Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin and of the Piedmont region, was the first capital city of Italy from 1861 to 1865; the city is located on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 878,074 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million. The city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous art galleries, churches, opera houses, parks, theatres, libraries and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, Art Nouveau architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as the Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy.
The city used to be a major European political center. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy, the first capital of the unified Italy from 1861 to 1865. Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable individuals who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour; the city hosts some of Italy's best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, the Turin Polytechnic. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Mole Antonelliana. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. Though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, Turin became a major European crossroad for industry and trade, is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan and Genoa. Turin is ranked third after Milan and Rome, for economic strength.
With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power. As of 2018, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry. Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F. C. and Torino F. C. the headquarters of automobile manufacturers Fiat and Alfa Romeo, as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics. The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont. In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres; the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history, it is believed that a Roman colony was established in 9 BC under the name of Julia Augusta Taurinorum. Both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.
In the 1st century BC, the Romans founded Augusta Taurinorum. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama; the Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theater are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at all living inside the high city walls. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but conquered again by the Lombards and the Franks of Charlemagne; the Contea di Torino was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control.
While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century; the University of Turin was founded during this period. Emmanuel Philibert known under the nickname of Iron Head, made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale and Via Nuova were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid. In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquir
Victor, Prince Napoléon
Victor, Prince Napoléon, titular 4th Prince of Montfort, was the Bonapartist pretender to the French throne from 1879 until his death in 1926. He was known as Napoléon V by his supporters, he was born in the Palais Royal of Paris during the Second French Empire the son of Prince Napoleon and his wife, Princess Marie Clothilde of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. Two younger siblings would soon follow: Prince Louis and Princess Maria Letizia Bonaparte the Duchess of Aosta. At the time of his birth, he was third in the line of succession to the throne behind Napoléon, Prince Imperial and his father; the Empire came to an end in 1870 with the abdication of the Emperor Napoleon III. He was appointed head of the house of Bonaparte at the age of 18 in the will of Napoléon Eugène, Prince Imperial, who died in 1879, so became Napoleon V to his supporters, though his younger brother, Prince Louis, a colonel in the Russian Imperial Guard, was preferred to him by many Bonapartists; the decision by the Prince Imperial to bypass Prince Victor's father led to a complete breakdown in relations between father and son.
In May 1886 the French Republic expelled the princes of the former ruling dynasties and so Prince Victor left France for exile in Belgium. At the time of the death of President Félix Faure in 1899, during the Dreyfus affair, a number of political factions attempted to take advantage of the disorder and Prince Victor announced to a delegation from the Imperialist committee that he would take action to restore the French Empire when he felt that the time was favourable. In order to achieve this, he announced he would place himself at the head of the movement with his brother, Prince Louis, fighting beside him who he said would be "bringing to the Bonapartist forces his prestige and his military talents as well as his rank in the Russian army"; the Duke of Orléans, rival claimant to the throne had forces available and they were ready to cross the French frontier at same time as the Bonapartist forces. In the end the anticipated outbreak in France did not materialise and the French Third Republic survived one of its gravest crises.
Prince Victor died on 3 May 1926 in Brussels with the French author Charles Maurras commenting on Prince Victor's time as pretender saying that he had not offered any new ideas since 1884 and no radical alternatives to republican governments. He was succeeded as the Bonaparte heir by Prince Louis. On 10 November/14 November 1910, at Moncalieri, Prince Victor was married to Princess Clémentine of Belgium, daughter of Leopold II of Belgium and Marie Henriette of Austria, they had two children: Princess Marie Clotilde Eugénie Alberte Laëtitia Généviève Bonaparte. Prince Louis Napoléon Prince Victor Napoleon
Napoléon, Prince Imperial
Napoléon, Prince Imperial known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was the only child of Emperor Napoleon III and his Empress consort, Eugénie de Montijo. After his father was dethroned in 1870, he relocated with his family to England. On his father's death in January 1873, he was proclaimed by the Bonapartist faction as Napoleon IV, Emperor of the French. In England, he trained as a soldier. Keen to see action, he put pressure on the British to allow him to participate in the Anglo-Zulu War. In 1879, serving with British forces, he was killed in a skirmish with a group of Zulus, his early death sent shockwaves throughout Europe, as he was the last serious dynastic hope for the restoration of the House of Bonaparte to the throne of France. Born in Paris, he was baptised on 14 June 1856, at Notre Dame Cathedral, his godfather was Pope Pius IX. His godmother was Eugène de Beauharnais's daughter, the Queen of Sweden, represented by Grand Duchess Stéphanie of Baden, his education, after a false start under the academic historian Francis Monnier, from 1867, supervised by General Frossard as governor, assisted by Augustin Filon, as tutor.
