The White Sea is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia. It is surrounded by Karelia to the west, the Kola Peninsula to the north, the Kanin Peninsula to the northeast; the whole of the White Sea is under Russian sovereignty and considered to be part of the internal waters of Russia. Administratively, it is divided between Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Oblasts and the Republic of Karelia; the major port of Arkhangelsk is located on the White Sea. For much of Russia's history this was Russia's main centre of international maritime trade, conducted by the Pomors from Kholmogory. In the modern era it became an important Soviet submarine base; the White Sea–Baltic Canal connects the White Sea with the Baltic Sea. The White Sea is one of the four seas named in English after common colour terms — the others being the Black Sea, the Red Sea, the Yellow Sea; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the northern limit of the White Sea as "A line joining Svyatoi Nos and Cape Kanin".
There are four main gulfs on the White Sea. These bays connect with the funnel-shaped opening to the Barents Sea via a narrow strait called "Gorlo". Kandalaksha Gulf lies in the western part of the White Sea. On the south, Onega Bay receives the Onega River. To the southeast, the Dvina Bay receives the Northern Dvina River at the major port of Arkhangelsk. On the east side of the'gorlo', opposite the Kola Peninsula, is Mezen Bay, it receives the Kuloy River. Other major rivers flowing into the sea are the Vyg, Umba and Ponoy; the seabed of the central part and Dvina Bay is covered in silt and sand, whereas the bottom of the northern part, the Kandalaksha Gulf and Onega Bay is a mixture of sand and stones. Ice age deposits emerge near the sea shores. Northwestern coasts are tall and rocky but the slope is much weaker at the southeastern side; the White Sea contains a large number of islands. The main island group is the Solovetsky Islands, located in the middle of the sea, near the entrance to Onega Bay.
Kiy Island in Onega Bay is significant due to a historic monastery. Velikiy Island, located close to the shore, is the largest island in the Kandalaksha Gulf; the White Sea is a water-filled depression in the block of a continental shelf known as the Baltic Shield. Its bottom is uneven and contains the Kandalaksha Hollow in the northwest and the Solovetsky Islands in the south; the Onega Bay has many small underwater elevations. The opening and the gorlo of the sea are rather shallow, with depths about 50 metres or less. In addition, there is an underwater ridge in the northern part of the gorlo, resulting in maximum depths of 40 metres in that part; this hinders water exchange between the Barents seas. The exchange is however assisted by the tides, which are semidiurnal, with the amplitude increasing from 1 metre on the south to 10 metres in Mezen Bay. Currents are rather weak in the open seas with the speed below 1 km/h, but they strengthen in the bays; the tidal waves are much faster than the regular currents and reach the speeds of 9 km/h in Mezen Bay, 3.6 km/h in Onega Bay and 1.3 km/h in the Kandalaksha Gulf.
Rivers bring annually about 215 km3 of fresh water, on average to the Onega and Dvina bays. The Northern Dvina River alone may contribute up to 171 km3 in some years, with the Mezen, Onega and Vyg rivers adding up to 38.5, 27.0, 12.5 and 11.5 km3, respectively. About 40% of this volume is brought during the snow melting in May, the inflow is minimal in February–March; this inflow lowers the sea level that promotes the water exchange with the Barents Sea. As a result, about 2,000 km3 and 2,200 km3 flow in and out of the White Sea, respectively; the inflow of fresh water in spring decreases the surface salinity in the top 5–10 metre layer to 23‰ in the eastern and 26–27‰ in the western parts of the sea, reaching 10–12‰ in Dvina Bay. Storms are the strongest in October–November. However, small sea depths reduce the wave height to the average of 1 metre, sometimes reaching 3–5 metres; the sea is quiet in July–August. The climate varies between moderate continental with frequent fogs and clouds. Winds are predominantly southwestern in winter with speeds of 4–8 m/s.
They bring cold air from the south, establishing the temperature of about −15 °C over most of the sea. The northern part is warmer at about −9 °C, sometimes reaching −6 °C, due to the warm air masses from the Atlantic. Arctic anticyclones, change winds to the northeastern ones, bringing much colder weather with temperatures of about −25 °C. Summers are cold and humid, with northeastern winds and frequent rains. Average July temperatures are 8–10 °C. Occasional southeastern winds bring warm air from Europe, raising the temperature to 17–19 °C and sometimes to 30 °C. Annual precipitations increase from 282 mm in the north 529 in the south. In winter, from October–November till May–June, the sea freezes, with the average January water temperatures of −1.9 °C in the north, between −1.3 and −1.7 °С in the centre, between −0.5 and −0.7 °С in the bays. These variations are due to the distribution of water salinity across the sea, which increases from 24–26‰ in the centre to 30.5‰ in the gorlo, reaching 34.0–34.5‰ toward the Barents Sea.
