Prince William of Hesse-Kassel
Prince William of Hesse-Kassel, was the first son of Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen. On 10 November 1810, William was married in Amalienborg Palace to Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark daughter of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Children of marriage: Karoline Friederike Marie of Hesse-Kassel. Princess Marie Luise Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel. Married Prince Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Dessau. Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Married King Christian IX of Denmark. Friedrich Wilhelm. Head of House of Hesse-Kassel. Married first Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaievna of Russia, a daughter of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia, second Anna of Prussia. Auguste Sophie Friederike of Hesse-Kassel. Married Baron Carl Frederik von Blixen-Finecke, Lord of Näsbyholm. Sophie Wilhelmine of Hesse-Kassel
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, he was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, never visited Hanover. His life and with it his reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence.
Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them; until it was reassessed in the second half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square, he was the grandson of King George II, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. One month he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker, his godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha and his great-aunt the Queen of Prussia. Prince George grew into a healthy but shy child; the family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight, he was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, French, history, geography, commerce and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing and riding, his religious education was wholly Anglican.
At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, George became heir apparent to the throne, he inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would serve as Prime Minister. George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.
In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and must act contrary to my passions." Attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother. The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday; the search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress, the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck, they had 15 children -- six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House for use as a family retreat.
His other residences were Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for
Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen
Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen was the elder daughter of Karl Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Usingen, wife of Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel. Caroline was born at Biebrich, Nassau-Usingen the second child and first daughter of Karl Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Usingen, his wife, Countess Caroline Felizitas of Leiningen-Dagsburg, daughter of Christian Karl Reinhard, Count of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Heidesheim. Caroline, via her mother's roots among the Alsace lords of Leiningen, was a cousin of the Danish aristocrat, the Duke of Augustenborg, they both being direct descendants of the important Danish and Sleswicker magnate and statesman Frederik Ahlefeldt, 1st HRR Reichsgraf zu Rixingen, 1st Lensgreve of Langeland; this Danish connection played a role in Caroline's marriage. Caroline married on 2 December 1786 in Biebrich to Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel, youngest child of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Mary of Great Britain, daughter of George II of Great Britain; the Landgrave and Prince Frederik was born a German aristocrat, a cadet son of a Landesfürstliche house, but had lived since his youth in Denmark, as had his two elder brothers.
Frederik's two elder brothers married daughters of the deceased King of Denmark. However, there was no Danish royal daughter left to marry the youngest boy, Frederik, so he married a cousin of the Duke of Augustenborg, being Caroline of Nassau. Frederik was an infantry general in Danish service, they had eight children: William, married Louise Charlotte of Denmark and was the father of Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Karl Friedrich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl Georg Karl Luise Karoline Marie Friederike Marie Wilhelmine Friederike, married Georg, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Augusta Wilhelmine Luise, married Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 4 April 1762 – 2 December 1786: Her Serene Highness Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen 2 December 1786 – 17 August 1823: Her Serene Highness Landgravine Frederick of Hesse-Kassel thePeerage.com - Karoline Polyxena Prinzessin von Nassau-Usingen Genealogics - Leo van de Pas - Princess Karoline Polyxene von Nassau-Usingen L'Allemagne dynastique, Giraud, Reference: vol III page 427 The Royal House of Stuart, London, 1969, 1971, 1976, Addington, A. C.
Europäische Stammtafeln, Band I, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Sophia of Hanover
Sophia of Hanover was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698. As a granddaughter of James I, she became heir presumptive to the crowns of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland under the Act of Settlement 1701. After the Acts of Union 1707, she became heir presumptive to the unified throne of the Kingdom of Great Britain, she died less than two months before she would have become queen succeeding her first cousin once removed, Queen Anne, her claim to the throne passed on to her eldest son, George Louis, Elector of Hanover, who ascended as George I on 1 August 1714. Born to Frederick V of the Palatinate, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, Elizabeth Stuart, in 1630, Sophia grew up in the Dutch Republic, where her family had sought refuge after the sequestration of their Electorate during the Thirty Years' War. Sophia's brother Charles Louis was restored to the Lower Palatinate as part of the Peace of Westphalia. Sophia married Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1658. Despite his jealous temper and frequent absences, Sophia loved him, bore him seven children who survived to adulthood.
A landless cadet, Ernest Augustus succeeded in having the House of Hanover raised to electoral dignity in 1692. Therefore, Sophia became Electress of the title by which she is best remembered. A patron of the arts, Sophia commissioned the palace and gardens of Herrenhausen and sponsored philosophers, such as Gottfried Leibniz and John Toland. A daughter of Frederick V of the Palatinate by Elizabeth Stuart known as the "Winter King and Queen of Bohemia" for their short rule in that country, Sophia was born in The Wassenaer Hof, The Hague, Dutch Republic, where her parents had fled into exile after the Battle of White Mountain. Through her mother, she was the granddaughter of James VI and I, king of Scotland and England. At birth, Sophia was granted an annuity of 40 thalers by the Estates of Friesland. Sophia was courted by her first cousin, Charles II of England, but she rebuffed his advances as she thought he was using her in order to get money from her mother's supporter, Lord William Craven.