His English nurse, Miss Shaw, was recommended by Queen Victoria and taught the prince English from an early age. His valet, Xavier Uhlmann, his inseparable friend Louis Conneau figured in his life; the young prince was known by the nickname "Loulou" in his family circle. At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, he accompanied his father to the front and first came under fire at Saarbrücken; when the war began to go against the Imperial arms, his father sent him to the border with Belgium. In September, he sent him a message to cross over into Belgium, he travelled from there to England, arriving on 6 September, where he was joined by his parents, the Second Empire having been abolished. The family settled in England at Camden Place in Kent. On his father's death, Bonapartists proclaimed him Napoleon IV. On his 18th birthday, a large crowd gathered to cheer him at Camden Place; the Prince Imperial attended elementary lectures in physics at King's College London. In 1872, he was accepted to the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.
He finished seventh in his class of thirty four, came top in riding and fencing. He served for a time with the Royal Artillery at Aldershot. During the 1870s, there was some talk of a marriage between him and Queen Victoria's youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice. Victoria reportedly believed that it would be best for "the peace of Europe" if the prince became Emperor of France; the Prince remained a devout Catholic, he retained hopes that the Bonapartist cause might triumph if the secularising Third Republic failed. He supported the tactics of Eugène Rouher over those of Victor, Prince Napoléon, breaking with Victor in 1876. With the outbreak of the Zulu War in 1879, the Prince Imperial, with the rank of lieutenant, forced the hand of the British military to allow him to take part in the conflict, despite the objections of Rouher and other Bonapartists, he was only allowed to go to Africa by special pleading of his mother, the Empress Eugénie, by intervention of Queen Victoria herself. He went as an observer, attached to the staff of Frederic Thesiger, 2nd Baron Chelmsford, the commander in South Africa, admonished to take care of him.
Louis accompanied Chelmsford on his march into Zululand. Keen to see action, full of enthusiasm, he was warned by Lieutenant Arthur Brigge, a close friend, "not to do anything rash and to avoid running unnecessary risks. I reminded him of the Empress at home and his party in France."Chelmsford, mindful of his duty, attached the Prince to the staff of Colonel Richard Harrison of the Royal Engineers, where it was felt he could be active but safe. Harrison was responsible for the column's transport and for reconnaissance of the forward route on the way to Ulundi, the Zulu capital. While he welcomed the presence of Louis, he was told by Chelmsford that the Prince must be accompanied at all times by a strong escort. Lieutenant Jahleel Brenton Carey, a French speaker and British subject from Guernsey, was given particular charge of Louis; the Prince took part in several reconnaissance missions, though his eagerness for action led him into an early ambush, when he exceeded orders in a party led by Colonel Redvers Buller.
Despite this, on the evening of 31 May 1879, Harrison agreed to allow Louis to scout in a forward party scheduled to leave in the morning, in the mistaken belief that the path ahead was free of Zulu skirmishers. On the morning of 1 June, the troop set out, earlier than intended, without the full escort owing to Louis's impatience. Led by Carey, the scouts rode deeper into Zululand. Without Harrison or Buller present to restrain him, the Prince took command from Carey though the latter had seniority. At noon, the troop was halted at a temporarily deserted kraal while Louis and Carey made some sketches of the terrain, used part of the thatch to make a fire. No lookout was posted; as they were preparing to leave, about 40 Zulus rushed toward them screaming. The Prince's horse dashed off before he could mount, the Prince clinging to a holster on the saddle—after about a hundred yards a strap broke, the Prince fell beneath his horse and his right arm was trampled, he leapt up, drawing his revolver with his left hand, started to run—but the Zulus could run faster.
