Julia, Princess of Battenberg
Julia, Princess of Battenberg was the wife of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, the third son of Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse. The daughter of a Polish general of German descent, she was not of princely origin, she became a lady-in-waiting to Marie of Hesse, wife of the future Tsar Alexander II and a sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, whom she married, having met him in the course of her duties. The marriage of social unequals was deemed morganatic, but the Duke of Hesse gave her own title of nobility as Princess of Battenberg, she was the mother of Alexander, Prince of Bulgaria, is an ancestor of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir to the British throne, to the current generations of the Spanish royal family. Countess Julia Therese Salomea Hauke was born in Warsaw, Congress Poland ruled in personal union by the Tsar of Imperial Russia, she was the daughter of Count Hans Moritz Hauke, a Polish general of German descent, his wife Sophie. Julia's father had fought in Napoleon's Polish Legions in Austria, Italy and the Peninsular War.
After his service in the Polish army from 1790 and in the army of the Duchy of Warsaw from 1809 to 1814, he entered the ranks of the army of Congress Poland, was promoted to general in 1828, was awarded a Russian title. Recognizing his abilities, Tsar Nicholas I appointed him Deputy Minister of War of Congress Poland and made him a hereditary count in 1829. In the November Uprising of 1830, led by rebelling army cadets, Grand Duke Constantine, Poland's Russian governor, managed to escape, but Julia's father was shot dead by the cadets on a Warsaw street, her mother died of shock shortly afterwards, their children were made wards of the Tsar. Julia served as lady-in-waiting to Tsesarevna Marie Alexandrovna, wife of the future Tsar Alexander II and a sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, she met Prince Alexander while performing her duties at court in St. Petersburg; the Tsar did not approve of a courtship between his son's brother-in-law and a noblewoman, so the two arranged to leave the St. Petersburg court.
By the time Julia and Alexander were able to marry, she was six months pregnant with their first child, Marie. They were married on 28 October 1851 in Breslau in Prussian Silesia. Julia was considered to be of insufficient rank for any of her children to qualify for succession to the throne of Hesse and by Rhine, her husband's brother, Grand Duke Louis III of Hesse-Darmstadt, created her Countess of Battenberg in 1851, with the style of Illustrious Highness, in 1858 further elevated her to Princess of Battenberg with the style of "Her Serene Highness". The children of Julia and Alexander were elevated to princely rank. Thus, Battenberg became the name of a morganatic branch of the Grand Ducal Family of Hesse. Julia converted from Roman Catholicism to Lutheranism on 12 May 1875, she died at Heiligenberg Castle, near Jugenheim, aged sixty-nine, on 19 September 1895. There were five children of the marriage, all princes and princesses of Battenberg: Princess Marie of Battenberg, married in 1871 Gustav, Count of Erbach-Schönberg, with issue.
Prince Louis of Battenberg, created first Marquess of Milford Haven in 1917, married in 1884 Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, with issue. In 1917, he and his children took the surname Mountbatten. Prince Alexander of Battenberg, created Reigning Prince of Bulgaria in 1879, abdicated in Bulgaria and created Count of Hartenau, married morganatically in 1889 Johanna Loisinger, with issue. Prince Henry of Battenberg, married in 1885 Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, with issue, his children resided in the UK and became lords and ladies with the surname Mountbatten in 1917. His eldest son was created the first Marquess of Carisbrooke in 1917. Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg, married in 1897 Anna Princess Petrovich-Niegosh of Montenegro, with no issue. Julia's eldest son, Ludwig of Battenberg, became a British subject, during World War I, due to anti-German sentiment prevalent at the time, anglicised his name to Mountbatten, as did his nephews, the sons of Prince Henry and Princess Beatrice.
