Meghan, Duchess of Sussex
Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, is a retired American actress who became a member of the British royal family upon her marriage to Prince Harry. Markle was born and raised in Los Angeles and has a mixed ethnic heritage. During her studies at Northwestern University, she began playing small roles in American television series and films. From 2011 to 2017, she played Rachel Zane on the American legal drama series Suits. An outspoken feminist, Markle has addressed issues of gender inequality, her lifestyle website The Tig featured a column profiling influential women, she represented international charity organizations in the 2010s and received recognition for her fashion and style, releasing a line of clothing in 2016. From 2011 until their divorce in 2013, Markle was married to producer Trevor Engelson. In 2017, she announced her engagement to Prince Harry, grandson of Queen Elizabeth II, moved to London, she retired from acting, closed her social media accounts, started undertaking public engagements as part of the British royal family.
She became the Duchess of Sussex upon her marriage to Prince Harry in May 2018. Rachel Meghan Markle was born on August 1981, in Los Angeles, California, her mother, Doria Ragland, is a former social worker and yoga instructor living in View Park–Windsor Hills, California. Markle has described having a close friendship with her mother, her father, Thomas Markle Sr. who lives in Rosarito, Mexico, is a retired television director of photography and lighting director, whose profession resulted in his young daughter visiting the set of Married...with Children. Markle's parents divorced, she has two older paternal half-siblings, Samantha Markle and Thomas Markle Jr. from whom she is estranged. Describing her heritage in a 2015 essay for Elle, Markle stated: "My dad is Caucasian and my mom is African American. I'm half black and half white... While my mixed heritage may have created a grey area surrounding my self-identification, keeping me with a foot on both sides of the fence, I have come to embrace that.
To say who I am, to share where I'm from, to voice my pride in being a strong, confident mixed-race woman."Markle grew up in Hollywood. She was educated beginning at age two at the Hollywood Little Red Schoolhouse. At age 11, her successful campaign to get Procter & Gamble to change a national television commercial she viewed as sexist was profiled by Linda Ellerbee on Nick News. Though she was raised as a Protestant, Markle attended Immaculate Heart High School, an all-girl Catholic private school in Los Angeles, she attended Northwestern University, where she joined Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority and participated in community service and charity projects. She served an internship at the American embassy in Buenos Aires and studied for a semester in Madrid, Spain. Markle received a bachelor's degree from Northwestern's School of Communication in 2003, with a double major in theater and international studies. Early in her career, Markle worked as a freelance calligrapher to support herself between acting jobs.
Her first on-screen appearance was a small role as a nurse in an episode of the daytime soap opera General Hospital. Markle had small guest roles on the television shows Century City, The War at Home, CSI: NY, she took on several contract acting and modeling jobs, including a stint as a "briefcase girl" on the US game show Deal or No Deal. She appeared in Fox's series Fringe as Junior Agent Amy Jessup in the first two episodes of its second season. Markle had some difficulty getting roles early in her career. In 2015, she wrote: "Being'ethnically ambiguous', as I was pegged in the industry, meant I could audition for any role... Sadly, it didn't matter: I wasn't black enough for the black roles and I wasn't white enough for the white ones, leaving me somewhere in the middle as the ethnic chameleon who couldn't book a job."Markle appeared in two 2010 films, Get Him to the Greek and Remember Me, one 2011 film, Horrible Bosses. She was paid $187,000 for her role in Remember Me and $171,429 for her role in the short film The Candidate.
She appeared in episodes of Cuts. In July 2011, Markle joined the cast of the USA Network show Suits, her character, Rachel Zane, began as a paralegal and became an attorney. She completed work on the seventh season in late 2017. According to a critique in The Irish Times, Markle "actively re-positioned" her character from ingénue to "the show's moral conscience" and gave viewers the unique portrayal of a daughter, whose African-American father is in a position to help her career and advance her "desire to crack both racial and gender glass ceilings". While working on Suits, Markle lived for nine months each year in a rented house in the Seaton Village neighborhood of Toronto. Fortune magazine estimated that Markle was paid $50,000 per episode, amounting to an annual salary of about $450,000. In 2014, Markle founded the lifestyle website The Tig, where she wrote about food, fashion and travel, profiled inspirational women; as the website grew, Markle brought in experts such as dieticians, make-up artists, fitness and yoga instructors.
