Kingdom of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when civil discontent led a constitutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, thereby ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions; however if relations with Berlin became friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste, corners of Austria-Hungary populated by Italians.
So in 1915, Italy accepted the British invitation to join the Allied Powers, as the western powers promised territorial compensation for participation, more generous than Vienna's offer in exchange for Italian neutrality. Victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. "Fascist Italy" is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government. The fascists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne, " Fascist government passed through several distinct phases"; the first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship". Came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper, from 1925 to 1929"; the third phase, with less activism, was 1929 to 1934.
The fourth phase, 1935–1940, was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: war against Ethiopia, launched from Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, which resulted in its annexation. The war itself was the fifth phase with its disasters and defeats, while the rump Salò Government under German control was the final stage. Italy was an important member of the Axis powers in World War II, battling on several fronts with initial success. However, after the German-Italian defeat in Africa and Soviet Union and the subsequent Allied landings in Sicily, King Victor Emmanuel III placed Mussolini under arrest, the Fascist Party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders was shut down; the new government signed an armistice on September 1943. German forces occupied northern Italy with Fascists' help, setting up the Italian Social Republic, a collaborationist puppet state still led by Mussolini and his Fascist loyalists; as conseguence, the country descended into civil war, with the Italian Co-belligerent Army and the resistance movement contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies.
Shortly after the war and the liberation of the country, civil discontent led to the constitutional referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the present-day Italian state; the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which covers present-day Italy and more. The development of the Kingdom's territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870; the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which were annexed in 1919 and remain Italian territories today. The Triple Entente promised to grant to Italy – if the state joined the Allies in World War I – several territories including former Austrian Littoral, western parts of former Duchy of Carniola, Northern Dalmazia and notably Zara and most of the Dalmatian islands, according to the secret London Pact of 1915. After the compromise was nullified under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson with the Treaty of Versailles, Italian claims on Northern Dalmazia were voided.
During World War II, the Kingdom gained additional territory: it gained Corsica and Savoia from France after its surrender in 1940, territory in Slovenia and Dalmazia from Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1941 and Monaco in 1942. After World War II, the borders of present-day Italy were founded and the Kingdom abandoned its land claims; the Italian Empire gained territory until the end of World War II through colonies, military occupations and puppet states. These included Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia, British Somaliland, Tunisia, Kosovo, Montenegro and a 46-hectare concession from China in Tianjin; the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch; the legislative branch was a bicameral Parliament comprising an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdom's constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the former governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, by this time it was impossible for a king to appoint a government of his ow
Rabat is the capital city of Morocco and the country's seventh largest city with an urban population of 580,000 and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million. It is the capital city of the Rabat-Salé-Kénitra administrative region. Once a reputed corsair haven, Rabat served as one of the many ports in North Africa for the Barbary pirates, who were active from the 16th through the 18th centuries; the city is located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the river Bou Regreg. On the facing shore of the river lies Salé, the city's main commuter town. Rabat and Salé form a conurbation of over 1.8 million people. Silt-related problems have diminished Rabat's role as a port. In addition and the presence of all foreign embassies in Morocco serve to make Rabat one of the most important cities in the country; the Moroccan capital was ranked at second place by CNN in its "Top Travel Destinations of 2013". It is one of four Imperial cities of Morocco, the medina of Rabat is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Rabat is accessible by train through the ONCF system and by plane through the nearby Rabat–Salé Airport. Rabat has a modern history compared to the nearby ancient city of Salé. In 1146, the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min turned Rabat's ribat into a full-scale fortress to use as a launching point for attacks on Iberia. In 1170, due to its military importance, Rabat acquired the title Ribatu l-Fath, meaning "stronghold of victory," from which it derives its current name. Yaqub al-Mansur, another Almohad Caliph, moved the capital of his empire to Rabat, he built Rabat's city walls, the Kasbah of the Udayas and began construction on what would have been the world's largest mosque. However, Yaqub died and construction stopped; the ruins of the unfinished mosque, along with the Hassan Tower, still stand today. Yaqub's death initiated a period of decline; the Almohad empire lost control of its possessions in Spain and much of its African territory leading to its total collapse. In the 13th century, much of Rabat's economic power shifted to Fez.