The freezing period varies fro
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane; the gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, slows its rotation. Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets. Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water by oceans; the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field, a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms; some geological evidence indicates. Since the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely. Over 7.6 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival.
Humans have developed diverse cultures. The modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most spelled eorðe, it has cognates in every Germanic language, their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō. In its earliest appearances, eorðe was being used to translate the many senses of Latin terra and Greek γῆ: the ground, its soil, dry land, the human world, the surface of the world, the globe itself; as with Terra and Gaia, Earth was a personified goddess in Germanic paganism: the Angles were listed by Tacitus as among the devotees of Nerthus, Norse mythology included Jörð, a giantess given as the mother of Thor. Earth was written in lowercase, from early Middle English, its definite sense as "the globe" was expressed as the earth. By Early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, the earth became the Earth when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. More the name is sometimes given as Earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets.
House styles now vary: Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. Another convention capitalizes "Earth" when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the, it always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing?" The oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4.5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4.54±0.04 Bya the primordial Earth had formed. The bodies in the Solar System evolved with the Sun. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, dust. According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial Earth taking 10–20 million years to form. A subject of research is the formation of some 4.53 Bya. A leading hypothesis is that it was formed by accretion from material loosed from Earth after a Mars-sized object, named Theia, hit Earth.
In this view, the mass of Theia was 10 percent of Earth, it hit Earth with a glancing blow and some of its mass merged with Earth. Between 4.1 and 3.8 Bya, numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon and, by inference, to that of Earth. Earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic outgassing. Water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids and comets. In this model, atmospheric "greenhouse gases" kept the oceans from freezing when the newly forming Sun had only 70% of its current luminosity. By 3.5 Bya, Earth's magnetic field was established, which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. A crust formed; the two models that explain land mass propose either a steady growth to the present-day forms or, more a rapid growth early in Earth history followed by a long-term steady continental area. Continents formed by plate tectonics
The Greenland Sea is a body of water that borders Greenland to the west, the Svalbard archipelago to the east, Fram Strait and the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Norwegian Sea and Iceland to the south. The Greenland Sea is defined as part of the Arctic Ocean, sometimes as part of the Atlantic Ocean. However, definitions of the Arctic Ocean and its seas tend to be arbitrary. In general usage the term "Arctic Ocean" would exclude the Greenland Sea. In oceanographic studies the Greenland Sea is considered part of the Nordic Seas, along with the Norwegian Sea; the Nordic Seas are the main connection between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans and, as such, could be of great significance in a possible shutdown of thermohaline circulation. In oceanography the Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas are referred to collectively as the "Arctic Mediterranean Sea", a marginal sea of the Atlantic; the sea has Arctic climate with regular northern winds and temperatures rising above 0 °C. It contained the Odden ice tongue area, which extended eastward from the main East Greenland ice edge in the vicinity of 72–74°N during the winter and acted as a key winter ice formation area in the Arctic.
The West Ice forms in winter in the Greenland Sea, north of Iceland, between Greenland and Jan Mayen island. It is a major breeding ground of harp seal and hooded seal, used for seal hunting for more than 200 years; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Greenland Sea as follows: On the North. A line joining the Northernmost point of Spitzbergen to the Northernmost point of Greenland. On the East; the West coast of West Spitzbergen. On the Southeast. A line joining the Southernmost point of West Spitzbergen to the Northern point of Jan Mayen Island, down the West coast of that island to its Southern extreme, thence a Line to the Eastern extreme of Gerpir in Iceland. On the Southwest. A line joining Straumnes to Cape Nansen in Greenland. On the West; the East and Northeast coast of Greenland between Cape Nansen and the northernmost point. While the sea has been known for millennia, the first scientific investigations were carried out in 1876–1878 as part of the Norwegian North-Atlantic Expedition.
