small lecture hall. The enclosures open out through mighty rusted steel doors into am almost 1 hectare big landscaped paddock with a pool 3 metres deep and 60 metres long
TV 2 (Denmark)
TV2 is a publicly owned subscription television station in Denmark based in Odense. Its first air date was 1 October 1988, with Danish Symphony being broadcast at 17,00, from 1 November 2009 all Danish television broadcasting became digital with DVB-T and MPEG4 standard. At the time, TV2 did not encrypt their main channel, although TV2 has been broadcast terrestrially in the clear ever since the channel was launched, from 11 January 2012, it started to encrypt its main channel with a monthly subscription charge of 12. On weekdays, TV2 starts with Gomorgen Danmark, Denmarks only breakfast talkshow on national TV, at 11,00 they hand over to the regions who broadcast to 12,30. That is followed by TV 2s afternoon programming that consists of American drama series. The regional stations broadcast bulletins in the afternoon and evening, as well as a longer newscast at 19,30. TV 2s main national newscasts are shown at 19,00 and 22,00 but bulletins in the morning, most shows not produced in Denmark as well as interviews originally conducted in a foreign language are shown in their original language with Danish subtitling.
The exception to this practice is animated series aimed at children which are dubbed into Danish, historically TV2 was funded by television license fees and advertising sales. However, although the channels are still partly funded this way. List of Danish television channels Official Site TV2 Teletext Service TV2 Zulu TV2 Charlie TV2 Sputnik TV2 Film TV2 News TV 2s regional stations
Princess Benedikte of Denmark
Princess Benedikte of Denmark RE, SKmd, D. Ht. is the second daughter of King Frederick IX of Denmark and Ingrid of Sweden. She is the sister of the reigning Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II. Princess Benedikte often represents her elder sister at official or semi-official events and she and her late husband, Richard, 6th Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, have three children. Princess Benedikte is currently eleventh in the line of succession to the Danish throne and her birth took place during Nazi Germanys Occupation of Denmark. She was baptised on 24 May 1944 in the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen, at her birth, Princess Benedikte had one elder sister, the present Queen of Denmark. Her second sister Princess Anne Marie was born in 1946, Anne-Marie married Constantine II of Greece and now lives in Greece. Princess Benedikte and her sisters grew up in apartments at Frederick VIIIIs Palace at Amalienborg in Copenhagen and she spent summer holidays with the royal family in her parents summer residence at Gråsten Palace in Southern Jutland.
On 20 April 1947, King Christian X died and Benediktes father ascended the throne as King Frederick IX, at the time of her fathers accession to the throne, only males could ascend the throne of Denmark. As her parents had no sons, it was assumed that her uncle Prince Knud would one day assume the throne, Benediktes elder sister Margrethe therefore became heir presumptive, and Princess Benedikte and Princess Anne-Marie became second and third in the line of succession. Princess Benedikte was educated at N. Zahles School, a school in Copenhagen, followed by stays at a boarding school in England. In 1965 she took a class at the Margrethe-Skolen, a private fashion, along with her younger sister, Anne-Marie, Benedikte was a bridesmaid at the 1962 wedding of Prince Juan Carlos of Spain and Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark. Benedikte was married on 3 February 1968 at Fredensborg Palace Church to Richard, 6th Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and he was the son of Prince Gustav Albrecht, 5th Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and his wife, Margareta Fouché dOtrante.
The King decreed that her children would need to be raised in Denmark in order to have succession rights, since the condition was not met, Princess Benediktes three children are not in line to succeed to the throne. Prince Richard died on 13 March 2017 after 49 years of marriage, Princess Benedikte is very much involved in the Scout/Guide organization in Denmark as well as internationally. When she was a child, a special Scout unit was created, now her involvement is more at the organisational level as she is chairman for Pigespejdernes Fællesråd Danmark. She is patron of De grønne pigespejdere and Det Danske Spejderkorps, in addition she is patron of the Olave Baden Powell Society, a support organisation for the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. She is a member of the St Georges Guilds in Denmark. In 2007 she was awarded with a prize of honour by this Scout association for adults and she is involved in equestrian sport, and has acted as an honorary patron of the World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses
A 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized of the customary gun salutes that are performed by the firing of cannons or artillery as a military honor. As naval customs evolved,21 guns came to be fired for heads of state, or in circumstances for head of government. While the 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized, the number of rounds fired in any given salute will vary depending on the conditions. The tradition of saluting can be traced to the Late Middle Ages practice of placing oneself in a position and, therefore. The gun salute had been established as a tradition by the late sixteenth century. A man-of-war which visited a port would discharge all its guns to show that its guns were empty. Since the ship would not have time to reload before it was within range of the shore batteries. Salute by gunfire is an ancient ceremony, for years, the British compelled weaker nations to render the first salute, but in time, international practice compelled gun for gun on the principle of equality of nations.
In the earliest days, seven guns was the recognized British national salute because seven was the number of weapons on a vessel. In that day, gunpowder made from sodium nitrate was easier to keep on dry land than at sea. Thus those early regulations stated that although a ship would fire only seven guns, odd numbers were chosen, as even numbers indicated a death. With the increase in quality of gunpowder by the use of potassium nitrate. 21 guns became the highest national honour, the British at that time officially considered the international salute to sovereign states to be 21 guns, and the United States adopted the 21 guns and gun for gun return on 18 August 1875. The 21-gun salute in Bangladesh is generally used for, Martyrs Opening the Victory Day parade show on 16 December, occasions that happen to be largely associated with any national achievements or celebrations. Gun salutes are used at special holidays, state funerals, a 17-gun salute is given to the Canadian Minister of National Defence when visiting a saluting station, as well as foreign ministers of defence.
The 21-gun salute is used in the Republic of China in honor of the President during National Day celebrations, after three trumpets blow, the audience is asked to stand up as the President enters. After he stands in the podium, the gun salute starts while the gun salute music is played, in some celebrations, it is done while the National Anthem is played. This cannonade salute is used in relation to Czech presidential events and it is fired to the sound of the National Anthem
Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway
Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway is the only son and younger child of King Harald V and heir apparent to the throne of Norway. In 2001, Haakon married Mette-Marit Høiby with whom he has two children and he has an older sister, Princess Märtha Louise. In accordance with Norways agnatic primogeniture succession, Haakon became crown prince when his father ascended the throne in 1991, the Skaugum Estate, situated in the area of Semsvannet, is the official residence of the Norwegian Crown Prince and the Crown Princess. He is a Young Global Leader, Haakon was born in 20 July 1973 at Rikshospitalet the Oslo University Hospital in Oslo, the only son and younger child of King Harald V and Queen Sonja. At birth he was named Haakon Magnus, and it was stressed in the announcement that he would go by the name Haakon, Haakon has one sibling, Princess Märtha Louise. This was not, done retroactively, meaning that Haakon continues to take precedence over his older sister, Haakon has served in the Royal Norwegian Navy, where he undertook his first-level officers education at the Norwegian Naval Academy.
This was followed with a year aboard missile torpedo boats and he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from the University of California, Berkeley in 1999. Haakon attended lectures at the University of Oslo and took the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs civil servant introductory course in 2001. He completed his education in 2003 at the London School of Economics, as of 15 November 2013, in the Royal Norwegian Navy his officer rank is Admiral, and in the Norwegian Army and the Royal Norwegian Air Force his rank is General. Haakon married commoner and single mother Mette-Marit Tjessem Høiby on 25 August 2001, Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark was the best man. When the engagement between Crown Prince Haakon and Høiby was announced, many Norwegians felt that his choice of wife was inappropriate. This was primarily about her being a mother, but information concerning her involvement in the rave scene in Oslo. In addition, the father of her child was convicted of drug-related offenses, in a heartfelt press conference before the wedding the bride explained her past, saying among other things that her youthful rebelliousness might have been stronger than most young people.
The issue of Mette-Marits past has largely been laid to rest in Norwegian public discourse, the couple have two children together, Princess Ingrid Alexandra and Prince Sverre Magnus. Haakon is the stepfather to Mette-Marits son, Marius Borg Høiby, from 25 November 2003 to 12 April 2004, Haakon was the Regent of Norway during the Kings treatment for cancer and the subsequent convalescence period. Likewise, Haakon was Regent from 29 March 2005 until the King had fully recovered from the surgery he underwent on 1 April. This period ended on 7 June, in addition to his official duties, Haakon has a strong interest in cultural matters. In January 2006, Haakon revised his patronage list and he now has twelve patronage roles in his portfolio including the annual Bjørnson literary festival
Sirikit is the queen dowager of Thailand. She was the consort of King Bhumibol Adulyadej and is the mother of King Vajiralongkorn. She met Bhumibol in Paris, where her father was Thai ambassador and they married in 1950, shortly before Bhumibols coronation. Sirikit was appointed regent in 1956. Sirikit has one son and three daughters with the king, consort of the monarch who was the worlds longest-reigning head of state, she was the worlds longest-serving consort. Sirikit suffered a stroke on 21 July 2012 and has refrained from public appearances. Sirikit was born on 12 August 1932, at the home of Lord Vongsanuprabhand and she is the eldest daughter and the third child of Prince Nakkhatra Mangkala Kitiyakara, the son of Prince Kitiyakara Voralaksana, and Mom Luang Bua Snidvongs. Her name, which was given by King Prajadhipok, means the greatness of Kitiyakara and she had three siblings, two elder brothers and a younger sister, Prof. Her mother joined her three months later. When she was one old, her parents returned to Thailand.
Sirikit lived together with her family in Deves Palace, near the Chao Phraya River, as a child, Sirikit often visited her paternal grandmother. Once in 1933, she travelled with Princess Absornsaman Devakula following King Prajadhipoks tour in Songkhla, at age four, Sirikit attended the Kindergarten College at Rajini School, where she studied at the primary level. During that time the Pacific War was being fought, Bangkok was bombed many times, especially the rail lines, making travel unsafe. She therefore moved to Saint Francis Xavier Convent School, since it was near the palace and she studied at Saint Xavier from her second primary year through the early secondary level. In 1946, with the war now over, her moved to the United Kingdom as the ambassador to the Court of St Jamess. Sirikit was 13 and completed her secondary education, while in England she learned to play the piano and became fluent in English and French. Because of her fathers work as a diplomatic, the moved to other countries, including Denmark.
While in France, she studied at an academy in Paris
The Folketing, known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament of the Kingdom of Denmark. Established in 1849, until 1953 the Folketing was the house of a bicameral parliament, called the Rigsdag. It meets in Christiansborg Palace, on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, the Folketing passes all laws, approves the cabinet, and supervises the work of the government. It is responsible for adopting the states budgets and approving the states accounts, as set out in the Danish Constitution, the Folketing shares power with the reigning monarch. In practice, the role is limited to signing laws passed by the legislature. The Folketing consists of 179 representatives,175 from Denmark,2 from Greenland, general elections must be held every four years, but it is within the powers of the Prime Minister to ask the monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence, the Folketing may force a single Minister or the government to resign.
Members are democratically elected by proportional representation,135 by the DHondt method and 40 by the Sainte-Laguë method, the Danish political system has traditionally generated coalitions. Most post-war governments have been minority coalitions ruling with the support of non-government parties, the most recent general election took place on 18 June 2015 and the Folketing reconvened on 6 October. The first sitting of the house was attended by Queen Margrethe II, from 1849 to 1953 the Folketing was one of the two houses in the bicameral parliament known as the Rigsdag, the other house was known as the Landsting. Since both houses, in principle, had power, the terms upper house and lower house were not generally used. The difference between the houses was voter representation, the Folketing was elected by common vote among men and consisted mainly of independent farmers and merchants as well as the educated classes. From 1915 both men and women had the right of vote for both houses, and the Landsting was elected by vote, although indirectly and with a higher age limit than for the Folketing.
During the next decades, law-making mainly took place in the Folketing, in 1953, a revised constitution was adopted by popular vote. Among the changes was the elimination of the Landsting and the introduction of a unicameral parliament, Christiansborg Palace has been the domicile of parliament since 1849. The palace is located in the heart of Copenhagen, winning a seat in parliament requires only 2% of the vote. With such a low threshold, a large number of parties are represented in the chamber, making it all. No party has achieved this since 1901, all Danish governments since have been coalitions or one-party minority governments
Rigshospitalet is one of the largest hospitals in Denmark and the most highly specialised hospital in Copenhagen. The hospitals main building is a 16 storey functionalist highrise, one of the tallest structures in the parts of the city. Rigshospitalet neighbours the Panum Building which houses the Faculty of Health, as a teaching hospital it is part of the framework organisation Copenhagen University Hospital. The Danish name is not usually translated to English and it is the genitive of rige and the cognate word is used similarly in Norwegian, Swedish and Dutch. The prefix Stats- is more used, but implies a slightly lower level in the hierarchy. Although Rigshospitalet was founded as a hospital, as opposed to the normal hospitals operated by counties. The hospital itself explains the name was given because its predecessor, Royal Fredericks Hospital, was handed over to the state, Rigshospitalet was founded on 30 March 1757 as Kongelig Frederiks Hospital, named after King Frederick V and situated in Bredgade in central Copenhagen.
The buildings are now occupied by the Danish Museum of Art & Design, since 1903 the state has been the owner of the hospital. In 1910 the hospital was renamed and moved to its present location in ten low buildings surrounding a garden designed by architect Martin Borch. In 1995 the hospital was handed over to Hovedstadens Sygehusfællesskab which in 2007 was absorbed by the Capital Region, in 2007 a helipad was built on top of the hospital. Until then, rescue helicopters and helicopters transferring patients would land in the neighbouring park Fælledparken, rigshospitalets mission is to be Denmarks leading hospital for patients needing highly specialized treatment. Its main specialist role has been enhanced in recent years by the decision that it should serve as the host institution for many of Copenhagens speciality departments, because of this, other hospitals refer patients to Rigshospitalet for the unique expertise available there. Rigshospitalet’s neighbor, the Panum Building, houses the University of Copenhagens Faculty of Health and this proximity optimizes a close cooperation between the two in the fields of research and development.
The Nordic Cochrane Centre and the University Centre for Nursing and Care Research are in Rigshospitalet, with 1,120 beds, Rigshospitalet has responsibility for 65,000 inpatients and approximately 420,000 outpatients annually. Rigshospitalet has a trauma centre specialised at receiving severely injured patients, ordinary emergency department treatment has been relegated to the other hospitals in Copenhagen. The hospital was the location of Lars von Triers television horror mini-series The Kingdom and it is the hospital in which Crown Princess Mary gave birth to her four children by Crown Prince Frederik, Isabella and Josephine. Also Prince Joachims children were born here, Felix, queen Margrethe and Prince Henriks children, Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim, were born at Rigshospitalet. Prince Carl Fredrik and Princess Nathalie of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburgs third child and second son, Prince Frederik, in 2007 Rigshospitalet celebrated its 250th anniversary