In 1515 a Moorish explorer, El Wassan, reported that Rabat had declined so much that only 100 inhabited houses remained. An influx of Moriscos, expelled from Spain, in the early 17th century helped boost Rabat's growth. Rabat and neighboring Salé united to form the Republic of Bou Regreg in 1627; the republic was run by Barbary pirates who used the two cities as base ports for launching attacks on shipping. The pirates did not have to contend with any central authority until the Alaouite Dynasty united Morocco in 1666; the latter failed. European and Muslim authorities continued to attempt to control the pirates over many years, but the Republic of Bou Regreg did not collapse until 1818. After the republic's collapse, pirates continued to use the port of Rabat, which led to the shelling of the city by Austria in 1829 after an Austrian ship had been lost to a pirate attack; the French established a protectorate. The French administrator of Morocco, General Hubert Lyautey, decided to relocate the country's capital from Fez to Rabat.
Among other factors, rebellious citizens had made Fez an unstable place. Sultan Moulay Youssef moved his residence to Rabat. In 1913, Gen. Lyautey hired Henri Prost; when Morocco achieved independence in 1955, Mohammed V, the King of Morocco, chose to have the capital remain at Rabat. Following World War II, the United States established a military presence in Rabat at the former French air base. By the early 1950s, Rabat Salé Air Base was a U. S. Air Force installation hosting the 17th Air Force and the 5th Air Division, which oversaw forward basing for Strategic Air Command B-47 Stratojet aircraft in the country. With the destabilization of French government in Morocco, Moroccan independence in 1956, the government of Mohammed V wanted the U. S. Air Force to pull out of the SAC bases in Morocco, insisting on such action after American intervention in Lebanon in 1958; the United States agreed to leave as of December 1959, was out of Morocco by 1963. SAC felt the Moroccan bases were much less critical with the long range capability of the B-52 Stratofortresses that were replacing the B-47s and with the completion of the USAF installations in Spain in 1959.
With the USAF withdrawal from Rabat-Salé in the 1960s, the facility became a primary facility for the Royal Moroccan Air Force known as Air Base Nº 1, a status it continues to hold. Rabat is an administrative city, it does have residential neighbourhoods. The geographically spread out neighbourhoods are as follows: The heart of the city consists of three parts: the Medina. To the west, along the waterfront, there is a succession of neighbourhoods. First, around the ramparts, there is the old neighbourhoods, Quartier l'Océan and Quartier les Orangers. Beyond that, a succession of working-class districts: Diour Jamaa, Yacoub El Mansour and Hay el Fath are the main parts of this axis. Hay el Fath, which ends this sequence, evolves into a middle-class neighbourhood. To the east, along the Bouregreg, the Youssoufia region: Mabella. Between the two axes, from north to south, there are three main neighbourhoods
Queen Anne-Marie of Greece
Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, RE is the wife of King Constantine II, who reigned from 1964 until 1973. Anne-Marie is the youngest daughter of his wife Ingrid of Sweden, she is the youngest sister of the reigning Queen Margrethe II of Denmark and cousin of the reigning King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden. Princess Anne-Marie was born on 30 August 1946 at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen as the third and last daughter and child of the Crown Prince of Denmark and the Crown Princess, Princess Ingrid of Sweden, her father was the eldest son of the King and the Queen, Duchess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, her mother was the only daughter of the Crown Prince of Sweden and his British-born first wife, daughter of the Duke of Connaught, Princess Margaret of Connaught. The princess was baptised on 9 October 1946 in the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen, her godparents are the King of Queen of Denmark. At her birth, Princess Anne-Marie had two elder sisters: Princess Margrethe, the present Queen of Denmark, Princess Benedikte, who married Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and lives in Germany.
Princess Anne-Marie and her sisters grew up in apartments at Frederick IX's Palace at Amalienborg in Copenhagen and in Fredensborg Palace in North Zealand. She spent summer holidays with the royal family in her parent's summer residence at Gråsten Palace in Southern Jutland. On 20 April 1947, King Christian X died and Anne-Marie's father ascended the throne as King Frederick IX. At the time of her father's accession to the throne, only males could ascend the throne of Denmark; as Anne-Marie's parents had no sons, it was assumed that her uncle Prince Knud would one day assume the throne. The popularity of Frederick IX and his daughters and the more prominent role of women in Danish life paved the way for a new Act of Succession in 1953 which permitted female succession to the throne following the principle of male-preference primogeniture, where a female can ascend to the throne if she has no brothers. Anne-Marie's eldest sister Margrethe therefore became heir presumptive, Princess Benedikte and Princess Anne-Marie became second and third in the line of succession.
