Alexander Karađorđević, Prince of Serbia
Aleksandar Karađorđević was the prince of Serbia between 1842 and 1858. He was a member of the House of Karađorđević; the youngest son of Karađorđe Petrović and Jelena Jovanović was born in Topola on 11 October 1806. He was educated in Khotin, under the patronage of the Russian Tsar. In 1830 he married Persida Nenadović, daughter of Voivode Jevrem Nenadović and Jovanka Milovanović, they had ten children: Poleksija, married firstly in 1849 Konstantin Nikolajević, Serbian Minister of the Interior, by whom she had issue. Kleopatra, married in 1855 Milan Avram Petronijević, Serbian Ambassador to Russia. Aleksij Svetozar Petar ruled Serbia from 1903 until 1918, subsequently as King of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes until his death. Jelena. Andrej Jelisaveta Đorđe Arsenije, married in 1892, a Russian noblewoman and Countess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova, they were the parents of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia. After the Sultan’s decree acknowledging the title of Prince Mihailo Obrenovic at the end of 1839, the family returned to Serbia.
Alexander joined the Headquarters of the Serbian Army, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant and appointed as adjutant to Prince Mihailo. After the political conflicts caused by disrespect of the so-called "Turkish constitution," and Miloš Obrenović's and Mihailo Obrenović's abdications, Aleksandar Karađorđević was elected the Prince of Serbia at the National Assembly in Vračar, a municipality in modern Belgrade, on 14 September 1842. Having had his title acknowledged by Russia and Turkey, Prince Aleksandar started the reforms and founded a number of new institutions in order to improve the progress of the Serbian state, he implemented the code of civil rights, introduced the regular Army, built a cannon foundry, improved the existing schools and founded new ones, as well as established National Library and National Museum. During the Hungarian Revolution in Vojvodina, in 1848, Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević sent Serbian volunteers under the command of Stevan Knićanin to help the Serbs’ struggle for autonomy.
As a follow-up of the national-political movements of 1848, the pan-slavistic idea of a Yugoslav Monarchy emerged. The "Načertanije" document, written as a Serbian political program by Ilija Garašanin four years earlier, made the mission of replacing the Austrian and Turkish domination of all Southern Slavs with the Serbian rule under the banner of "Serbia." Throughout his reign Prince Alexander was troubled with Obrenović plots. By his refusal to take part in the Crimean War as ally of the French and Ottoman Empires against the Russian Empire; the result was his overthrow and departure into exile in 1858 by the winners of the Powers in the war and bringing the rival Obrenovic dynasty to the throne of the Principality of Serbia. In internal policy Prince Aleksandar came into conflict with the members of the Council, which culminated in the convocation of the National Assembly on St. Andrew’s Day, in December 1858, which forced him to abdicate. Prince Alexander died in Timişoara on 3 May 1885.
He was buried in Vienna, his earthly remains were moved in 1912 to the Memorial Church of St. George built by his son Petar I Karađorđević, in Oplenac, Serbia. ¨
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Princess Katarina of Yugoslavia
Princess Katarina of Yugoslavia is a member of the House of Karađorđević, the former ruling family of the former Kingdom of Yugoslavia. She undertakes various commercial work around the world, she is 98th in line to the UK throne. Katarina was born in London to Prince Tomislav of Yugoslavia, second son of Alexander I, King of Yugoslavia, his first wife, Princess Margarita of Baden, her father's dynasty having been deposed and banished from Yugoslavia after World War II, she grew up in exile in England. She has one brother, Prince Nicholas of Yugoslavia, two half-brothers, Prince George and Prince Michael, she is a first cousin of Crown Prince of Yugoslavia. In 1978, Princess Katarina was presented as a debutante to high society at the prestigious International Debutante Ball at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City, she married Sir Desmond Lorenz de Silva QC on 5 December 1987. They divorced on 6 May 2010, they had Victoria Marie Esmé Margarita de Silva. Katarina is distantly in the line of succession to the British throne as a descendant of Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom.