The Prince pulled the assegai from his wound. As he turned and fired on his pursuers, another assegai, thrown by a Zulu named Zabanga, struck his
Maria Letizia Bonaparte, Duchess of Aosta
Maria Letizia Bonaparte was one of three children born to Prince Napoléon and his wife Princess Maria Clotilde of Savoy. In 1888 she married Duke of Aosta, the former king of Spain and her uncle. Maria Letizia became the Duchess of Aosta, Duke of Aosta being a title by which Amadeus was known before and after his kingship, their marriage was instrumental in reviving French hopes of reinstating the Bonaparte dynasty into a position of power, as seen in the days of Napoleon III. Maria Letizia's father Napoléon Joseph was a nephew of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte through his brother Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia; this made Maria Letizia a great-niece of Emperor Napoleon. Her mother Maria Clotilde was a daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. Through this connection, Maria Letizia was a niece of King Umberto I of Italy and Queen Maria Pia of Portugal. Maria Letizia was born in the Palais Royal in Paris on 20 November 1866, during the last few years of the Second French Empire, she grew up living between Paris and elsewhere in Italy with her two brothers Napoléon Victor and Louis.
After the fall of the French Empire in 1870, their family resided in a beautiful estate near Lake Geneva. Their parents' marriage was unhappy, however as Maria Clotilde preferred the quieter, more duty-filled life that she felt they should maintain, while Napoléon Joseph preferred the faster, more entertainment-filled lifestyle of the French court. Another factor in their unhappy marriage was the circumstances leading up to their espousal. Maria Clotilde had been only 15; the marriage had been negotiated out of political reasons during the conference of Plombières. As Maria Clotilde was too young at the time for marriage, Napoléon Joseph had had to wait until the following year, their marriage was compared to that of an elephant and a gazelle. The marriage was unpopular with both the French and the Italians. For France's part, Napoléon Joseph was ill regarded, had been known to carry on a number of affairs both before and during his marriage, their official reception into Paris on 4 February was greeted coldly by Parisians, not out of disrespect for a daughter of the king of Sardinia, but instead out of dislike for her new husband.
Indeed, all her life public sympathy tended to lean in her favour. After Maria Clotilde's father Victor Emmanuel died in 1878, she returned to Turin, Italy without her husband. During this period, Maria Letizia resided with her mother in the Castle of Moncalieri, but her two brothers stayed with their father, it was in Italy that their mother withdrew herself from society to dedicate herself to religion and various charities. As a result of her mother's religious devotion, Maria Letizia was raised in a convent-like atmosphere. By her late teens, Maria Letizia was considered by some contemporaries to be beautiful and to be in appearance a "real Bonaparte", she was said to have resembled some of the sisters of Napoleon Bonaparte, who were considered quite beautiful in their day. In Florence, Maria Letizia met and married her cousin Prince Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy. A change of plans occurred however, the marriage never took place. Emanuele married Princess Hélène of Orléans instead. In 1886, a rumour circulated that Maria Letizia was going to marry her cousin Prince Roland Bonaparte.
He was thirty years old and widowed. Nothing came of these rumors however, it was in Moncalieri that she met Duke of Aosta. He was her maternal uncle and was the elected king of Spain for a brief period of three years. Maria Letizia was considered charming, Amadeus was dependent on her society when he visited Italy. In 1888, she agreed to marry him. One source attributes the marriage to the fact that Amadeus felt great love for his niece, but states that Maria Letizia's decision was a "strong desire for independence on the part of the Princess because of the heaviness of the maternal yoke". In preparation for the marriage, she received a great number of notable gifts from personages such as Empress Eugenie, the widowed wife of Napoleon III, Amadeus' three sons. Eugenie sent her some "great and illustrious" family jewels, while the boys gave her a necklace with seven rows of pearls, valued at sixty-thousand dollars; the couple planned to marry in Turin with the hopes of turning the city into a "brilliant centre of attraction in Italy".