The website's audience consisted of the fans of Markle and Suits. Markle reinforced The Tig's messages of self-love and spirituality on social media, reaching 3 million followers on Instagram, 800,000 on Facebook, 350,000 on Twitter, she closed The Tig in April 2017, taking all of its articles offline, deleted her social media accounts in January 2018. It was estimated that, as a lifestyle blogger, Markle earned about $80,000 annually from endor
Princess Michael of Kent
Princess Michael of Kent is a member of the British royal family of German and Hungarian descent. She is married to Prince Michael of Kent, a grandson of King George V. Princess Michael was an interior designer before becoming an author, she undertakes lecture tours as well as supporting her husband in his public duties. Marie Christine Anna Agnes Hedwig Ida von Reibnitz was born on 15 January 1945 in Karlsbad, a town in German-populated Sudetenland and now known as Karlovy Vary in the Czech Republic, she was born shortly before the defeat of Nazi Germany and end of World War II in Europe, near the family estates of her Austrian maternal grandmother, Princess Hedwig von Windisch-Graetz. Princess Michael is the younger daughter of Baron Günther Hubertus von Reibnitz by his second wife Countess Maria Anna Carolina Franziska Walburga Bernadette, daughter of Count Friedrich Szapáry von Muraszombath, Széchysziget und Szapár, the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to Saint Petersburg at the outbreak of the First World War.
Princess Michael's father was a Nazi party member serving as a Sturmbannführer in the SS during the Second World War. The parents divorced in 1946. Marie Christine and her mother established a beauty salon, while Fred von Reibnitz joined the Australian Public Service, she subsequently moved to London to study History of Fine and Decorative Art at the Victoria and Albert Museum. Her first husband was the English banker Thomas Troubridge, younger brother of Sir Peter Troubridge, 6th Baronet, they met at a boar hunt in Germany and were married on 14 September 1971 at Chelsea Old Church, London. The couple separated in 1973 and were civilly divorced in 1977. One month after the annulment, on 30 June 1978, at a civil ceremony in Vienna, she married Prince Michael of Kent, the son of Prince George, Duke of Kent and Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark. Prince Michael is a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II. Michael presented Marie Christine with a two-stone sapphire-and-diamond ring made from stones that belonged to his mother, Princess Marina.
For the ball held after the wedding, she wore the City of London diamond fringe tiara and a 70s style dress. Upon their marriage, she was accorded the style and title of Her Royal Highness Princess Michael of Kent, the female equivalent to her husband's title: not being of royal birth, she is therefore not titled Princess Marie Christine. After receiving Pope John Paul II's permission, the couple received a blessing of their marriage in a Roman Catholic ceremony on 29 June 1983 at Archbishop's House, London. Since the Act of Settlement 1701 prohibited anyone who married a Roman Catholic from succeeding to the throne, Prince Michael of Kent forfeited his succession rights upon marrying Marie Christine. Prince Michael was reinstated to the line of succession to the British throne on 26 March 2015 with the successful passing of the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, their children are members of the Church of England and have retained their rights of succession since birth. Prince and Princess Michael of Kent have two children: Lord Frederick Windsor, born 6 April 1979 at St Mary's Hospital, London.
He married Sophie Winkleman on 12 September 2009 and they have two daughters: Maud and Isabella. Lady Gabriella Windsor, born 23 April 1981 at St Mary's Hospital, London. Prince and Princess Michael represented the Queen at the Belize independence celebrations and at the coronation of King Mswati III of Swaziland. Prince Michael supports a large number of different charities and organisations, Princess Michael supports him in his work. Since a teenager, Princess Michael has held a long and enduring passion for the conservation of cheetahs and she is international royal patron for the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia. Prince Michael has never received an allowance from the Privy Purse; the couple have had the use of a five-bedroom, five-reception grace and favour apartment at Kensington Palace. The Queen had paid the rent for the apartment at a market rate of £120,000 annually from her own private funds with the couple paying the nominal amount of £70 per week; the rent goes to the Grant-in-aid, provided by the Government for the maintenance of the Occupied Royal Palaces.