Following the death of her mother in 2013 she became the senior female descendant of Queen Victoria, from whom she descends paternally through Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, maternally through Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine. As the granddaughter of Princess Theodora of Greece and Denmark, she is a grand-niece of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Katarina works with the Prince of Wales's former butler, Grant Harrold, developing etiquette classes in the United Kingdom and the European continent. Katarina has served as the president of the Guild of Travel and Tourism in the UK, she is a royal patron of the Queen Charlotte's Ball. House of Karađorđević: Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of Saint Sava Rwandan Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Crown Two Sicilian Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Francis I Official website Royal Etiquette and Butler Training peerage.com Kay, Richard, "Nine lives of Princess Katarina...", Daily Mail, 23 April 2012
Peter II of Yugoslavia
Peter II was the last King of Yugoslavia, reigning from 1934 to 1945. He was the last reigning member of the Karađorđević dynasty which came to prominence in the early 20th century. Peter II was born on 6 September 1923 in Yugoslavia, he was the eldest son of Alexander I of Maria of Romania. His godfather was King George VI of the United Kingdom. Prince Peter was tutored at the Royal Palace, before attending Sandroyd School in Cobham, Surrey where Reed's School now stands; when he was 11 years old, Prince Peter succeeded to the Yugoslav throne in 1934 upon the assassination of his father King Alexander I in Marseille during a state visit to France. In view of the new monarch's young age, a regency was set up under his father's cousin Prince Paul; the Prince Regent Paul took the view that he must not change the kingdom from the way that King Alexander had left it so that his son could take possession of it unaltered when he turned 18 in September 1941, resisted any attempts to revise the 1931 constitution.
However, on 20 August 1939, the Prince Regent permitted the Prime Minister, Dragiša Cvetković, to sign the sporazum with Vladko Maček, the leader of the Croatian Peasant Party, which created a new banovina for Croatia with substantial autonomy and a much greater size, covering much of what is now Bosnia-Hercegovina, satisfying at least in part the long-standing demands of the Croats. However, the sporazum was unpopular with the Serbs when reports emerged that the prečani Serbs were being discriminated against by the authorities of the autonomous banovina; the tense international situation of August 1939 with the Danzig crisis pushing Europe to the brink of war meant the Prince Regent Paul wanted to settle one of the more debilitating internal disputes in order to made Yugoslavia more capable of surviving the coming storm. However, the sporazum with Croats came at the cost of having both Paul and Cvetković being condemned by Serbian public opinion for "selling out" to the Croats, all the more so as many Croats made it clear that they saw the banovina of Croatia as only a stepping stone towards independence.
The unpopularity of the sporazum of 1939 and with it the Cvetković government, was one of the reasons for the coup d'etat of 27 March 1941 as many Serbs believed that Peter, the son of King Alexander, would continue with his father's centralising policies when he obtained his majority. Although King Peter II and his advisors were utterly opposed to Nazi Germany, Regent-Prince Paul declared that the kingdom of Yugoslavia would join the Tripartite Pact on 25 March 1941. Two days King Peter, at age 17, was proclaimed of age after a British-supported coup d'état. During the bloodless coup, led by General Dušan Simović on 27 March 1941 in the name of Peter, the young king was the hero of the hour; as General Simović led his men toward the Royal Compound, surrounded by guards loyal to the Regent, Peter climbed down a drain-pipe to greet the rebels. As the Regent's guards surrendered without fighting, Simović arrived to tell Peter: “Your Majesty, I salute you as King of Yugoslavia. From this moment you will exercise your full sovereign power.”
The coup was popular in Belgrade and Peter was well received by the crowds. The people who had come out in Belgrade to show their support for the coup had a pro-Allied character, many of the protesters waving British and French flags; the crowds in Belgrade cheered Peter wildly as the 17-year-old king, who just learned to drive, drove his car down the streets without his bodyguards to be greeted rapturously by his subjects. The new government that Peter swore in on 27 March 1941 was headed by General Simović and comprised members of the Serbian Radical Party, the Croatian Peasant Party, the Democratic Party, the Croatian Independent Democrats, the Slovene People's Party, the Yugoslav Muslim Organization, the Agrarian Party and the Yugoslav National Party. With the exception of the Yugoslav Radical Alliance and the banned Yugoslav Communist Party and the Ustashe, all of the main political parties were represented in the new government. Postponing Operation Barbarossa, Nazi Germany attacked Yugoslavia and Greece on 6 April 1941, Orthodox Easter Sunday.
The Luftwaffe bombed Belgrade, killing between 4,000 people. Within a week, Bulgaria and Italy invaded Yugoslavia, the government was forced to surrender on 17 April. Parts of Yugoslavia were annexed by Italy, Bulgaria and Germany. In the remaining parts Croatia and Serbia, two German-controlled puppet governments were installed; as Yugoslavia collapsed, Peter fled by plane to Athens, running out of fuel and landing a British airfield in rural Greece, where locals did not at first believe that he was king of Yugoslavia. Peter left the country with the Royal Yugoslav Government's ministers following the Axis invasion; the Yugoslav king and his government ministers went to Greece en route to British-ruled Jerusalem in Palestine, Cairo in Egypt. In Athens on 16 April 1941, Peter issued a press statement saying he would fight until victory before fleeing Greece. In Jerusalem on 4 May 1941, Peter affirmed in a press statement the Sporazum of 23 August 1939, which turned Yugoslavia into a semi-federation as the basis of the post-war political system he was planning to introduce once his nation was liberated.