The announcement of their marriage caused a great scandal in the Italian court, as he was not only twenty-two years older, but was her mother's brother. That year the necessary Papal dispensation was obtained, giving them permission to marry. Although the Pope gave them permission, the consanguinity of their marriage, along with those of other royal houses would lead in 1902 to Pope Leo XIII declaring that no more dispensations would be given for these types of marriages, they wedded that same year, on 11 September 1888 at the Royal Palace of Turin in Italy. The ceremony was performed by the Archbishop of Turin, Cardinal Gaetano Alimon
The franc commonly distinguished as the French franc, was a currency of France. Between 1360 and 1641, it was the name of coins worth 1 livre tournois and it remained in common parlance as a term for this amount of money, it was reintroduced in 1795. After two centuries of inflation, it was revalued in 1960, with each new franc being worth 100 old francs; the NF designation was continued for a few years before the currency returned to being the franc. The French franc was a held international reserve currency of reference in the 19th and 20th centuries; the first franc was a gold coin introduced in 1360 to pay the Ransom of King John II of France. This coin secured the king's freedom and showed him on a richly decorated horse earning it the name franc à cheval; the obverse legend, like other French coins, gives the king's title as Francorum Rex and provides another reason to call the coin a franc. Its value was set as one livre tournois. John's son, Charles V, continued this type, it was copied at Brabant and Cambrai and, with the arms on the horse cloth changed, at Flanders.
Conquests led by Joan of Arc allowed Charles VII to return to sound coinage and he revived the franc à cheval. John II, was not able to strike enough francs to pay his ransom and he voluntarily returned to English captivity. John II died as a prisoner in England and his son, Charles V was left to pick up the pieces, and so he did. Charles V pursued a policy of reform, including stable coinage. An edict dated 20 April 1365 established the centerpiece of this policy, a gold coin called the denier d’or aux fleurs de lis which had a standing figure of the king on its obverse, pictured under a canopy, its value in money of account was one livre tournois, just like the franc à cheval, this coin is universally known as a franc à pied. In accordance with the theories of the mathematician and royal advisor Nicolas Oresme, Charles struck fewer coins of better gold than his predecessors. In the accompanying deflation both prices and wages fell, but wages fell faster and debtors had to settle up in better money than they had borrowed.
The Mayor of Paris, Étienne Marcel, exploited their discontent to lead a revolt which forced Charles V out of the city. The franc fared better, it became associated with money stable at one livre tournoisHenry III exploited the association of the franc as sound money worth one livre tournois when he sought to stabilize French currency in 1577. By this time, inflows of gold and silver from Spanish America had caused inflation throughout the world economy and the kings of France, who weren't getting much of this wealth, only made things worse by manipulating the values assigned to their coins; the States General which met at Blois in 1577 added to the public pressure to stop currency manipulation. Henry III agreed to do this and he revived the franc, now as a silver coin valued at one livre tournois; this coin and its fractions circulated until 1641 when Louis XIII of France replaced it with the silver écu. The name "franc" continued in accounting as a synonym for the livre tournois; the decimal "franc" was established as the national currency by the French Revolutionary Convention in 1795 as a decimal unit of 4.5 g of fine silver.
This was less than the livre of 4.505 g, but the franc was set in 1796 at 1.0125 livres, reflecting in part the past minting of sub-standard coins. Silver coins now had their denomination marked as "5 FRANCS" and it was made obligatory to quote prices in francs; this ended the ancien régime's practice of striking coins with no stated denomination, such as the Louis d'or, periodically issuing royal edicts to manipulate their value in terms of money of account, i.e. the Livre tournois. The franc became the official currency of France in 1799. Coinage with explicit denominations in decimal fractions of the franc began in 1795. Decimalization of the franc was mandated by an act of 7 April 1795, which dealt with of weights and measures. France led the world in adopting the metric system and it was the second country to convert from a non-decimal to a decimal currency, following Russia's conversion in 1704, the third country to adopt a decimal coinage following the United States in 1787. France's first decimal coinage used allegorical figures symbolizing revolutionary principles, like the coinage designs the United States had adopted in 1793.