The rent is based on the current rate for commercially rented properties at Kensington Palace, is recorded in the overall figures for commercial rents in the Grant-in-aid annual report. This rent payment by the Queen is "in recognition of the Royal engagements and work for various charities which Prince and Princess Michael of Kent have undertaken at their own expense, without any public funding," according to a statement released by the British Monarchy Media Centre. In 2008, it was announced Prince and Princess Michael would be required to begin paying rent of £120,000 a year. Members of Parliament on the palace's committee had demanded the change after the Kents' rent had come to light; the Kents have lived in the apartment since 1979, paying only their utility bills prior to 2002. Princess Michael of Kent observes the Roman Catholic faith and attended several events during Pope Benedict XVI's historic state visit to the United Kingdom in September 2010, she was present at Mass in Westminster Cathedral
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Elizabeth II. Philip was born into the Danish royal families, he was born in Greece. After being educated in France and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with distinction in the Pacific Fleets. After the war, Philip was granted permission by George VI to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents, he married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just before the wedding, he was created Baron Earl of Merioneth and Duke of Edinburgh. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became queen in 1952, having reached the rank of commander, was formally made a British prince in 1957.
Philip and Elizabeth have four children: Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Through a British Order in Council issued in 1960, descendants of the couple not bearing royal styles and titles can use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor, used by some members of the royal family who do hold titles, such as Princess Anne and Princes Andrew and Edward. A keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving, he is a patron, president or member of over 780 organisations and serves as chairman of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award for people aged 14 to 24. He is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest male member of the British royal family. Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, at the age of 96, having completed 22,219 solo engagements since 1952. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg.
Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora and Sophie. He was baptised in the Greek Orthodox rite at St. George's Church in the Old Fortress in Corfu, his godparents were his paternal grandmother Queen Olga of Greece, represented by Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, Alexandros S. Kokotos, the Mayor of Corfu, representing the people of Corfu. Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten—an Anglicized version of Battenberg—during the First World War, owing to anti-German sentiment in Great Britain. After visiting London for the memorial and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War; the war went badly for Greece, the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate and the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others.
The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life; the British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece and Denmark; because Philip left Greece as a baby, he does not have a strong grasp of the Greek language. In 1992, he said that he "could understand a certain amount". Philip has stated that he has thought of himself as Danish, his family spoke English and German. Philip, who in his youth was known for his charm, was linked to a number of women including Osla Benning. Philip was first educated at The Elms, an American school in Paris run by Donald MacJannet, who described Philip as a "know it all smarty person, but always remarkably polite".
In 1928, he was sent to the United Kingdom to attend Cheam School, living with his maternal grandmother, Victoria Mountbatten, Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven, at Kensington Palace and his uncle, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, at Lynden Manor in Bray, Berkshire. In the next three years, his four sisters married German princes and moved to Germany, his mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia and placed in an asylum, his father took up residence in Monte Carlo. Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood. In 1933, he was sent to Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, which had the "advantage of saving school fees" because it was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Margrave of Baden. With the rise of Nazism in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution and founded Gordonstoun School in Scotland, which Philip moved to after two terms at Salem. In 1937, his sister Cecilie, her husband Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, her two young sons and Alexander, her newborn infant, her mother-in-law, Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich, were killed in an air crash at Ostend.
The following year, his uncle and guardian Lord Milford Haven died of bone marrow cancer. After leaving Gordonstoun in early 193
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
His Royal Highness Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, is a member of the British royal family. He is a first cousin of Queen Elizabeth II through their fathers, Prince George, Duke of Kent, King George VI, he has held the title of Duke of Kent for over 76 years, since the death of his father in a plane crash in 1942. The Duke of Kent carries out engagements on behalf of the Queen, he is president of the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, presenting the trophies to the Wimbledon champion and runner-up, served as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment, retiring in 2001. He is president of The Scout Association, the Royal United Services Institute, the Royal Institution of Great Britain, since 1967 Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England, he is patron of the Institute of Advanced Motorists, an independent road safety charity which specialises in training and advice for post-licence drivers and riders. Since his mother, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, was a cousin of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Edward is both a second cousin and first cousin once removed to Prince Charles and his siblings.
Prince Edward was born on 9 October 1935, at London. Home Secretary Sir John Simon was present to verify the birth. Prince Edward's father was Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George V and Queen Mary, his mother was Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent, the daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. He was baptised in the Private Chapel of Buckingham Palace on 20 November 1935 by the Archbishop of Canterbury Cosmo Lang, his godparents were his grandparents King George V, Queen Mary and Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark. Prince Edward began his schooling at Ludgrove, a preparatory school in Berkshire, before going on to Eton College and Le Rosey in Switzerland. After school he entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst where he won the Sir James Moncrieff Grierson prize for foreign languages. Prince Edward speaks fluent French, having been raised in a house where, according to the words of his younger brother Prince Michael of Kent, his mother and aunts spoke French as a matter of preference.
On 25 August 1942, Prince Edward's father, the Duke of Kent, was killed when his plane crashed in bad weather in Caithness. Prince Edward, seven, succeeded his father as Duke of Kent, Earl of St Andrews and Baron Downpatrick; as a member of the royal family, Prince Edward began performing engagements at an early age. In 1952, at the age of 16, he walked behind the coffin of his uncle, George VI, at his state funeral, the first time he saw his uncle, the former Edward VIII, who had left the country after having abdicated when the young prince was just twelve months old. In 1953, he attended the coronation of his cousin, Elizabeth II, paying homage at her throne after her coronation. On 29 July 1955, the Duke of Kent graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Scots Greys, the beginning of a military career, to last over 20 years, he was promoted to captain on 29 July 1961. From 1962 to 1963, the Duke of Kent served in Hong Kong serving on the staff in Eastern Command.
He was promoted to Major on 31 December 1967. In 1970, the Duke commanded a squadron of his regiment serving in the British Sovereign Base Area in Cyprus, part of the UN force enforcing peace between the Greek and Turkish parts of the divided island. During the early 1970s, the Duke served in Northern Ireland with his Regiment, he was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel on 30 June 1973. The Duke retired from the Army on 15 April 1976, he was subsequently promoted to Major-General on 11 June 1983 and to Field Marshal on 11 June 1993. The Duke of Kent married Katharine Worsley at York Minster on 8 June 1961. Katharine is the only daughter of Sir William Arthrington Worsley, 4th Bt. and his wife, Joyce Morgan Brunner. They have three living children: Earl of St Andrews, born 26 June 1962 at Coppins; because this conversion occurred after their marriage, it did not cause the Duke to lose his place in the line of succession, as the Act of Settlement 1701 only applied where the spouse was a Catholic at the time of marriage.
The couple's son, Nicholas converted to Catholicism and he is excluded from the line of succession in accordance with the Succession to the Crown Act 2013. The Duke and Duchess of Kent reside at Kensington Palace, in London; the Duke had a mild stroke on the morning of 18 March 2013. In April 2015, he suffered from a hip injury and was hospitalised at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary for further treatments; the Duke of Kent has performed engagements on behalf of the Queen, for over 50 years. The Duke has represented the Queen during independence celebrations in the former British colonies of Sierra Leone, Guyana and most Ghana, for its 50th independence anniversary celebration, he has acted as Counsellor of State during periods of the Queen's absence abroad. One of the Duke's major public roles for many years was Vice-Chairman of British Trade International known as the British Overseas Trade Board, as the United Ki
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, is a member of the British royal family. Alexandra was born during the reign of King George VI to his brother and sister-in-law, Prince George, Duke of Kent, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, she is a first cousin of the current British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, since her mother was a first cousin of the queen’s husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, she is his first cousin once removed. Alexandra is the widow of businessman Sir Angus Ogilvy, to whom she was married from 1963 until his death in 2004; as of 14 December 2018, she is 52nd in the line of succession to the British throne. Princess Alexandra was born on 25 December 1936 at London, her parents were Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George V and Queen Mary, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, a daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. She was named after Queen Alexandra, she received the name Christabel because she was born on Christmas Day, like her aunt by marriage, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester.
Her birth was the last to have the tradition of having the Home Secretary present to verify the birth of potential heirs to the throne. Secretary Sir John Simon was the last to do this; as a male-line granddaughter of the British monarch, she was styled as a British princess with the prefix Her Royal Highness. At the time of her birth, she was sixth in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her cousins Elizabeth and Margaret, her uncle the Duke of Gloucester, her father the Duke of Kent, her elder brother Prince Edward, she was born two weeks after the abdication of her uncle King Edward VIII. The Princess was baptised in the Private Chapel of Buckingham Palace, on 9 February 1937, her godparents were: King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Of her godparents, only the King and Queen and Lord Athlone were present. Princess Alexandra spent most of her childhood at her family's country house, Coppins, in Buckinghamshire, she lived with Queen Mary, the widow of George V, during World War II at Badminton.
Her father was killed in an aeroplane crash near Caithness, Scotland on 25 August 1942 while serving in the Royal Air Force. Princess Alexandra has the distinction of being the first British princess to have attended a boarding school, Heathfield School near Ascot, she studied in Paris. She was trained at Great Ormond Street Hospital, she was a bridesmaid at the 1946 wedding of Captain Lord Brabourne and The Hon. Patricia Mountbatten; the following year, she served as bridesmaid at the wedding of her cousins, the then-Princess Elizabeth and The Duke of Edinburgh, on 20 November 1947. The Queen is Princess Alexandra's paternal first cousin, she was a bridesmaid at the 1962 wedding of Prince Juan Carlos of Spain and her second cousin, Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark. On 24 April 1963, she married the Hon. Angus James Bruce Ogilvy, the second son of the 12th Earl of Airlie and Lady Alexandra Coke, at Westminster Abbey. Ogilvy presented Alexandra with an engagement ring made of a cabochon sapphire set in gold and surrounded by diamonds on both sides.
The wedding ceremony was attended by the royal family and was broadcast worldwide on television, watched by an estimated 200 million people. The bride wore a wedding gown of Valenciennes lace, with matching veil and train, designed by John Cavanagh with the City of London diamond fringe tiara, she made her way with the Duke of Kent, from Kensington Palace to the church. The bridesmaids included Princess Anne and Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria, the best man was Peregrine Fairfax; the Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey conducted the service. Angus Ogilvy declined the Queen's offer to be created an earl upon marriage, so their children carry no titles. Angus Ogilvy was knighted in 1988 being sworn of the Privy Council in 1997. Princess Alexandra and Sir Angus had two children and Marina, four grandchildren: James Robert Bruce Ogilvy and has issue:Flora Alexandra Ogilvy Alexander Charles Ogilvy Marina Victoria Alexandra Ogilvy, married on 2 February 1990 at Richmond Park and divorced on 15 October 1997 Paul Julian Mowatt, a photographer.
Marina's first pregnancy, announced in late 1989, caused a controversy as the couple were not married. This resulted in a feud with her parents who suggested she either marry her companion or abort the child, they had two children: Zenouska May Mowatt Christian Alexander Mowatt Since the late 1950s, Princess Alexandra carried out an extensive programme of engagements in support of the Queen, both in
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, was a member of the British Royal Family, a male-line grandson of King George III, cousin of Queen Victoria, maternal uncle of Queen Mary, consort of King George V. The Duke was an army officer by profession and served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces from 1856 to 1895, he became Duke of Cambridge in 1850 and field marshal in 1862. Devoted to the old Army, he worked with the Queen to defeat or minimize every reform proposal, such as setting up a general staff, his Army became a stagnant institution, lagging far behind France and Germany. Its weaknesses were revealed by the poor organization at the start of the Second Boer War. Prince George was born at Cambridge House in Germany, his father was Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the 10th child and seventh son of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. His mother was the Duchess of Cambridge, he was baptised at Cambridge House on 11 May 1819, by the Reverend John Sanford, his father's Domestic Chaplain.