Of the 22 men Peter had sworn in as ministers on 27 March 1941, two were killed during the German invasion and another five chose not go into exile. Džafer Kulenović of the Yugoslav Muslim Organization switched sides and went over to the Ustashe, urging Bosnian Muslims to join the Croats in killing Serbs.
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, Duchess of Västergötland is the heir apparent to the Swedish throne, as the eldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf. If she ascends to the throne as expected, she will be Sweden's fourth queen regnant and the first since 1720. Victoria was born on 14 July 1977 at 21:45 CET at the Karolinska Hospital in Solna, Stockholm County, is the oldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, she is a member of the House of Bernadotte. Born as a princess of Sweden, she was designated crown princess in 1979 ahead of her younger brother, her place as first in the line of succession formally went into effect on 1 January 1980 with the parliamentary change to the Act of Succession that introduced absolute primogeniture. Her given names honour various relatives, her first name comes from her great-great-grandmother Victoria of Baden, queen consort of Sweden. Her other names honour her great-aunt Ingrid of Sweden, she was baptised at The Royal Palace Church on 27 September 1977.
Her godparents were Crown Prince Harald of Norway, her maternal uncle, Ralf Sommerlath, Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands, her aunt Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld. The Crown Princess was confirmed in the summer of 1992 at Räpplinge church on the island of Öland. Victoria studied for a year at the Catholic University of the West at Angers in France, in the fall term of 1997 participated in a special program following the work of the Riksdag. From 1998 to 2000, Victoria resided in the United States, where she studied various subjects at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. In May 1999, she was an intern at the Swedish Embassy in Washington, D. C. Victoria completed a study program at the Government Offices in 2001. In 2003, Victoria's education continued with visits to Swedish businesses, a study and intern program in agriculture and forestry, as well as completion of the basic soldier training at SWEDINT. In 2006, Victoria enrolled in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs' Diplomat Program, running from September 2006 to June 2007.
The program is a training program for young future diplomats and gives an insight to the ministry's work, Swedish foreign and security policies and Sweden's relations with the rest of the world. In June 2009, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Uppsala University, she speaks Swedish, English and German. She was made Crown Princess and heir apparent on 1 January 1980 by the 1979 change to the Act of Succession of 1810; this constitutional reform meant that the throne would be inherited by the monarch's eldest child without regard to gender. King Carl XVI Gustaf objected to the reform after it occurred—not because he objected to women entering the line of succession, but because he was upset about his son being stripped of the Crown Prince status he had held since birth; when she became heir, she was made titular Duchess of Västergötland, one of the historical provinces of Sweden. Prior to this constitutional change, the heir apparent to the throne was her younger brother, the then-Crown Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland.
He is now fourth behind the Crown Princess's daughter and son. She is one of only three female heirs apparent in the world, the other two being her goddaughter Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant. Victoria's declaration of majority took place in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace of Stockholm on 14 July 1995; as of the day she turned 18, she became eligible to act as Head of State when the King is not in country. Victoria made her first public speech on this occasion. Located on the dais in the background was the same silver throne on which her father was seated at his enthronement, in actual use from 1650 and up until this ceremony; as heir apparent to the throne, Victoria is a working member of the Swedish Royal Family with her own agenda of official engagements. Victoria attends the regular Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs and the information councils with Government ministers headed by the King, steps in as a temporary regent when needed. Victoria has made many official trips abroad as a representative of Sweden.
Her first major official visit on her own was to Japan in 2001, where she promoted Swedish tourism, music and environmental sustainability during the "Swedish Style" event. That same year, Victoria travelled to the West Coast of the United States, where she participated in the celebrations of the Nobel centenary. In 2002, she paid official visits to United States, Uganda and Kosovo where she visited Camp Victoria. In 2003, she made official visits to the United States. In early 2004, she paid an official visit to Saudi Arabia, as a part of a large official business delegation from Sweden, in October 2004, she travelled to Hungary. Crown Princess Victoria was given her own household in October 2004, it is headed by the Marshal of the Court, serves to coordinate the official engagements of The Crown Princess. In January 2005, Victoria made a long official visit to Australia, promoting Swedish style and businesses, in April she visited Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to follow aid work and become informed about the work in the aftermath of the tsunami.
In April 2005, Victoria made an official visit to Japan where she visited the Expo 2005 in Aichi, laid the foundatio
Succession to the British throne
Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, sex and religion. Under common law, the Crown is inherited by a sovereign's children or by a childless sovereign's nearest collateral line; the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701 restrict succession to the throne to the legitimate Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover who are in "communion with the Church of England". Spouses of Roman Catholics were disqualified from 1689 until the law was amended in 2015. Protestant descendants of those excluded for being Roman Catholics are eligible. Queen Elizabeth II is the sovereign, her heir apparent is her eldest son, Prince of Wales. Next in line after him is Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, the Prince of Wales's elder son. Third in line is Prince George, the eldest child of the Duke of Cambridge, followed by his sister, Princess Charlotte and younger brother, Prince Louis. Sixth in line is Prince Duke of Sussex, the younger son of the Prince of Wales. Under the Perth Agreement, which came into effect in 2015, only the first six in line of succession require the sovereign's consent before they marry.
The first four individuals in the line of succession who are over 21, the sovereign's consort, may be appointed Counsellors of State. Counsellors of State perform some of the sovereign's duties in the United Kingdom while he or she is out of the country or temporarily incapacitated. Otherwise, individuals in the line of succession need not have specific official roles; the United Kingdom is one of the 16 Commonwealth realms. Each of those countries has the same order of succession. In 2011, the prime ministers of the realms agreed unanimously to adopt a common approach to amending the rules on the succession to their respective Crowns so that absolute primogeniture would apply for persons born after the date of the agreement, instead of male-preference primogeniture, the ban on marriages to Roman Catholics would be lifted, but the monarch would still need to be in communion with the Church of England. After the necessary legislation had been enacted in accordance with each realm's constitution, the changes took effect on 26 March 2015.
No official, complete version of the line of succession is maintained. The exact number, in remoter collateral lines, of the people who would be eligible is uncertain. In 2001, American genealogist William Addams Reitwiesner compiled a list of 4,973 living descendants of the Electress Sophia in order of succession, but did so disregarding Roman Catholic status; when updated in January 2011, the number was 5,753. The annotated list below covers the first part of this line of succession, being limited to descendants of the sons of George V; the order of the first seventeen numbered in the list is given on the official website of the British Monarchy. People named in italics are unnumbered either because they are deceased or because sources report them to be excluded from the succession. In 1485, Henry Tudor, a female-line descendant of a legitimated branch of the royal house of Lancaster, the House of Beaufort, assumed the English crown as Henry VII, after defeating Richard III, killed at the battle of Bosworth when leading a charge against Henry's standard.
Richard was the last king of the House of York, the last of the Plantagenet dynasty. Henry declared himself king retroactively from 21 August 1485, the day before his victory over Richard at Bosworth Field, caused Richard's Titulus Regius to be repealed and expunged from the Rolls of Parliament. After Henry's coronation in London in October that year, his first parliament, summoned to meet at Westminster in November, enacted that "the inheritance of the crown should be, rest and abide in the most royal person of the sovereign lord, King Henry VII, the heirs of his body lawfully coming."Henry VII was followed by his son, Henry VIII. Though his father descended from the Lancastrians, Henry VIII could claim the throne through the Yorkist line, as his mother Elizabeth was the sister and heiress of Edward V. In 1542 Henry assumed the title King of Ireland. Henry VIII's numerous marriages led to several complications over succession. Henry VIII was first married by whom he had a daughter named Mary.
His second marriage, to Anne Boleyn, resulted in a daughter named Elizabeth. Henry VIII had Edward, by his third wife, Jane Seymour. An Act of Parliament passed in 1533 declared Mary illegitimate. Though the two remained illegitimate, an Act of Parliament passed in 1544 allowed reinserting them, providing further "that the King should and might give, limit, appoint or dispose the said imperial Crown and the other premises … by letters patent or last will in writing." Mary and Elizabeth, under Henry VIII's will, were to be followed by descendants of the King's deceased sister Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk. This will excluded from the succession the descendants of Henry's eldest sister Margaret Tudor, who were the rulers of Scotland; when Henry VIII died in 1547, the young Edward succeeded him, becoming Edward VI. Edward VI was the first Protestant Sovereign to succeed to the rule of England, he attempted to divert the course of succession in his will to prevent his Catholic half-s