Anne-Marie was educated at N. Zahle's School, a private school in Copenhagen, from 1952 to 1961. In 1961 she attended the Chatelard School for Girls, an English boarding school outside Montreux in Switzerland. In 1963 and 1964 she attended the Institut Le Mesnil, a Swiss finishing school in Montreux. In 1959, at the age of thirteen, Anne-Marie first met her future husband, her third cousin Constantine, Crown Prince of Greece, who accompanied his parents, King Paul and Queen Frederica, on a state visit to Denmark, they met a second time in Denmark in 1961, when Constantine declared to his parents his intention to marry Anne-Marie. They met again in Athens in May 1962 at the marriage of Constantine's sister Princess Sofia of Greece and Denmark to Prince Juan Carlos of Spain at which Anne-Marie was a bridesmaid: and again in 1963 at the centenary celebrations of the Greek monarchy. On 6 March 1964, King Paul died, Constantine succeeded him as King of the Hellenes. In July 1964, the announcement of the engagement of Constantine and Anne-Marie raised the polite protests of the Left in Denmark.
Anne-Marie and Constantine were married on 18 September 1964 in the Metropolis, the Greek Orthodox Cathedral of Athens. The bride wore a Jørgen Bender design. Prior to the wedding, Anne-Marie converted from Lutheranism to the Greek Orthodox Church. In view of the fact that she was marrying a foreign ruler, consent to the marriage was given on the condition that Anne-Marie renounced her succession rights to the Danish throne for herself and her descendants. Anne-Marie and her husband Constantine are third cousins: they share King Christian IX of Denmark as patrilineal great-great-grandfather, they share Queen Victoria as a great-great-grandmother. They have five children: Princess Alexia, Crown Prince Pavlos, Prince Nikolaos, Princess Theodora and Prince Philippos; as Queen of Greece, Anne-Marie spent much of her time working for a charitable foundation known as "Her Majesty's Fund" which provided assistance to people in rural areas of Greece. Constantine and Anne-Marie have nine grandchildren.
Princess Alexia of Greece and Denmark. She was married on 9 July 1999 in London to Carlos Morales Quintana, they have four children: Arrietta Morales y de Grecia Ana-Maria Morales y de Grecia Carlos Morales y de Grecia Amelia Morales y de Grecia Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece, Prince of Denmark. He was married on 1 July 1995 in London to Marie-Chantal Miller, styled thereafter as The Crown Princess Marie-Chantal of Greece, Princess of Denmark, they have five children: Princess Maria-Olympia of Greece and Denmark Prince Constantine-Alexios of Greece and Denmark Prince Achileas-Andreas of Greece and Denmark Prince Odysseas Kymon of Greece and Denmark Prince Aristidis Stavros of Greece and Denmark Prince Nikolaos of Greece and Denmark. On 25 August 2010 on the Greek island of Spetses, he marri
George II of Greece
George II reigned as King of Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947. George was born at the royal villa at Tatoi, near Athens, the eldest son of Prince Constantine of Greece and his wife, Princess Sophia of Prussia. George pursued a military career, training with the Prussian Guard at the age of 18 serving in the Balkan Wars as a member of the 1st Greek Infantry; when his grandfather was assassinated in 1913, his father became King Constantine I and George became the crown prince. After a coup deposed King Constantine during the First World War, Crown Prince George, by a Major, followed his father into exile in 1917. George's younger brother, was installed as king by prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos, an avowed Republican; when Alexander I died following an infection from a monkey bite in 1920, Venizelos was voted out of office, a plebiscite restored Constantine to the throne. Crown Prince George served as a colonel, a major general in the war against Turkey. During this time he married his second cousin, on 27 February 1921 in Bucharest, Princess Elisabeth of Romania, daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Marie of Romania.
When the Turks defeated Greece at the Battle of Dumlupınar, the military forced the abdication of Constantine, George succeeded to the Greek throne on 27 September 1922. Following a failed royalist coup in October 1923, the Revolutionary Committee asked him to depart Greece while the National Assembly considered the question of the future form of government, he complied and, although he refused to abdicate, he left on 19 December 1923 for exile in his wife's home nation of Romania. When a republic was proclaimed on 25 March 1924, he was deposed and stripped of his Greek nationality, his property was confiscated, his wife stayed in Bucharest whilst he spent more and more time abroad visiting Britain, his mother in Florence. In 1932 he moved to Britain. Elisabeth and he had no children, were divorced on 6 July 1935. In Greece between 1924 and 1935 there were 23 changes of government, a dictatorship, 13 coups. General Georgios Kondylis, a former Venizelist who had decided to throw in his lot with the monarchist forces, overthrew the government in October 1935 and appointed himself Prime Minister.
He arranged a plebiscite both to approve his government and to bring an end to the republic. On 3 November 1935 98% of the reported votes supported restoration of the monarchy; the balloting was not secret, participation was compulsory. As Time described it at the time, "As a voter one could drop into the ballot box a blue vote for George II and please General George Kondylis, or one could cast a red ballot for the Republic and get roughed up." George, living at Brown's Hotel in London, returned to Greek soil on November 25. He and Kondylis disagreed over the terms of a general amnesty the King wanted to declare, George appointed an interim Prime Minister, Konstantinos Demertzis. New elections were held in January, which resulted in a hung parliament with the Communists holding the balance of power. A series of unexpected deaths amongst the better-known politicians, as well as the uncertain political situation, led to the rise to power of veteran army officer Ioannis Metaxas. On 4 August 1936, George endorsed Metaxas's establishment of dictatorship – the "4th of August Regime", signing decrees that dissolved the parliament, banned political parties, abolished the constitution, purported to create a "Third Hellenic Civilization."
The King, ruling with Prime Minister Metaxas, oversaw a right-wing regime in which political opponents were arrested and strict censorship was imposed. An Index of banned books during that period included the works of Plato and Xenophon. Despite the nationalist government's strong economic and military ties to Germany, a connection which continued with Nazi Germany, King George was known to have pro-British feelings at the start of World War II. On 28 October 1940 Metaxas rejected an Italian ultimatum demanding the stationing of Italian troops in Greece, Italy invaded, starting the Greco-Italian War; the Greeks mounted a successful defense and occupied the southern half of Albania, but when the Germans invaded from Bulgaria on 6 April 1941 the Greeks and the British Expeditionary Force were overrun, mainland Greece occupied. On April 23 the King and the government left the Greek mainland for Crete, but after the German airborne attack on the island he was evacuated to Egypt. Once again he went into exile to Great Britain at the behest of King Farouk of Egypt and Farouk's pro-Italian ministers.
During the war he remained the internationally recognized head of state, backed by the exiled government and Greek forces serving in the Middle East. In occupied Greece, the leftist partisans of the National Liberation Front and National Popular Liberation Army, now unfettered by Metaxas' oppression, had become the largest Greek Resistance movement, enjoying considerable popular support; as liberation drew nearer, the prospect of the King's return caused dissensions both inside Greece and among the Greeks abroad. Although the King renounced the Metaxas regime in a radio broadcast, a large section of the people and many politicians rejected his return on account of his support of the dictatorship. In November 1943 George wrote to the Prime Minister-in-exile Emmanouil Tsouderos, "I shall examine anew the question of the date of my return to Greece in agreement with the Government". Either deliberately or accidentally, the version
Brussels the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita, it covers 161 km2, a small area compared to the two other regions, has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people. Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and the home of numerous international organisations, politicians and civil servants.
Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, including its administrative-legislative, executive-political, legislative branches and its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions. The secretariat of the Benelux and headquarters of NATO are located in Brussels; as the economic capital of Belgium and one of the top financial centres of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, it is classified as an Alpha global city. Brussels is a hub for rail and air traffic, sometimes earning the moniker "Crossroads of Europe"; the Brussels Metro is the only rapid transit system in Belgium. In addition, both its airport and railway stations are the busiest in the country. Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century; the Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual in French and Dutch though French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual.
English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and a large number of migrants and expatriates speak other languages. Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, as well as its historical and architectural landmarks. Main attractions include its historic Grand Place, Manneken Pis and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie and the Museums of Art and History; because of its long tradition of Belgian comics, Brussels is hailed as a capital of the comic strip. The most common theory of the origin of the name Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Bruocsella, Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning "marsh" and "home" or "home in the marsh". Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai, made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695, when it was still a hamlet; the names of all the municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region are of Dutch origin, except for Evere, Celtic. In French, Bruxelles is pronounced and in Dutch, Brussel is pronounced. Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French in Dutch as Brusselaars.
In the Brabantian dialect of Brussels, they are called Brusseleirs. The written x noted the group. In the Belgian French pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the k disappeared and z became s, as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained; the pronunciation in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels' usage. In France, the pronunciations and are heard, but are rather rare in Belgium. See also: History of Brussels The history of Brussels is linked to that of Western Europe. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age, with vestiges and place-names related to the civilisation of megaliths and standing stones. During late antiquity, the region was home to Roman occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered near the centre. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Frankish Empire; the origin of the settlement, to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.
The official founding of Brussels is situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven, gained the County of Brussels around 1000, by marrying Charles' daughter; because of its location on the shores of the Senne, on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, Cologne, Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade. The town grew quite and extended towards the upper town, where there was a smaller risk of floods; as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. Around
Constantine I of Greece
Constantine I was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. He was commander-in-chief of the Hellenic Army during the unsuccessful Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and led the Greek forces during the successful Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, in which Greece expanded to include Thessaloniki, doubling in area and population, he succeeded to the throne of Greece on 18 March 1913, following his father's assassination. His disagreement with Eleftherios Venizelos over whether Greece should enter World War I led to the National Schism. Constantine forced Venizelos to resign twice, but in 1917 he left Greece, after threats of the Entente forces to bombard Athens. After Alexander's death, Venizelos' defeat in the 1920 legislative elections, a plebiscite in favor of his return, Constantine was reinstated, he abdicated the throne for the second and last time in 1922, when Greece lost the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, was succeeded by his eldest son, George II. Constantine died in exile four months in Sicily.
Born on 2 August 1868 in Athens, Constantine was the eldest son of King George I and Queen Olga of Greece. His birth was met with an immense wave of enthusiasm: the new heir apparent to the throne was the first Greek-born member of the family; as the ceremonial cannon on Lycabettus Hill fired the royal salute, huge crowds gathered outside the Palace shouting what they thought should rightfully be the newborn prince's name: "Constantine". This was not only the name of his maternal grandfather, Grand Duke Konstantin Romanov of Russia, but the name of the "King who would reconquer Constantinople", the future "Constantine XII, legitimate successor to the Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos", according to popular legend, he was christened "Constantine" on 12 August, his official style was the Diádochos. An additional nickname adopted by the royalists for Constantine was "the son of the eagle"; the most prominent university professors of the time were handpicked to tutor the young Crown Prince: Ioannis Pantazidis taught him Greek literature.
On 30 October 1882 he enrolled in the Hellenic Military Academy. After graduation he was sent to Berlin for further military education, served in the German Imperial Guard. Constantine studied political science and business in Heidelberg and Leipzig. In 1890 he became a Major General, assumed command of the 3rd Army Headquarters in Athens. In January 1895, Constantine caused political turmoil when he ordered army and gendarmerie forces to break up a street protest against tax policy. Constantine had addressed the crowd and advised them to submit their grievances to the government. Prime Minister Charilaos Trikoupis asked the King to recommend that his son avoid such interventions in politics without prior consultation with the government. King George responded that the Crown Prince was, in dispersing protesters obeying military orders, that his conduct lacked political significance; the incident caused a heated debate in Parliament, Trikoupis resigned as a result. In the following elections Trikoupis was defeated, the new Prime Minister, Theodoros Deligiannis, seeking to downplay hostility between government and the Palace, regarded the matter closed.
The organization of the first modern Olympics in Athens was another issue which caused a Constantine-Trikoupis confrontation, with Trikoupis opposed to hosting the Games. After Deligiannis's electoral victory over Trikoupis in 1895, those who favored a revival of the Olympic Games, including the Crown Prince, prevailed. Subsequently, Constantine was instrumental in the organization of the 1896 Summer Olympics. Coubertin assured that "the King and the Crown Prince will confer their patronage on the holding of these Games." Constantine conferred more than that. At the Crown Prince's request, wealthy businessman George Averoff agreed to pay one million drachmas to fund the restoration of the Panathinaiko Stadium in white marble. Constantine was the commander-in-chief of the Army of Thessaly in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, which ended in a humiliating defeat. In its aftermath, the popularity of the monarchy fell, calls were raised in the army for reforms and the dismissal of the royal princes, Constantine, from their command posts in the armed forces.