Before her marriage, Sophia, as the daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, was referred to as Sophie, Princess Palatine of the Rhine, or as Sophia of the Palatinate. The Electors of the Palatinate were the Calvinist senior branch of House of Wittelsbach, whose Catholic branch ruled the Electorate of Bavaria. On 30 September 1658, she married Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, at Heidelberg, who in 1692 became the first Elector of Hanover. Ernest August was a second cousin of Sophia's mother Elizabeth Stuart, as they were both great-grandchildren of Christian III of Denmark. Sophia became a friend and admirer of Gottfried Leibniz while he was librarian at the Court of Hanover, their friendship lasted from 1676 until her death in 1714. This friendship resulted in a substantial correspondence, first published in the nineteenth century, that reveals Sophia to have been a woman of exceptional intellectual ability and curiosity, she was well-read in the works of Baruch Spinoza.
Together with Ernest Augustus, she improved the Summer Palace of Herrenhausen and she was the guiding spirit in the creation of the gardens surrounding the palace, where she died. Sophia had seven children, they were: George I of Great Britain Frederick Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Imperial General Maximilian William of Brunswick-Lüneburg, field marshal in the Imperial Army Sophia Charlotte, Queen in Prussia Charles Philip of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colonel in the Imperial Army Christian Henry of Brunswick-Lüneburg Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duke of York and Albany, became prince-bishop of OsnabrückSophia was absent for a year, 1664–65, during a long holiday with Ernest Augustus in Italy but she corresponded with her sons' governess and took a great interest in her sons' upbringing more so on her return. After Sophia's tour, she bore Ernest Augustus a daughter. In her letters, Sophia describes her eldest son as a responsible, conscientious child who set an example to his younger brothers and sisters.
Sophia was, at first, against the marriage of her son and Sophia Dorothea of Celle, looking down on Sophia Dorothea's mother and concerned by Sophia Dorothea's legitimated status, but was won over by the advantages inherent in the marriage. In September 1700, Sophia met William III of England, at Loo; this happened just two months after the death of Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, nephew of William III and son of the future Queen Anne. By this time, given the ailing William III's reluctance to remarry, the inclusion of Sophia in the line of succession was becoming more because she was a Protestant, as was her husband, her candidature was aided by the fact that, because she had grown up in the Netherlands she was well known to her cousin, William III, was able to converse fluently with him in Dutch, his native tongue. A year after their meeting, the Parliament of England passed the Act of Settlement 1701 declaring that, in the event of no legitimate issue from Anne or William III, the crowns of England and Scotland were to settle upon "the most excellent princess Sophia and duchess-dowager of Hanover" and "the heirs of her body, being Protestant".
The key excerpt from the Act, naming Sophia as heir presumptive, reads: Therefore for a further Provision of the Succession of the Crown in the Protestant Line We Your Majesties most dutifull a
Minor campaigns of 1815
On 1 March 1815 Napoleon Bonaparte escaped from his imprisonment on the isle of Elba, launched a bid to recover his empire. A confederation of European powers pledged to stop him. During the period known as the Hundred Days Napoleon chose to confront the armies of Prince Blücher and the Duke of Wellington in what has become known as the Waterloo Campaign, he was decisively defeated by the two allied armies at the Battle of Waterloo, which marched on Paris forcing Napoleon to abdicate for the second time. However Russia and some of the minor German states fielded armies against him and all of them invaded France. Of these other armies the ones engaged in the largest campaigns and saw the most fighting were two Austrian armies: The Army of the Upper Rhine and the Army of Italy; the Battle of Waterloo, followed as it was by the advance of the armies of Blücher and Wellington upon Paris, was so decisive in its effects, so comprehensive in its results, that the great object of the War — the destruction of the power of Napoleon Bonaparte and the restoration of the Bourbon Dynasty under King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 — was attained while the armies of the Upper Rhine and of Italy were but commencing their invasion of the French territory.
Had the successes attendant upon the exertions of Blücher and Wellington assumed a less decisive character, more had reverses taken the place of those successes. The operations of the Confederation armies which invaded France along her eastern and south eastern frontier. Upon assumption of the throne, Napoleon found that he was left with little by the Bourbons and that the state of the Army was 56,000 troops of which 46,000 were ready to campaign. By the end of May the total armed forces available to Napoleon had reached 198,000 with 66,000 more in depots training up but not yet ready for deployment. By the end of May Napoleon had deployed his forces as follows: I Corps cantoned between Lille and Valenciennes. II Corps cantoned between Avesnes. III Corps cantoned around Rocroi. IV Corps cantoned at Metz. VI Corps cantoned at Laon. Cavalry Reserve cantoned at Guise. Imperial Guard at Paris; the preceding corps were to be formed into L'Armée du Nord and led by Napoleon Bonaparte would participate in the Waterloo Campaign.
For the defence of France, Bonaparte deployed his remaining forces within France observing France's enemies and domestic, intending to delay the former and suppress the latter. By June they were organised, its composition in June was 38 guns, 5,392–8,400 men II Corps of Observation – Armée du Var: based at Toulon, with a strength of 10,000 men. There were two other major deployments: 8,000 men under Clausel cantoned around Toulouse and under Decaen cantoned around Bordeaux guarding the Pyrenean frontier. Lamarque led 10,000 men into La Vendée to quell a Royalist insurrection in that region; the Austrian military contingent was divided into three armies. This was the largest of these armies, commanded by Field Marshal Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, its target was Paris. This Austrian contingent was joined by those of the following nations of the German Confederation: Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Württemberg, Grand Duchy of Baden, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Free City of Frankfurt, Principality of Reuss Elder Line and the Principality of Reuss Junior Line.
Besides these there were contingents of Isenburg. These were recruited by the Austrians from German territories that were in the process of losing their independence by being annexed to other countries at the Congress of Vienna; these were joined by the contingents of the Kingdom of Saxony, Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen and the Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen. Its composition in June was: This army was composed of Swiss; the Swiss General Niklaus Franz von Bachmann commanded this army. This force was to observe any French forces, its composition in July was: I Division - Colonel von Gady II Division - Colonel Fuessly III Division - Colonel d'Affry Reserve Division - Colonel-Quartermaster FinslerTotal 37,000 According to the general plan of operations projected by Prince Schwarzenberg, this army was to cross the Rhine in two columns. The right column, consisting of the III Corps, under Field Marshal the Crown Prince of Württemberg.
Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Frederick II was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1760 to 1785. He ruled as an enlightened despot, raised money by renting soldiers to Great Britain to help fight the American Revolutionary War, he combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, a militaristic approach toward international diplomacy. Frederick was born at Kassel in Hesse, the son of William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and his wife Dorothea Wilhelmine of Saxe-Zeitz, his paternal grandfather was Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, his paternal uncle was Frederick I of Sweden. His education was entrusted to Colonel August Moritz von Donop and from 1726 to 1733 to the Swiss theologian and philosopher, Jean-Pierre de Crousaz. On 8 May 1740, by proxy in London, on 28 June 1740 in person in Kassel, Frederick married Princess Mary, fourth daughter of King George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach, they had four sons: William William I, Elector of Hesse Charles Frederick, father of Prince William of Hesse-Kassel and grandfather of Queen Louise of Denmark.
In December 1745, Frederick landed in Scotland with 6000 Hessian troops to support his father-in-law, George II of Great Britain, in dealing with the Jacobite rising. Although he supported the "Protestant succession" in Great Britain on this occasion, Frederick converted from Calvinism to Catholicism. In February 1749, Frederick and his father visited the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, Clemens August of Bavaria, who received Frederick into the Catholic Church. Despite his exertions in support of her father, Frederick's marriage with the British princess was not a happy one; the couple were living apart from each other by 1747, were formally separated in 1755. Mary moved to Denmark the following year, to care for the children of her late sister Louise of Great Britain, who had died in 1751. All three of the couple's surviving sons moved with Mary to Denmark. Two of them, including Frederick's heir William married Danish princesses, their first cousins; the younger sons lived permanently in Denmark.
He later succeeded Frederick as Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Mary died in 1772, Frederick lost little time in marrying again. On 10 January 1773, at Berlin, he married Margravine Philippine, daughter of Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt and Sophia Dorothea of Prussia. No children were born of this marriage. After being formally separated from his wife in 1755, Friedrich entered active service in the Prussian military. In 1760, he succeeded his father as Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Despite Frederick's Catholicism, the principality remained Calvinist, Frederick's children were raised as Protestants in Denmark. During the 17th and 18th centuries, it was a widespread practice for smaller principalities to rent out troops to other princes. However, the practise was carried to excess in Hesse-Kassel, which maintained 7% of its entire population under arms throughout the eighteenth century. Frederick hired out so many troops to his nephew, King George III of Great Britain, for use in the American War of Independence, that "Hessian" has become an American term for all German soldiers deployed by the British in the War.
Frederick used the revenue to finance his patronage of his opulent lifestyle. The architect Simon Louis du Ry transformed for Frederick II; the town of Kassel into a modern capital. Landgrave Frederick II died in 1785 at Kassel, he was succeeded by William. Charles W. Ingrao, The Hessian Mercenary State: Ideas and Reform under Frederick II, 1760–1785 Arthur Wyß, "Friedrich II. Landgraf von Hessen-Cassel", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 7, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 524–528