The circulation of this metallic currency declined during the Republic: the old gold and silver coins were taken out of circulation and exchanged for printed assignats issued as bonds backed by the value of the confiscated goods of churches, but declared as legal tender currency. The withdrawn gold and silver coins were used to finance wars and to import food, in short supply; as during the "Mississippi Bubble" in 1715–1720, too many assignats were put in circulation, exceeding the value of the "national properties", the coins, due to military requisitioning and hoarding, rarefied to pay foreign suppliers. With national government debt remaining unpaid, a shortage of silver and brass to mint coins, confidence in the new currency declined, leading to hyperinflation, more food riots, severe political instability and termination of the First French Republic and the political fall of the French Convention. Followed the economic failure of the Directoire
Amadeo I of Spain
Amadeo I, was an Italian prince who reigned as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873. The only King of Spain from the House of Savoy, he was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but was appointed King of Spain from 1870 to 1873, he was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II, was sworn in the following year. Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, the Cuban independence movement, he abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result. Granted the hereditary title of Duke of Aosta in the year of his birth, he founded the Aosta branch of Italy's royal House of Savoy, junior in agnatic descent to the branch descended from King Umberto I that reigned in Italy until 1900, but senior to the branch of the Dukes of Genoa. Prince Amedeo of Savoy was born in Turin, he was of Archduchess Adelaide of Austria.
He was styled the Duke of Aosta from birth. Entering the army as captain in 1859 he fought through the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866 with the rank of major-general, leading his brigade into action at the Battle of Custoza and being wounded at Monte Torre. In 1868, after his marriage, he was created vice admiral of the Italian navy, but this position ended when he ascended the Spanish throne. In 1867 his father yielded to the entreaties of parliamentary deputy Francisco Cassins, on 30 May of that year, Amedeo was married to Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo; the King opposed the match on the grounds that her family was of insufficient rank, as well as his hopes for his son's marriage to a German princess. Despite her princely title, Donna Maria Vittoria was not of royal birth, belonging rather to the Piedmontese nobility, she was, the sole heir of her father's vast fortune, which subsequent Dukes of Aosta inherited, thereby obtaining wealth independent of their dynastic appanage and allowances from Italy's kings.
The wedding day of Prince Amedeo and Donna Maria Vittoria was marred by the death of a stationmaster, crushed under the wheels of the honeymoon train. In March 1870, the Duchess appealed to the King to remonstrate with his son for marital infidelities that caused her hurt and embarrassment, but the King wrote in reply that, while understanding her feelings, he considered that she had no right to dictate her husband's behaviour and that her jealousy was unbecoming. After the Spanish revolution deposed Isabella II, the new Cortes decided to reinstate the monarchy under a new dynasty; the Duke of Aosta was elected King as Amadeus on 16 November 1870. He swore to uphold the constitution in Madrid on 2 January 1871; the election of the new King coincided with the assassination of his main backer. After that, Amadeo had to deal with difficult situations, with unstable Spanish politics, republican conspiracies, Carlist uprisings, separatism in Cuba, same-party disputes, fugitive governments and assassination attempts.
He could count on the support of only the progressive party, whose leaders were trading off in the government thanks to parliamentary majority and electoral fraud. The progressives divided into monarchists and constitutionalists, which made the instability worse, in 1872 a violent outburst of interparty conflicts hit a peak. There was a Carlist uprising in the Basque and Catalan regions, after that, republican uprisings happened in cities across the country; the artillery corps of the army went on strike, the government instructed the King to discipline them. Though warned of a plot against his life on 18 August 1872, he refused to take precautions, while returning from Buen Retiro Park to Madrid in company with the queen, was shot at in Via Avenal; the royal carriage was struck by several revolver and rifle bullets, the horses wounded, but its occupants escaped unhurt. A period of calm followed the event. With the possibility of reigning without popular support, Amadeus issued an order against the artillery corps and immediately abdicated from the Spanish throne on 11 February 1873.