The simmering dissent culminated in the Goudi coup in August 1909. In its aftermath and his brothers were dismissed from the armed forces, only to be reinstated a few months by the new Prime Minister, Eleftherios Venizelos, keen on gaining the trust of King George. Venizelos was ingenious in his argumentation: "All Greeks are rightly proud to see their sons serve in the army, so is the King". What was left unsaid was that the royal princes' commands were to be on a tight leash. In 1912 with the formation of the Balkan League, Greece was ready for war against the Ottoman empire and Prince Constantine became Chief of the Hellenic Army. Ottoman planning anticipated a two-prong Greek attack east and west of the impassable Pindus mountain range, they accordingly allotted their resources divided, in a defensive posture to fortify the approaches to Ioannina, capital of Epirus, the mountain passes lea
Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value or a person – voluntarily or forcibly – to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship. The term may refer to non-human entities, such as converting a foreign currency into the currency of one's own country, as well as to the process of returning military personnel to their place of origin following a war, it applies to diplomatic envoys, international officials as well as expatriates and migrants in time of international crisis. For refugees, asylum seekers and illegal migrants, repatriation can mean either voluntary return or deportation. Voluntary return is the return of eligible persons, such as refugees, to their country of origin or citizenship on the basis of expressed willingness to such return. Voluntary return, unlike expulsion and deportation, which are actions of sovereign states, is defined as a personal right under specific conditions described in various international instruments, such as the OAU Convention, along with customary international law.
Some countries offer financial support to refugees and immigrants in order to facilitate the process of starting a new life in their country of origin. Examples of 21st century voluntary return include the Danish government, which began in 2009, offering £12,000 each to immigrants to return, Switzerland offering around 6,500 Francs, targeted for business startups upon returning home, as well Ireland. Germany in 2016 allocated €150 million over three years for migrants willing to return, the Swedish government began offering £3,500 each. 544 Nigerians returned home from Switzerland in 2013. This financial support may be considered as residency buyouts. Two countries may have a re-admission agreement, which establishes procedures, on a reciprocal basis, for one state to return irregular non-nationals to their country of origin or a country through which they have transited. Illegal immigrants are repatriated as a matter of government policy. Repatriation measures of voluntary return, with financial assistance, as well as measures of deportation are used in many countries.
As repatriation can be voluntary or forced the term is used as a euphemism for deportation. Involuntary or forced repatriation is the return of refugees, prisoners of war, or civil detainees to their country of origin under circumstances that leave no other viable alternatives. According to contemporary international law, prisoners of war, civil detainees, or refugees refusing repatriation if motivated by fears of political persecution in their own country, should be protected from refoulement and given, if possible, temporary or permanent asylum; the forced return of people to countries where they would face persecution is more known as refoulement, against international law. While repatriation brings an individual to his or her territory of origin or citizenship, a return includes bringing the person back to the point of departure; this could be to a third country, including a country of transit, a country the person has traveled through to get to the country of destination. A return could be within the territorial boundaries of a country, as in the case of returning internally displaced persons and demobilized combatants.
The distinction between repatriation and return, voluntary or involuntary, is not always clear. Repatriation is linked with health care due to the costs and resources associated with providing medical treatment to travelers and immigrants pursuing citizenship. For example, if a foreign national is in the United States with a visa and becomes ill, the insurance that the visa holder has in his or her native country may not apply in the United States if it is a country with universal health care coverage; this scenario forces hospitals to choose one of three options: Limit their services to emergency care only Offer charity care free of charge or at a reduced rate Repatriate the patient back to his or her native country where he or she will be covered according to that country's policyDetermining which option is the most ethical is very challenging for hospital administrators. In some cases, a traveler's personal insurance company is required to repatriate the patient for medical treatment; the method of repatriation could be by ground, or by air ambulance.
Medical repatriation is different from the act of medical evacuation. In the 20th century, following all European wars, several repatriation commissions were created to supervise the return of war refugees, displaced persons, prisoners of war to their country of origin. Repatriation hospitals were established in some countries to care for the ongoing medical and health requirements of returned military personnel. In the Soviet Union, the refugees seen as traitors for surrendering were killed or sent to Siberian concentration camps. Issues surrounding repatriation have been some of the most heatedly debated political topics of the 20th and 21st centuries. Many forced back to the Soviet Union by Allied forces in World War II still hold this forced migration against the United States of America and the United Kingdom; the term repatriation was used by Communist governments to describe the large-scale state-sponsored ethnic cleansing actions and expulsion of national groups. Poles born in territories that were annexed by the Soviet Union, although deported to the State of Poland, were settled in the annexed former German territories.
In the process they were told. The Korean War marked the first time that the United States or any nation began returning the bodies of battlefield casualties as soon a