The Northwest Passage is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The eastern route along the Arctic coasts of Norway and Siberia is accordingly called the Northeast Passage; the various islands of the archipelago are separated from one another and from the Canadian mainland by a series of Arctic waterways collectively known as the Northwest Passages or Northwestern Passages. For centuries, European explorers sought a navigable passage as a possible trade route to Asia. An ice-bound northern route was discovered in 1850 by the Irish explorer Robert McClure; until 2009, the Arctic pack ice prevented regular marine shipping throughout most of the year. Arctic sea ice decline has rendered the waterways more navigable for ice navigation; the contested sovereignty claims over the waters may complicate future shipping through the region: the Canadian government maintains that the Northwestern Passages are part of Canadian Internal Waters, but the United States and various European countries claim that they are an international strait and transit passage, allowing free and unencumbered passage.
If, as has been claimed, parts of the eastern end of the Passage are 15 metres deep, the route's viability as a Euro-Asian shipping route is reduced. A Chinese shipping line is planning regular voyages of cargo ships using the passage to the eastern United States and Europe, after a successful passage by Nordic Orion of 73,500 tonnes deadweight tonnage in September 2013. Loaded, Nordic Orion sat too deep in the water to sail through the Panama Canal. Before the Little Ice Age, Norwegian Vikings sailed as far north and west as Ellesmere Island, Skraeling Island and Ruin Island for hunting expeditions and trading with the Inuit and people of the Dorset culture who inhabited the region. Between the end of the 15th century and the 20th century, colonial powers from Europe dispatched explorers in an attempt to discover a commercial sea route north and west around North America; the Northwest Passage represented a new route to the established trading nations of Asia. England called the hypothetical northern route the "Northwest Passage".
The desire to establish such a route motivated much of the European exploration of both coasts of North America. When it became apparent that there was no route through the heart of the continent, attention turned to the possibility of a passage through northern waters. There was a lack of scientific knowledge about conditions. Explorers thought; the belief that a route lay to the far north persisted for several centuries and led to numerous expeditions into the Arctic. Many ended in disaster, including that by Sir John Franklin in 1845. While searching for him the McClure Arctic Expedition discovered the Northwest Passage in 1850. In 1906, the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen first completed a passage from Greenland to Alaska in the sloop Gjøa. Since that date, several fortified ships have made the journey. From east to west, the direction of most early exploration attempts, expeditions entered the passage from the Atlantic Ocean via the Davis Strait and through Baffin Bay. Five to seven routes have been taken through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, via the McClure Strait, Dease Strait, the Prince of Wales Strait, but not all of them are suitable for larger ships.
From there ships passed through waterways through the Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Strait, into the Pacific Ocean. In the 21st century, major changes to the ice pack due to climate change have stirred speculation that the passage may become clear enough of ice to permit safe commercial shipping for at least part of the year. On August 21, 2007, the Northwest Passage became open to ships without the need of an icebreaker. According to Nalan Koc of the Norwegian Polar Institute, this was the first time the Passage has been clear since they began keeping records in 1972; the Northwest Passage opened again on August 25, 2008. It is reported in mainstream medias that ocean thawing will open up the Northwest Passage for various kind of ships, making it possible to sail around the Arctic ice cap. and cutting thousands of miles off shipping routes. Warning that the NASA satellite images indicated the Arctic may have entered a "death spiral" caused by climate change, Professor Mark Serreze, a sea ice specialist at the U.
S. National Snow and Ice Data Center said: "The passages are open. It's a historic event. We are going to see this more and more as the years go by."On the other hand, some thick sections of ice will remain hard to melt in the shorter term. Such drifting and large chunks of ice in springtime, can be problematic as they can clog entire straits or damage a ship's hull. Cargo routes may therefore be slower and uncertain, depending on prevailing conditions and the ability to predict them; because a plurality of containerized traffic operates in a just-in-time mode and the relative isolation of the passage, the Northwest
Somerset Island (Nunavut)
In the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Somerset Island is a large, uninhabited island separated by the 2 km wide Bellot Strait from the Boothia Peninsula in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, lying between Peel Sound and Prince Regent Inlet. It has an area of 24,786 km2, making it the 46th largest island in the world and Canada's twelfth largest island. Around 1000 AD, the north coast of Somerset Island was inhabited by the Thule people, as evidenced by whale bones and stone ruins. William Edward Parry was the first European to sight the island in 1819. In late 1848, James Clark Ross, commanding two ships, landed at Port Leopold on the northeast coast to winter. In April the following year, he launched an exploration of the island by sledge. Roald Amundsen transited the passage between the Island and the Prince of Wales Island in the Gjøa in the first successful traverse of the Northwest Passage in 1904. Henry Larsen transited the passage, in the St Roch in the second successful transit in 1943.
But he found this route was dangerously icebound, too shallow for commercial travel. The Fort Ross trading post was established and run by the Hudson's Bay Company at the southeastern end of the island from 1937-1948; when it was closed, the island was left uninhabited except for occasional use of the former store and manager's house as shelters by Inuit caribou hunters from Taloyoak and a small settlement at Creswell Bay, which after 1967 consisted of the family of Timothy Idlout and Naomi Nangat. The Idlout family left Somerset Island in 1991, leaving it uninhabited. In 2006, CBC's The National included Fort Ross in a special series focused on climate change. Arctic Watch Lodge, a tourism establishment built in 1992, is located on Somerset Island. Arctic Watch was established at Cunningham Inlet because of the large number of beluga whales that congregate there in the summer. Arctic Watch Lodge is operated by Josée Auclair. CBC.ca In Depth: Northwest Passage Somerset Island in the Atlas of Canada - Toporama.
The Kivalliq Region is an administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. It consists of the portion of the mainland to the west of Hudson Bay together with Southampton Island and Coats Island; the regional seat is Rankin Inlet. The population was 10,413 in an increase of 16.3 % from the 2011 Census. Before 1999, Kivalliq Region existed under different boundaries as Keewatin Region, Northwest Territories. Although the Kivalliq name became official in 1999, Statistics Canada has continued to refer to the area as Keewatin Region, Nunavut in publications such as the Census. Most references to the area as "Keewatin" have been phased out by Nunavut-based bodies, as that name was rooted in a region of northwestern Ontario derived from a Cree dialect, only saw application onto Inuit-inhabited lands because of the boundaries of the now-defunct District of Keewatin; the Kivalliq Region is experiencing the world's highest rate of post-glacial rebound. The remainder of the region is referred to as Unorganized by Statistics Canada.
Canada 2016 Census Population: 10,413 Population change: +6.3% Private dwellings: 3,007 Area: 444,621.71 km2 Density: 0.02/km2 National rank in terms of population: 279th out of 283 Territorial rank in terms of population: 2nd out of 3 Kivalliq Region information at Explore Nunavut kivalliq.com - photos, links from Rankin Inlet Nunavut
Martinus Nijhoff was a Dutch poet and essayist. He studied literature in law in Utrecht, his debut was made in 1916 with his volume De wandelaar. From that moment he expanded his reputation by his unique style of poetry: not experimental, like Paul Van Ostaijen, yet distinguished by the clarity of his language combined with mystical content, he was a literary craftsman who employed skilfully various verse forms from different literary epochs. Some of his best-known works include the long poem Awater. A number of individual sonnets rose to fame De Moeder de Vrouw commemorating the opening of a bridge over the river Waal near Zaltbommel. Joseph Brodsky considered the poem Awater one of the grandest poems of the 20th century, he was awarded Constantijn Huygens Prize posthumously in 1953. Heer Halewijn Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae File Martinus Nijhoff in the Digital Library of Dutch Literature Biography Martinus Nijhoff
Nunavut is the newest and most northerly territory of Canada. It was separated from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, though the boundaries had been drawn in 1993; the creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canada's political map since the incorporation of the province of Newfoundland in 1949. Nunavut comprises a major portion of Northern Canada, most of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, its vast territory makes it the fifth-largest country subdivision in the world, as well as North America's second-largest. The capital Iqaluit, on Baffin Island in the east, was chosen by the 1995 capital plebiscite. Other major communities include the regional centres of Cambridge Bay. Nunavut includes Ellesmere Island to the far north, as well as the eastern and southern portions of Victoria Island in the west, all islands in Hudson and Ungava Bays, including Akimiski Island far to the southeast of the rest of the territory.
It is Canada's only geo-political region, not connected to the rest of North America by highway. Nunavut is the second-least populous of Canada's provinces and territories. One of the world's most remote, sparsely settled regions, it has a population of 35,944 Inuit, spread over a land area of just over 1,750,000 km2, or smaller than Mexico. Nunavut is home to the world's northernmost permanently inhabited place, Alert. Eureka, a weather station on Ellesmere Island, has the lowest average annual temperature of any Canadian weather station. Nunavut means "our land" in the native language Inuktitut. Nunavut covers 160,935 km2 of water in Northern Canada; the territory includes part of the mainland, most of the Arctic Archipelago, all of the islands in Hudson Bay, James Bay, Ungava Bay, including the Belcher Islands, all of which belonged to the Northwest Territories from which Nunavut was separated. This makes it the fifth-largest subnational entity in the world. If Nunavut were a country, it would rank 15th in area.
Nunavut has long land borders with the Northwest Territories on the mainland and a few Arctic islands, with Manitoba to the south of the Nunavut mainland. Through its small satellite territories in the southeast, it has short land borders with Newfoundland and Labrador on Killiniq Island, with Ontario in two locations in James Bay – the larger located west of Akimiski Island, the smaller around the Albany River near Fafard Island – and with Quebec in many locations, such as near Eastmain and near Inukjuak, it shares maritime borders with Greenland and the provinces of Quebec and Manitoba. Nunavut's highest point is Barbeau Peak on Ellesmere Island; the population density is one of the lowest in the world. By comparison, Greenland has the same area and nearly twice the population. Nunavut experiences a polar climate in most regions, owing to its high latitude and lower continental summertime influence than areas to the west. In more southerly continental areas cold subarctic climates can be found, due to July being milder than the required 10 °C.
The region now known as Nunavut has supported a continuous indigenous population for 4,000 years. Most historians identify the coast of Baffin Island with the Helluland described in Norse sagas, so it is possible that the inhabitants of the region had occasional contact with Norse sailors. In September 2008, researchers reported on the evaluation of existing and newly excavated archaeological remains, including yarn spun from a hare, tally sticks, a carved wooden face mask that depicts Caucasian features, possible architectural material; the materials were collected in five seasons of excavation at Cape Tanfield. Scholars determined that these provide evidence of European traders and settlers on Baffin Island, not than 1000 CE, they seem to indicate prolonged contact up to 1450. The origin of the Old World contact is unclear. So... you have to consider the possibility that as remote as it may seem, these finds may represent evidence of contact with Europeans prior to the Vikings' arrival in Greenland."
The written historical accounts of Nunavut begin in 1576, with an account by English explorer Martin Frobisher. While leading an expedition to find the Northwest Passage, Frobisher thought he had discovered gold ore around the body of water now known as Frobisher Bay on the coast of Baffin Island; the ore turned out to be worthless, but Frobisher made the first recorded European contact with the Inuit. Other explorers in search of the elusive Northwest Passage followed in the 17th century, including Henry Hudson, William Baffin and Robert Bylot. Cornwallis and Ellesmere Islands featured in the history of the Cold War in the 1950s. Concerned about the area's strategic geopolitical position, the federal government relocated Inuit from Nunavik to Resolute and Grise Fiord. In the unfamiliar and hostile conditions, they were forced to stay. Forty years the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples issued a report titled The High Arctic Relocation: A Report on the 1953–
Kitikmeot Region is an administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. It consists of the southern and eastern parts of Victoria Island with the adjacent part of the mainland as far as the Boothia Peninsula, together with King William Island and the southern portion of Prince of Wales Island; the regional seat is Cambridge Bay. Before 1999, Kitikmeot Region existed under different boundaries as Kitikmeot Region, Northwest Territories. Access to the territorial capital of Iqaluit is difficult and expensive as there are no direct flights from any community in the region. For example, Iqaluit is 1,069 km from Kugaaruk, the closest Kitikmeot community. A one-way flight to the capital costs between $2,691 and $2,911 and involves flying to, along with an overnight stay in, Northwest Territories 1,310 km southwest of Kugaaruk—in total, a trip of about 3,627 km; as is the case for the rest of Nunavut, there is no road access to the region and all places are fly-in. All five hamlets have certified airports, Cambridge Bay Airport, Gjoa Haven Airport, Kugaaruk Airport, Kugluktuk Airport and Taloyoak Airport, with scheduled flights by Canadian North and First Air.
There are five registered aerodromes in the region. Cambridge Bay Water Aerodrome is a floatplane base open in the summer only. Doris Lake Aerodrome, a 7,894 ft ice runway, the longest in the region, which serves the Doris Lake mine. George Lake Aerodrome, an ice runway, like Doris Lake is only open from January to April, serves the Back River Gold Project. Goose Lake Aerodrome serves the Back River Gold Project and has both ice and gravel runways. Hope Bay Aerodrome is a gravel runway. None of the aerodromes are charter-only. Bathurst Inlet and Umingmaktok have no scheduled flights. Seaplanes may land there in the summer. In the late summer the region is resupplied by barges and container ships from four companies, Desgagnés Transarctik, Nunavut Eastern Arctic Sealink, Coastal Shipping from the east, the Northern Transportation Company from the west; the region forms part of the Northwest Passage and has hosted several cruise ships, the largest of, the Crystal Serenity in 2016. Although the waterways are open in the summer there are no scheduled general passenger ships and only private yachts, such as the Octopus owned by Paul Allen, cruise ships pass through.
The region is home to the only two communities in Nunavut that voted "no" in the 1982 division plebiscite: Cambridge Bay and Kugluktuk. The region has four electoral districts; the seat is held by Keith Peterson. Gjoa Haven, which covers the community of Gjoa Haven and is held by Tony Akoak. Kugluktuk, which covers Kugluktuk; the seat is held by Peter Taptuna the Premier of Nunavut. Netsilik, which covers Taloyoak and Kugaaruk; the seat is held by Emilino Qirngnuq. Former districts include Akulliq, which covered Naujaat in the Kivalliq Region, it was the ony electoral district in Nunavut to cross two regions. Nattilik, which covered Gjoa Haven and Taloyoak; the previous incumbent was the former federal Minister of Leona Aglukkaq. In 2007 at their AGM, Bob Lyall, a board member of the Kitikmeot Inuit Association, suggested the formation of a political party called the Bloc Kitikmeot to run in the next general election and to advocate for a separate Kitikmeot Territory. Bobby Lyall, along with his brother Kitikmeot Corporation president, Charlie Lyall and delegates Martina and Connie Kapolak, argued that the Government of Nunavut had spent most of the infrastructure money available from the federal government in the Baffin Region.
However, the party was not formed and no members ran for a seat in the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut which continues to run as a consensus government. Hamlets Other The Kitikmeot Region doubles as one of three census divisions in Nunavut, the others being the Kivalliq and the Qikiqtaaluk regions. Of the three the Kitikmeot is the smallest in size being 1,343.8 km2 smaller than the Kivalliq. It is the least densely populated of the three; the population is predominantly Inuit with 0.7% other aboriginal peoples, 0.3% North American Indian and 0.4% Métis, 9.3% non-Aboriginals. Canada 2016 Census Population: 6,543 Population change: +8.8% Private dwellings: 1,870 Area: 443,277.47 km2 Density: 0.02/km2 National rank in terms of population: 286th out of 293 Territorial rank in terms of population: 3rd out of 3 Kitikmeot Region information at Explore Nunavut Kitikmeot Heritage Society Kitikmeot Inuit Association Kitikmeot Corporation, economic development Kitikmeot School Operations
The Qikiqtaaluk Region, Qikiqtani Region or Baffin Region is the easternmost administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. Qikiqtaaluk is the traditional Inuktitut name for Baffin Island. Although the Qikiqtaaluk Region is the most used name in official contexts, several notable public organizations, including Statistics Canada prefer the older term Baffin Region. With a population of 18,988 and an area of 989,879.35 km2 it is the largest and most populated of the three regions. The region consists of Baffin Island, the Belcher Islands, Akimiski Island, Mansel Island, Prince Charles Island, Bylot Island, Devon Island, Cornwallis Island, Bathurst Island, Amund Ringnes Island, Ellef Ringnes Island, Axel Heiberg Island, Ellesmere Island, the Melville Peninsula, the eastern part of Melville Island, the northern parts of Prince of Wales Island, Somerset Island, plus smaller islands in between; the regional seat, territorial capital, is Iqaluit. The Qikiqtaaluk Region spans the northernmost and southernmost areas of Nunavut.
Before 1999, the Qikiqtaaluk Region existed under different boundaries as the Baffin Region, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories. Canada claims Hans Island as part of Qikiqtaaluk, while Denmark considers it to be part of the Greenlandic municipality of Avannaata. All of Qikiqtaaluk's thirteen communities are located on tidal water and just under half of its residents live in Nunavut's capital and only city, Iqaluit; the majority of the rest live in twelve hamlets—Arctic Bay, Cape Dorset, Clyde River, Grise Fiord, Hall Beach, Kimmirut, Pond Inlet, Qikiqtarjuaq and Sanikiluaq. Alert and Eureka are part of the Unorganized areas in Qikiqtaaluk. There was a mining town at Nanisivik. However, it and the Nanisivik Mine closed in 2002, with Nanisivik Airport closing in 2010 and all flights transferred to Arctic Bay Airport. Like the majority of Canada's Inuit communities, the regions traditional country food includes seal, Arctic char, polar bear and caribou-which are abundant. Iqaluit has the Astro Hill Complex, the Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum and the Legislative Building of Nunavut and the Unikkaarvik Visitors Centre.
According to anthropologists and historians, the Inuit are the descendants of the Thule people who displaced the Dorset culture. By 1300 the Inuit had trade routes with more southern cultures. About 1910 Europeans markets increased their interest in white fox pelts; the distribution and mobility of Inuit changed as the expanded their traditional hunting and fishing routes to participate in the white fox fur trade. Traditional food staples—such as seal and caribou—were not always found in the same regions as white fox; the Hudson's Bay Company—which was chartered in 1670—had been opening fur trading posts throughout Inuit and First Nations territory. By 1910, the HBC was restructured into a lands sales department and fur trade; the HBC dominated the fur trade under minimal supervision from the Canadian government, some Anglican and Catholic missionaries who lived near remote northern hamlets. By 1922 most of imported goods acquired by Inuit were from the HBC. Between 1950 and 1975 thirteen northern communities were relocated.
In the 1950s and 1960s the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and others in authority undertook "the widespread killing of sled dogs". The Qikigtani Truth Commission—which was commissioned and paid for by an Aboriginal organization, the Qikiqtani Inuit Association and took place from 2007 to 2010—brought together historians and Inuit to revisit the history of the Qikigtaaluk Region. Canada 2016 Census Population: 18,988 Population change: +12.1% Private dwellings: 6,556 Area: 989,879.35 km2 Density: 0.02/km2 National rank in terms of population: 245th out of 293 Territorial rank in terms of population: 1st out of 3 Akudnirmiut Inuit Netsilik Inuit Ellesmere Island Volcanics Strathcona Fiord Qikiqtaaluk Region information at Explore Nunavut