Since many countries Norway and Russia have sent scientific expeditions to the area. The complex water current system in the Greenland Sea was described in 1909 by Fridtjof Nansen; the Greenland Sea was a popular hunting ground for the whaling industry for 300 years, until 1911 based in Spitsbergen. At that point, the rich whale population here, was so depleted that the industry was no longer profitable; the remaining whales of the Greenland Sea has been protected since, but the populations have not shown any proof of significant regeneration. Since the late 1990s, polar biologists reports an increase in the local bowhead whale population and in 2015, arctic scientists discovered a surprising abundance of them in a small area; these results may be interpreted as an early sign of a beginning recovery for this particular species, that once formed the largest bowhead population in the world, at an estimated 52,000 whales. The Inuit hunted whales on a non-industrial scale in the Greenland Sea since the 15th century, as evidenced by archaeology.
The first complete man-powered crossing of the Greenland Sea was achieved in 2017 by rowing expedition, Polar Row led by Fiann Paul. The Greenland Sea is bounded to the west by the island of Greenland, to the south by the Denmark Strait and Iceland. To the southeast, behind the Jan Mayen island lies the vast expanse of the Norwegian Sea, of which Greenland Sea may be considered an extension. Across the Fram Strait to the northeast, the sea is delimited by the Svalbard archipelago; the bottom of the Greenland Sea is a depression bounded to the south by the underwater Greenland-Iceland ridge and to the east by the Mohns Ridge and Knipovich Ridge. To the west, the bottom rises first but rapidly toward the wide Greenland coastal strip. Silts fill the submarine gorges. Although the deepest point inside of the sea is 4,846 m, depths down to 5,570 m have been measured in the Molloy Deep of the Fram Strait which connects the sea to the Arctic Ocean on the north; the Greenland ice sheet reaches down to the sea at Jokel Bay.
Major islands of the Greenland Sea include the Svalbard archipelago, Jan Mayen as well as coastal islands off the NE Greenland shores, such as Hovgaard, Godfred Hansen, Île-de-France, Norske and Schnauder islands. Of those, only the Svalbard islands are inhabited, Jan Mayen has only temporal military staff. After the League of Nations gave Norway jurisdiction over the island, in 1921 Norway opened the first meteorological station there, a subject of contention between Germany and United Kingdom during World War II. Several radio and meteorological stations operate on the island nowadays; the climate is Arctic and varies across the vast sea area. Air temperatures fluctuate between −49 °C near Spitsbergen in winter and 25 °C off Greenland in summer. Averages are −10 °C in the south and −26 °C in the north in February, the coldest month; the corresponding values for the warmest month, are 5 °C in the south and 0 °C in the north. The summer is short: The number of days per year when the temperature rises above 0 °C varies between 225 in the north to 334 in the south.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Southern Bug, Dniester and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine; the Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, a volume of 547,000 km3. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, features a wide shelf to the northwest; the longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km. Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Constanța, Istanbul, Novorossiysk, Ordu, Rize, Sevastopol, Sukhumi, Varna and Zonguldak; the Black Sea has a positive water balance. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow.
This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean; the Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate the Caucasus and Western Asia; the Black Sea is connected, to the North, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established, it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example.
The Black Sea water level is high. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara. In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Current names of the sea are equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: Abkhazian: Амшын Еиқәа, IPA: Adyghe: Хы шӏуцӏэ, IPA: Bulgarian: Черно море, IPA: Crimean Tatar: Къара денъиз, Qara deñiz IPA: Georgian: შავი ზღვა, translit.: shavi zghva, IPA: Laz and Mingrelian: უჩა ზუღა, IPA:, or ზუღა, IPA:, "Sea" Romanian: Marea Neagră, pronounced Russian: Чёрное мо́рe, IPA: Turkish: Karadeniz, IPA: Ukrainian: Чорне море, IPA: Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century, but there are indications that they may be older. In Greece, the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning, is still used: Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos.
The principal Greek name "Póntos Áxeinos" is accepted to be a rendering of Iranian word *axšaina-, compare Avestan axšaēna-, Old Persian axšaina-, Middle Persian axšēn/xašēn, New Persian xašīn, as well as Ossetic œxsīn. The ancient Greeks, most those living to the north of the Black Sea, subsequently adopted the name and altered it to á-xenos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar; the name was considered to be "ominous" and was changed into the euphemistic name "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the used designation for the sea in Greek. In contexts related to mythology, the older form Póntos Áxeinos remained favored, it has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions. Black or dark in this context, referred to a system in which colors represent the cardinal points of the known world.