His godparents were the Prince Regent, the Duke of Clarence and St Andrews and the Dowager Queen of Württemberg. Prince George of Cambridge was educated in Hanover and from 1830 in England by the Rev. J. R. Wood, a canon of Worcester Cathedral. Like his father, he embarked upon a military career becoming a colonel in the Hanoverian Army and on 3 November 1837, becoming a brevet colonel in the British Army, he was attached to the staff at Gibraltar from October 1838 to April 1839. After serving in Ireland with the 12th Royal Lancers, he was appointed substantive lieutenant-colonel of the 8th Light Dragoons on 15 April 1842 and colonel of the 17th Lancers on 25 April 1842. From 1843 to 1845, he served as a colonel on the staff in the Ionian islands was promoted Major-General on 7 May 1845, he succeeded to his father's titles of Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, Baron Culloden on 8 July 1850. The Duke of Cambridge became Inspector of the Cavalry in 1852. In February 1854, at an early stage in the Crimean War, he received command of the 1st Division of the British army in the East.
On 19 June 1854, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general. He was present at the battles of the Alma and Inkerman, at the siege of Sevastopol. Owing to illness the Earl of Cardigan returned first to Malta and to England: before the conclusion of the campaign he was back in London. Meanwhile, Lord Raglan died at 9.30 pm on 28 June 1855 from dysentery and Field Marshal Viscount Hardinge, the serving general commanding-in-chief, was forced to resign in July 1856, on grounds of ill-health. On 5 July 1856, the Duke was appointed general commanding-in-chief of the British Army, a post, retitled field marshal commanding-in-chief on 9 November 1862 and commander-in-chief of the forces by Letters Patent on 20 November 1887. In that capacity he served as the chief military advisor to the Secretary of State for War, with responsibility for the administration of the army and the command of forces in the field, he was promoted to the rank of general on 15 July 1856 and to the rank of field marshal on 9 November 1862.
The Duke of Cambridge served as commander-in-chief for 39 years. Although he was concerned about the welfare of soldiers, he earned a reputation for being resistant to doctrinal change and for making promotions based upon an officer's social standing, rather than merit. Under his command, the British Army became a moribund and stagnant institution, lagging far behind its continental counterparts. There were no new ideas, it is said that he rebuked one of his more intelligent subordinates with the words: "Brains? I don't believe in brains! You haven't any, I know, Sir!" He was forthright on his reluctance to adopt change: "There is a time for everything, the time for change is when you can no longer help it." Early in his term he encouraged the army to trial various breech-loading carbines for the cavalry, one of which—the Westley-Richards—was so effective that it was decided to investigate the possibility of producing a version for the infantry. In 1861, 100 were issued to five infantry battalions.
He was involved in the creation of the Staff College, the Royal Military School of Music, became governor of the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich: he further sought to improve the efficiency of the army by advocating a scheme of annual military manoeuvres. In 1860, he introduced a new system to restrict corporal punishment: soldiers were eligible for flogging only in cases of aggravated mutinous conduct during wartime, unless they committed an offence serious enough to degrade to the second class and make them once again subject to corporal punishment. A year's good behaviour would return them to the first class, meaning that only a hard core of incorrigible offenders tended to be flogged. In the wake of the Prussian victory in the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War, the Liberal Party government of Prime Minister William Gladstone and Secretary of State for War Edward Cardwell called for the Army to undergo major reforms. Cardwell succeeded in pushing through a number of reforms, including one that made the Commander-in-Chief nominally report to the Secretary of State for War.
The Duke was opposed to most of the reforms because they struck at the heart of his view of the Army. According to Theo Aronson, he "stoutly resisted every attempt at reform or modernization." He feared that the newly created fo