At ten o'clock that same night, Spain was proclaimed a republic, at which time Amadeo made an appearance before the Cortes, proclaiming the Spanish people ungovernable. Disgusted, the ex-monarch left Spain and returned to Italy, where he resumed the title of Duke of Aosta; the First Spanish Republic lasted less than two years, in November 1874 Alfonso XII, the son of Isabella II, was proclaimed king, with Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish intermittent prime minister from 1873 until his assassination in 1897 serving as regent. After the death of his first wife, Amadeo married his French niece, Princess Maria Letizia Bonaparte, daughter of his sister Maria Clotilde and of Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, a nephew of Napoleon I, they had one child, who died of the flu during the First World War. Amadeo remained in Turin, Italy until his death on 18 January 1890, less than two years after marrying his second wife, his friend Puccini composed the famous elegy for string quartet Crisantemi in his memory.
Lake Amadeus in central Australia is named after him, as is the Philippine municipality of Amadeo, Cavite. By Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo: Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta Marshal of Italy married to Princess Hélène of Orléans and had issue. Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin died un
Prangins is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. It is located on Lake Geneva. Prangins is first mentioned around 1135-85 as Prengins. Following the fall of the Second French Empire, Prince Napoléon Bonaparte and his wife, Princess Maria Clotilde of Savoy, resided in exile at Château de Prangins, where Charles I of Austria and his family would take residence beginning 20 May 1919. Prangins has an area, as of 2009, of 6 square kilometers. Of this area, 3.3 km2 or 54.7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.79 km2 or 13.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.89 km2 or 31.3% is settled, 0.04 km2 or 0.7% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0.2% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 1.5% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 18.2% and transportation infrastructure made up 7.6%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 3.5%. Out of the forested land, 10.9% of the total land area is forested and 2.2% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees.
Of the agricultural land, 42.6% is used for growing crops and 5.1% is pastures, while 7.0% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.5 % is in lakes and 0.2 % streams. The municipality was part of the Nyon District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, Prangins became part of the new district of Nyon; the municipality is located on a terrace on the north shore of the Petit-Lac portion of Lake Geneva. It consists of the hamlets of Bénex and Promenthoux; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure, a Tower roofed Argent, in base three Hands of the same shaking issuant from dexter and base. Prangins has a population of 4,072; as of 2008, 26.7% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 28.6%. It has changed at a rate of 8.9 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French, with German being second most English being third. There are 4 people who speak Romansh; the age distribution, as of 2009, in Prangins is.
Of the adult population, 371 people or 9.7 % of the population are between 29 years old. 529 people or 13.8% are between 30 and 39, 672 people or 17.6% are between 40 and 49, 506 people or 13.2% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 423 people or 11.1% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 210 people or 5.5% are between 70 and 79, there are 78 people or 2.0% who are between 80 and 89, there are 10 people or 0.3% who are 90 and older. As of 2000, there were 1,300 people who never married in the municipality. There were 159 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 1,259 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.4 persons per household. There were 352 households that consist of only one person and 77 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 1,280 households that answered this question, 27.5% were households made up of just one person and there were 2 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 364 married couples without children, 449 married couples with children There were 76 single parents with a child or children.
There were 16 households that were made up of unrelated people and 21 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 470 single family homes out of a total of 674 inhabited buildings. There were 144 multi-family buildings, along with 43 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 17 other use buildings that had some housing. In 2000, a total of 1,184 apartments were permanently occupied, while 180 apartments were seasonally occupied and 12 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 2 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0%; the historical population is given in the following chart: Prangins Castle with the National Museum and the Villa Les Bleuets are listed as Swiss heritage site of national significance. The entire village of Prangins is part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites; the HBG facility for time signal transmissions is near Prangins.
Prangins hosts one of the branches of the Swiss National Museum. The Aerodrome La Côte is situated between Prangins and Gland which hosted a fly-in in 2009. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the Green Party and the LPS Party. In the federal election, a total of 960 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 47.2%. As of 2010, Prangins had an unemployment rate of 5%; as of 2008, there were 36 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 11 businesses involved in this sector. 746 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 17 businesses in this sector. 550 people were employed with 85 businesses in this sector. There were 1,629 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 44.9% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 1,22