Black or dark represented the north. The symbolism based on cardinal points was used in multiple occasions and is therefore attested. For example, the "Red Sea", a body of water reported since the time of Herodotus in fact designated the Indian Ocean, together with bodies of water now known as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. According to the same explanation and reasoning, it is therefore considered to be impossible
The Barents Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia and is divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters. Known among Russians in the Middle Ages as the Murman Sea, the sea takes its current name from the Dutch navigator Willem Barentsz, it is a rather shallow shelf sea, with an average depth of 230 metres, is an important site for both fishing and hydrocarbon exploration. The Barents Sea is bordered by the Kola Peninsula to the south, the shelf edge towards the Norwegian Sea to the west, the archipelagos of Svalbard to the northwest, Franz Josef Land to the northeast and Novaya Zemlya to the east; the islands of Novaya Zemlya, an extension of the northern end of the Ural Mountains, separate the Barents Sea from the Kara Sea. Despite being part of the Arctic Ocean, the Barents Sea has been characterized as "turning into the Atlantic" because of its status as "the Arctic warming hot spot." Hydrologic changes due to global warming have led to a reduction in sea ice and in stratification of the water column, which could lead to major changes in weather in Eurasia.
The southern half of the Barents Sea, including the ports of Murmansk and Vardø remain ice-free year round due to the warm North Atlantic drift. In September, the entire Barents Sea is more or less ice-free; until the Winter War, Finland's territory reached to the Barents Sea, with the harbor at Petsamo being Finland's only ice-free winter harbor. There are three main types of water masses in the Barents Sea: Warm, salty Atlantic water from the North Atlantic drift, cold Arctic water from the north, warm, but not salty coastal water. Between the Atlantic and Polar waters, a front called. In the western parts of the sea, this front is determined by the bottom topography and is therefore sharp and stable from year to year, while in the east, it can be quite diffuse and its position can vary a lot between years; the lands of Novaya Zemlya attained most of their early Holocene coastal deglaciation 10,000 years before present. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the "Barentsz Sea" as follows: On the west: The northeastern limit of the Norwegian Sea.
On the northwest: The eastern shore of West Spitzbergen, Hinlopen Strait up to 80° latitude north. On the north: Cape Leigh Smith across the Islands Bolshoy Ostrov and Victoria. On the east: Cape Kohlsaat to Cape Zhelaniya. Through Vaigach Island to Cape Greben. On the south: The northern limit of the White Sea. Other islands in the Barents Sea include Timanets; the Barents Sea was formed from two major continental collisions: the Caledonian orogeny, in which the Baltica and Laurentia collided to form Laurasia, a subsequent collision between Laurasia and Western Siberia. Most of its geological history is dominated by extensional tectonics, caused by the collapse of the Caledonian and Uralian orogenic belts and the break-up of Pangaea; these events created the major rift basins that dominate the Barents Shelf, along with various platforms and structural highs. The geological history of the Barents Sea is dominated by Late Cenozoic uplift that caused by Quaternary glaciation, which has resulted in erosion and deposition of significant sediment.
Due to the North Atlantic drift, the Barents Sea has a high biological production compared to other oceans of similar latitude. The spring bloom of phytoplankton can start quite early close to the ice edge, because the fresh water from the melting ice makes up a stable water layer on top of the sea water; the phytoplankton bloom feeds zooplankton such as Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis, Calanus hyperboreus, Oithona spp. and krill. The zooplankton feeders include young cod, polar cod and little auk; the capelin is a key food for top predators such as the north-east Arctic cod, harp seals, seabirds such as common guillemot and Brunnich's guillemot. The fisheries of the Barents Sea, in particular the cod fisheries, are of great importance for both Norway and Russia. SIZEX-89 was an international winter experiment where the main objectives were to perform sensor signature studies of different ice types in order to develop SAR algorithms for ice variables such as ice types, ice concentrations and ice kinematics.