The members of this branch of the family renounced all German titles and were granted peerages by their cousin King George V of the United Kingdom: Prince Louis became the 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, while Prince Alexander, Prince Henry's eldest son, became the 1st Marquess of Carisbrooke. Hauke-Bosak family Almanach de Gotha, Gotha 1931 Eckhart G. Franz, Das Haus Hessen: Eine europäische Familie, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-17-018919-0
Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia
Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia was the only daughter and the last child of German Emperor Wilhelm II and Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein. She was a great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria through her father, her 1913 marriage to Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover was the largest gathering of reigning monarchs in Germany since German unification in 1871, one of the last great social events of European royalty before the First World War began fourteen months later. Shortly after the wedding, she became the Duchess of Brunswick by marriage. Through her daughter Frederica, Princess Victoria Louise was the maternal grandmother of Queen Sophia of Spain and the former King Constantine II of Greece. Princess Victoria Louise Adelheid Mathilde Charlotte was born on 13 September 1892, the seventh child and only daughter of German Emperor Wilhelm II and Empress Augusta Victoria. "After six sons, God has given us our seventh child, a small but strong little daughter," the empress wrote in her diary soon after the birth.
The young princess was christened on 22 October, was named after her paternal great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, her paternal great great grandmother, Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Known as Victoria Louise, she would be nicknamed "Sissy" by her family. Historian Justin C. Vovk writes that Victoria Louise was intelligent like her paternal grandmother Empress Frederick and dignified like her mother, but imperious and willful like her father, she enjoyed being the center of attention, was her father's favourite. According to her eldest brother Crown Prince Wilhelm, Victoria Louise was "the only one of us who succeeded in her childhood in gaining a snug place" in their father's heart. In 1902, her English governess, Anne Topham, observed in their first meeting that the nine-year-old princess was friendly and always quarreling with her next eldest brother, Prince Joachim. Anne noted that the "warlike" emperor "unbends to a considerable extent when in the bosom of his family," and is the "dominating force of his daughter's life.
His ideas, his opinions on men and things are persistently quoted by her."The family resided at Homburg Castle, Victoria Louise and Joachim would visit their cousins – the children of the Prussian princesses Margaret and Sophia – at nearby Kronberg Castle. In 1905, the princess studied music with concert pianist Sandra Drouker. For a period of one week in May 1911, Victoria Louise traveled to England aboard the Hohenzollern with her parents, where they visited their cousin King George V for the unveiling of a statue of Queen Victoria in front of Buckingham Palace, her confirmation took place at Friedenskirche in Potsdam on 18 October 1909. In 1912, Ernest Augustus, the wealthy heir to the title of Duke of Cumberland, came to the Berlin court to thank Emperor Wilhelm for having Crown Prince Wilhelm and Prince Eitel Friedrich attend the funeral of his brother, Prince George William. While in Berlin, Ernest Augustus met Victoria Louise, the two became smitten with each other. However, any discussions of marriage were prolonged for months due to political concerns.
The Prussian crown prince was displeased with the match and wished that Ernest Augustus abdicate his rights to Hanover. The family had been barred from the succession to Brunswick due to their claims towards the Hanoverian kingdom, they were engaged in Karlsruhe on 11 February 1913. Their wedding, an extravagant affair, took place on 24 May 1913 in Berlin, it was hailed in the press as the end of the rift between the House of Hanover and House of Hohenzollern that had existed since the 1866 annexation. The Times described the union as akin to Juliet, albeit with a happier ending. Despite the press' fixation on the union as a love match, it remains unclear if the match was one of love or politics. In a diplomatic gesture, Emperor Wilhelm invited all of his extended family. Two imprisoned British spies Captain Stewart and Captain Trench, were pardoned and released by the Kaiser as a present to the United Kingdom; the wedding became the largest gathering of reigning monarchs in Germany since German unification in 1871, one of the last great social events of European royalty before World War I began fourteen months later.
Attendees included Wilhelm's cousins King George V and Tsar Nicholas II, accompanied by their respective wives Queen Mary and Tsarina Alexandra. The wedding feast included 1,200 guests. Empress Augusta Victoria wept; the new duke and duchess of Brunswick moved to the capital of Brunswick and began their family with the birth of their eldest son, Prince Ernest Augustus, less than a year after their wedding. They would have four further children: Prince George William, Princess Frederica, Prince Christian Oscar, Prince Welf Henry. On 8 November 1918, her husband was forced to abdicate his throne along with the other German kings, grand dukes and princes, the duchy of Brunswick was subsequently abolished; the next year, he was deprived of his British titles under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 as a result of his service in the German army during the war, the younger Ernest Augustus's tit
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia
Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia was the second son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and younger brother of Tsar Alexander II. During the reign of Alexander II, Konstantin was an admiral of the Russian fleet and reformed the Russian Navy, he was an instrumental figure in the emancipation of the serfs. He was less fortunate as viceroy of Poland and had to be recalled to Russia where he was attacked for his liberalism. After the assassination of his brother Alexander II in 1881, Konstantin fell from favour; the new tsar, Alexander III, his nephew, opposed Konstantin's liberal ideas and stripped him of all his governmental positions. His retirement was marked with personal family setbacks. After suffering a stroke, he spent his last years as an invalid. Konstantin was born in St. Petersburg, the second son and fifth child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, his parents were happy to have a second son after nine years of having only daughters. Nicholas I and his wife were devoted to each other and to their children, providing an excellent education for them.
The Imperial children were kept under female supervision until they were seven. However, by the time he was five Konstantin had become too willful and difficult for a governess to handle and his father appointed a male tutor for him. Nicholas I intended that Konstantin would become Admiral General of the Russian Fleet and with this in mind chose Fyodor Litke as tutor for his son. Litke, who had circumnavigated the globe at the age of twenty, was a brash and bold man, unafraid of controversy or offense, he passed these qualities along to his student, he trained the boy in naval sciences and filled his head with tales of the sea, gaining the friendship of his pupil for life. Languages were an important part of Konstantin's education; as he grew older, his lessons increased in length and complexity to encompass mathematics, science and government administration. There were early military lessons and drills. Konstantin enjoyed music, learning to play the piano and cello, he had great appreciation for the arts.
He became an enthusiastic reader and his fascination with Homer led him to translate the Odyssey from German. In 1835, Konstantin accompanied his parents to Germany and from age eight onwards was taught to keep a diary; when he was just eight years old, he was given a small yacht, which he would sail between Petergof and Kronstadt, spending his days at sea and returning home at night. In 1836, accompanied by Litke, he embarked on a lengthy sailing expedition and he was given command of the Russian frigate Hercules under Litke's direction. During his training Konstantin was treated like all other naval cadets to the point of his title of Grand Duke being dispensed with, he was placed on watch duty at midnight as well as in rain and storms. At the age of sixteen, Konstantin was promoted to the rank of captain and served as commander of the frigate Ulyses, visiting various ports along the Gulf of Finland and embarking on a southern tour that included the Mediterranean; the encouragement and guidance of his aunt, Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, was another important influence in Konstantin's education.
Elena took him under her wing, broadening his taste in literature and music and introducing him to the latest scientific ideas. She had a big influence in her nephew's political views. Under Litke's influence, Konstantin began his forays into official life, taking on patronage of the new Imperial Russian Geographical Society; the Geographical Society was subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, home to a conspicuous number of liberal bureaucrats including Nikolay Milyutin. The male members of the Romanov family were famous for their good looks and their height, but Konstantin was rather short and ugly, he was described by one observer: " His complexion was sallow, the color of his hair was rather neutral, resembled the sand of the seashore. His eyes were gray and half closed and an enormous wooden looking nose took the place of his father's Grecian outline", he had a loud voice, imposing brusque manners. With a quick temper, Konstantin was a difficult man and unpleasant. In 1846 Konstantin's sister, Grand Duchess Olga, married Crown Prince Charles of Württemberg.
He went with her to Stuttgart he continued to Altenburg to be introduced to Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg. His parents had arranged the meeting thinking. Alexandra was strikingly beautiful and slim and Konstantin was eager to marry her. "I don't know. It is as if I am a new person. Just one thought moves me, just one image fills my eyes: forever and only she, my angel, my universe. I do think I’m in love. However, what can it mean? I've only known her a few hours and I'm up to my ears in Passion". Konstantin was Alexandra three years younger. On 12 October 1847, she arrived in Russia. In February she converted to Russian Orthodoxy, taking the name of Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna, they were married six months on 11 September 1848 in the Winter Palace. Both were musical: he played the cello and she the piano, they seem to have been a good match. For the first years of their marriage, they were a devoted couple, starting their married life happily. In the following years, they had six children.
The couple lived in some of the most luxurious palaces of the Empire: Pavlovsk and the Marbl