Although previous research suggested that predation by whales may be the cause of depleting fish stocks, more recent research suggests that marine mammal consumption has only a trivial influence on fisheries and a model examining the impact of fisheries and climate was far more accurate at describing trends in fish abundance. There is a genetically distinct polar bear population associated with the Barents Sea; the Barents Sea was known to Russians as Murmanskoye M
Bay of Fundy
The Bay of Fundy is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an high tidal range. Portions of the Bay of Fundy, Shepody Bay and Minas Basin, form one of six Canadian sites in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, are classified as a Hemispheric site, it is administered by the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the Canadian Wildlife Service, is managed in conjunction with Ducks Unlimited Canada and the Nature Conservancy of Canada. Some sources believe the name "Fundy" is a corruption of the French word Fendu, meaning "split", while others believe it comes from the Portuguese funda, meaning "deep"; the bay was named Baie Française by Samuel de Champlain during a 1604 expedition to St. Croix Island; the Bay of Fundy has a high tidal range. Oceanographers attribute it to tidal resonance resulting from a coincidence of timing: the time it takes a large wave to go from the mouth of the bay to the inner shore and back is the same as the time from one high tide to the next.
During the 12.4-hour tidal period, 115 billion tonnes of water flow out of the bay. According to the Canadian Hydrographic Service, there is a 16.8-metre tidal range in Leaf Basin for Ungava Bay and 17 metres at Burntcoat Head for the Bay of Fundy. The range at Leaf Basin is higher on average than at Minas Basin; the highest water level recorded in the Bay of Fundy system occurred at the head of the Minas Basin on the night of October 4–5, 1869 during a tropical cyclone named the "Saxby Gale". The water level of 21.6 metres resulted from the combination of high winds, abnormally low atmospheric pressure, a spring tide. The tides in the Bay of Fundy are semidiurnal, which means that they have two highs and two lows each day; the height that the water rises and falls to each day during these tides are equal. There are six hours and thirteen minutes between each high and low tide. Alternative forms of energy are being explored in depth in a number of unique areas. Tidal energy harnesses the movement of ocean water to generate electricity through a number of mechanisms.
A process of gathering tidal energy called "In-stream turbine technology" is being tested in the Minas Passage, Nova Scotia. This project is being spearheaded by the Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy or FORCE. In-stream tidal turbine technology is a simple design. An elevated turbine is submerged under water in a location that enables its movement with tidal cycles; as the blades of the turbine move, they create energy. From here the power travels to a cable attached to the seafloor and back to an offsite facility, where it can be added to the power grid. While this technology has shown to be successful in its early stages of testing, FORCE has not begun the process for energy collection. However, the installation of the undersea cable in December 2013 indicates that the project is moving along swiftly. A megawatt-scale turbine was installed at Cape Sharp near Partridge Island in November 2016, its owner, Open Hydro, went into insolvency in August 2018. The Bay of Fundy lies in a rift valley called the Fundy Basin.
These flood basalts poured out over the landscape. Sections of the flood basalts have been eroded away, but still form a basaltic mountain range known as North Mountain; as a result, much of the basin floor is made of tholeiitic basalts giving its brown colour. The rift valley failed as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge continued to separate North America and Africa; the upper part of the bay splits into Chignecto Bay in the northeast and the Minas Basin in the east. Chignecto Bay is further subdivided into Cumberland Basin and Shepody Bay and the extreme eastern portion of Minas Basin is called Cobequid Bay; some of these upper reaches exhibit exposed red bay muds. Cape Chignecto defines Chignecto Bay whereas Cape Split defines the Minas Channel, leading to the Minas Basin; the Minas Channel connects the Minas Basin with the main body of the bay. The channel is 5.6 kilometres across and 106.7 metres deep. The tides that flow through the channel are powerful, they are as powerful as 25 million horses. Facing Cape Split at the entrance to the Minas Channel are the basalt cliffs of Cape d'Or.
The lower part of the bay is home to four important sub-basins: Passamaquoddy Bay and Back Bay on the New Brunswick shore, Cobscook Bay on the Maine shore, the Annapolis Basin on the Nova Scotia shore. The bay is home to several islands, the largest of, Grand Manan at the boundary with the Gulf of Maine. Other important islands on the north side of the bay include Campobello Island, Moose Island, Deer Island in the Passamaquoddy Bay area. Brier Island and Long Island can be found on the south side of the bay while Isle Haute is in the upper bay off Cape Chignecto. Smaller islands and islets exist in Passamaquoddy Bay, Back Bay, Annapolis Basin; the Five Islands, in the Minas Basin, are scenic. The Bay of Fundy is home to another interesting geologic feature, the Hopewell Rocks formation; this formation is where the "famous flower-pot rocks" are l
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe