Mary Jane Seacole OM was a British-Jamaican business woman and nurse who set up the "British Hotel" behind the lines during the Crimean War. She described this as "a mess-table and comfortable quarters for sick and convalescent officers", provided succour for wounded servicemen on the battlefield. Coming from a tradition of Jamaican and West African "doctresses", Seacole utilised herbal remedies to nurse soldiers back to health, she was posthumously awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit in 1991. In 2004 she was voted the greatest black Briton, she acquired knowledge of herbal medicine in the Caribbean. When the Crimean War broke out, she was one of two outstanding nurses to tend to the wounded, along with Florence Nightingale. Hoping to assist, Seacole applied to the War Office but was refused, so she travelled independently and set up her hotel and tended to the battlefield wounded, she became popular among service personnel, who raised money for her when she faced destitution after the war. After her death, she was forgotten for a century but today is celebrated as a woman who made a success of her career, despite experiencing racial prejudice.
Her autobiography, Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands, is one of the earliest autobiographies of a mixed-race woman, although some aspects of its accuracy have been questioned by present-day supporters of Nightingale; the erection of a statue of her at St Thomas' Hospital, London on 30 June 2016, describing her as a "pioneer nurse", has generated controversy and opposition from supporters of Nightingale. Earlier controversy broke out in the United Kingdom late in 2012 over reports of a proposal to remove her from the UK's National Curriculum. Mary Ploom-Jane Seacole was born Mary Jane Grant in Kingston, the daughter of James Grant, a Scottish Lieutenant in the British Army, a free Jamaican woman, her mother, nicknamed "The Doctress", was a healer who used traditional Caribbean and African herbal remedies and ran Blundell Hall, a boarding house at 7 East Street, considered one of the best hotels in all of Kingston. Jamaican doctresses mastered folk medicine, had a vast knowledge of tropical diseases, had a general practitioner's skill in treating ailments and injuries, acquired from having to look after the illnesses of fellow slaves on sugar plantations.
At Blundell Hall, Seacole acquired her nursing skills, which included the use of hygiene and herbal remedies. Seacole's autobiography says she began experimenting in medicine, based on what she learned from her mother, by ministering to a doll and progressing to pets before helping her mother treat humans; because of her family's close ties with the army, she was able to observe the practices of military doctors, combined that knowledge with the West African remedies she acquired from her mother. In Jamaica at that time, neonatal deaths were more than a quarter of total births, but Seacole boasted that she never lost a mother or her child. Seacole was proud of both her Jamaican and Scottish ancestry and called herself a Creole, a term, used in a racially neutral sense or to refer to the children of white settlers with indigenous women. In her autobiography, The Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole, she records her bloodline thus: "I am a Creole, have good Scots blood coursing through my veins.
My father was a soldier of an old Scottish family." She was classified as a mulatto, a multiracial person with limited political rights. Seacole emphasises her personal vigour in her autobiography, distancing herself from the contemporary stereotype of the "lazy Creole", She was proud of her black ancestry, writing, "I have a few shades of deeper brown upon my skin which shows me related – and I am proud of the relationship – to those poor mortals whom you once held enslaved, whose bodies America still owns."The West Indies were an outpost of the British Empire in the late 18th century, the source or destination of one-third of Britain's foreign trade in the 1790s. Britain's economic interests were protected by a massive military presence, with 69 line infantry regiments serving there between 1793 and 1801, another 24 between 1803 and 1815; this meant that large numbers of British troops succumbed to tropical diseases for which they were unprepared, providing West Indian nurses such as Seacole with large numbers of patients on a regular basis.
In 1780, one of Seacole's predecessors, Cubah Cornwallis, was a Jamaican mixed-race "doctress" who nursed Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, back to health in Port Royal after two-thirds of his force succumbed to tropical disease. Mary Seacole spent some years in the household of an elderly woman, whom she called her "kind patroness", before returning to her mother, she received a good education. As the educated daughter of a Scottish officer and a free black woman with a respectable business, Seacole would have held a high position in Jamaican society. In about 1821, Seacole visited London, staying for a year, visited her relatives in the merchant Henriques family. Although London had a number of black people, she records that a companion, a West Indian with skin darker than her own "dusky" shades, was taunted by children. Seacole herself was "only a little brown", she returned to London a year bringing a "large stock of West Indian pickles and preserves for sale". Her travels would be as an "unprotected" woman, without a chaperone or sponsor—an unusual practice.
Seacole returned to Jamaica in 1825. After returning to Jamaica, Seacole nursed her "old indulgent patroness" through an illness, finally
Royal Opera House
The Royal Opera House is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is referred to as "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732, it is the home of The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet, the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. Called the Theatre Royal, it served as a playhouse for the first hundred years of its history. In 1734, the first ballet was presented. A year Handel's first season of operas began. Many of his operas and oratorios were written for Covent Garden and had their premieres there; the current building is the third theatre on the site following disastrous fires in 1808 and 1856. The façade and auditorium date from 1858, but every other element of the present complex dates from an extensive reconstruction in the 1990s; the main auditorium seats 2,256 people, making it the third largest in London, consists of four tiers of boxes and balconies and the amphitheatre gallery.
The proscenium is 14.80 m high. The main auditorium is a Grade I listed building; the foundation of the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden lies in the letters patent awarded by Charles II to Sir William Davenant in 1662, allowing Davenant to operate one of only two patent theatre companies in London. The letters patent remained in the possession of the patentees' heirs until the 19th century. In 1728, John Rich, actor-manager of the Duke's Company at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, commissioned The Beggar's Opera from John Gay; the success of this venture provided him with the capital to build the Theatre Royal at the site of an ancient convent garden, part of, developed by Inigo Jones in the 1630s with a piazza and church. In addition, a Royal Charter had created a fruit and vegetable market in the area, a market which survived in that location until 1974. At its opening on 7 December 1732, Rich was carried by his actors in processional triumph into the theatre for its opening production of William Congreve's The Way of the World.
During the first hundred years or so of its history, the theatre was a playhouse, with the Letters Patent granted by Charles II giving Covent Garden and Theatre Royal, Drury Lane exclusive rights to present spoken drama in London. Despite the frequent interchangeability between the Covent Garden and Drury Lane companies, competition was intense presenting the same plays at the same time. Rich introduced pantomime to the repertoire, himself performing and a tradition of seasonal pantomime continued at the modern theatre, until 1939. In 1734, Covent Garden presented Pygmalion. Marie Sallé danced in diaphanous robes. George Frideric Handel was named musical director of the company, at Lincoln's Inn Fields, in 1719, but his first season of opera, at Covent Garden, was not presented until 1734, his first opera was Il pastor fido followed by Ariodante, the première of Alcina, Atalanta the following year. There was a royal performance of Messiah in 1743, a success and began a tradition of Lenten oratorio performances.
From 1735 until his death in 1759 he gave regular seasons there, many of his operas and oratorios were written for Covent Garden or had their first London performances there. He bequeathed his organ to John Rich, it was placed in a prominent position on the stage, but was among many valuable items lost in a fire that destroyed the theatre on 20 September 1808. In 1792 the architect Henry Holland rebuilt the auditorium, within the existing shell of the building but deeper and wider than the old auditorium, thus increasing capacity. Rebuilding began in December 1808, the second Theatre Royal, Covent Garden opened on 18 September 1809 with a performance of Macbeth followed by a musical entertainment called The Quaker; the actor-manager John Philip Kemble, raised seat prices to help recoup the cost of rebuilding and the cost of an increased ground rent introduced by the landowner, the Duke of Bedford, but the move was so unpopular that audiences disrupted performances by beating sticks, hissing and dancing.
The Old Price Riots lasted over two months, the management was forced to accede to the audience's demands. During this time, entertainments were varied. Kemble engaged a variety of acts, including the child performer Master Betty. Many famous actors of the day appeared at the theatre, including the tragediennes Sarah Siddons and Eliza O'Neill, the Shakespearean actors William Charles Macready, Edmund Kean and his son Charles. On 25 March 1833 Edmund Kean collapsed on stage while playing Othello, died two months later. In 1806, the pantomime clown Joseph Grimaldi had performed his greatest success in Harlequin and Mother Goose. Grimaldi was an innovator: his performance as Joey introduced the clown to the world, building on the existing role of Harlequin derived from the Commedia dell'arte, his father had been ballet-master at Drury Lane, his physical comedy, his ability to invent visual tricks and buffoonery, his ability to poke fun at the audience were extraordinary. Early pantomimes were performed as mimes accompanied by music, but as Music hall became popular, Grimaldi introduced the pantomime dame to the theatre and was responsible for the tradition of audience singing.
By 1821 dance and clowning had taken such a physical toll on
Pall Mall, London
Pall Mall is a street in the St James's area of the City of Westminster, Central London. It is a section of the regional A4 road; the street's name is derived from'pall-mall', a ball game played there during the 17th century. The area was built up during the reign of Charles II with fashionable London residences, it became known for high-class shopping in the 18th century, gentlemen's clubs in the 19th. The Reform and Travellers Clubs have survived to the 21st century; the War Office was based on Pall Mall during the second half of the 19th century, the Royal Automobile Club's headquarters have been on the street since 1908. The street is around 0.4 miles long and runs east in the St James's area, from St James's Street across Waterloo Place, to the Haymarket and continues as Pall Mall East towards Trafalgar Square. The street numbers run consecutively from north-side east to west and continue on the south-side west to east, it is part of a major road running west from Central London. London Bus Route 9 runs westwards along Pall Mall, connecting Trafalgar Square to Piccadilly and Hyde Park Corner.
Pall Mall was constructed in 1661, replacing an earlier highway to the south that ran from the Haymarket to the royal residence, St James's Palace. Historical research suggests a road had been in this location since Saxon times, although the earliest documentary references are from the 12th century in connection with a leper colony at St James's Hospital; when St. James's Park was laid out by order of Henry VIII in the 16th century, the park's boundary wall was built along the south side of the road. In 1620, the Privy Council ordered the High Sheriff of Middlesex to clear a number of temporary buildings next to the wall that were of poor quality. Pall-mall, a ball game similar to croquet, was introduced to England in the early-17th century by James I; the game popular in France and Scotland, was enjoyed by James' sons Henry and Charles. In 1630, St James's Field, London's first pall-mall court, was laid out to the north of the Haymarket – St James road. After the Restoration and King Charles II's return to London on 29 May 1660, a pall-mall court was constructed in St James's Park just south of the wall, on the site of The Mall.
Samuel Pepys's diary entry for 2 April 1661 records that he'... went into St. James's Park, where I saw the Duke of York playing at Pelemele, the first time that I saw the sport'; this new court suffered from dust blown over the wall from coaches travelling along the highway. In July 1661 posts and rails were erected; the court for pall-mall was long and narrow, known as an alley, so the old court provided a suitable route for relocating the eastern approach to St James's Palace. A grant was made to Dan O'Neale, Groom of the Bedchamber, John Denham, Surveyor of the King's Works allocating a 1,400-by-23-foot area of land for this purpose; the grant was endorsed'Our warrant for the building of the new street to St James's'. A new road was built on the site of the old pall-mall court, opened in September 1661, it was named Catherine Street, after Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II, but was better known as Pall Mall Street or the Old Pall Mall. The pall-mall field was a popular place for recreation and Pepys records several other visits.
By July 1665 Pepys used ` Pell Mell'. In 1662, Pall Mall was one of several streets'thought fitt to be repaired, new paved or otherwise amended' under the Streets and Westminster Act 1662; the paving commissioners appointed to oversee the work included the Earl of St Albans. The terms of the act allowed commissioners to remove any building encroaching on the highway, with compensation for those at least 30 years old; the commissioners determined that the real tennis court and adjoining house at the northeast corner of Pall Mall and St James's Street should be demolished, in 1664 notified Martha Barker, the owner of the Crown lease, to do so. Although Barker rejected £230 compensation, the court was demolished by 1679; the street was developed extensively during 1662–1667. The Earl of St Albans had a lease from the Crown in 1662 on 45 acres of land part of St James's Fields, he laid out the site for the development of St. James's Square, Jermyn Street, Charles Street, St Albans Street, King Street and other streets now known as St James's.
The location was convenient for the royal palaces of Whitehall and St James and the houses on the east and west sides of the square were developed along with those on the north side of Pall Mall, each constructed separately as was usual for the time. Houses were not built along the adjoining part of Pall Mall; the Earl petitioned the King in late 1663 that the class of occupants they hoped to attract to the new district would not take houses without the prospect of acquiring them outright. Despite opposition from the Lord Treasurer, the Earl of Southampton, on 1 April 1665 the King granted the Earl of St Albans the freehold of the St James's Square site, along with all the ground on the north side of Pall Mall between St James's Street and the east side of St James's Square; the freehold of the north side of Pall Mall subsequently passed to other private owners. The Crown kept the freehold of the land south of the street except for No. 79, granted to Nell Gwyn's trustees in 1676 or 1677 by Charles II.
The buildings constructed on the south side of Pall Mall in subsequent years were grander than those on the north owing to stricter design and building standards imposed by the crown commissioners. When the main road wa
Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island. It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a long sand spit which connects the town of Port Royal and the Norman Manley International Airport to the rest of the island. In the Americas, Kingston is the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the United States; the local government bodies of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew were amalgamated by the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation Act of 1923, to form the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation. Greater Kingston, or the "Corporate Area" refers to those areas under the KSAC. Kingston Parish had a population of 96,052, St. Andrew Parish had a population of 555,828 in 2001. Kingston is only bordered by Saint Andrew to the east and north; the geographical border for the parish of Kingston encompasses the following communities, Tivoli Gardens, Denham Town, Rae Town, Kingston Gardens, National Heroes Park, Bournemouth Gardens, Norman Gardens, Rennock Lodge and Port Royal, along with portions of Rollington Town, Franklyn Town and Allman Town.
The city proper is bounded by Six Miles to the west, Stony Hill to the north, Papine to the northeast and Harbour View to the east, communities in urban and suburban Saint Andrew. Communities in rural St. Andrew such as Gordon Town, Mavis Bank, Lawrence Tavern, Mt. Airy and Bull Bay would not be described as being in Kingston city. Two parts make up the central area of Kingston: the historic Downtown, New Kingston. Both are served by Norman Manley International Airport and by the smaller and domestic Tinson Pen Aerodrome. Kingston was founded in July 1692 as a place for survivors of the 1692 earthquake that destroyed Port Royal. Before the earthquake, Kingston's functions were purely agricultural; the earthquake survivors set up a camp on the sea front. Two thousand people died due to mosquito-borne diseases; the people lived in a tented camp on Colonel Barry's Hog Crawle. The town did not begin to grow until after the further destruction of Port Royal by fire in 1703. Surveyor John Goffe drew up a plan for the town based on a grid bounded by North, East and Harbour Streets.
The new grid system of the town was designed to facilitate commerce the system of main thoroughfares 66 feet across which allowed transportation between the port and plantations farther inland. By 1716 it had become the centre of trade for Jamaica; the government sold land to people with the regulation that they purchase no more than the amount of the land that they owned in Port Royal, only land on the sea front. Wealthy merchants began to move their residences from above their businesses to the farm lands north on the plains of Liguanea; the first free school, Wolmers's, was founded in 1729 and there was a theatre, first on Harbour Street and moved in 1774 to North Parade. Both are still in existence. In 1755 the governor, Sir Charles Knowles, had decided to transfer the government offices from Spanish Town to Kingston, it was thought by some to be an unsuitable location for the Assembly in proximity to the moral distractions of Kingston, the next governor rescinded the Act. However, by 1780 the population of Kingston was 11,000, the merchants began lobbying for the administrative capital to be transferred from Spanish Town, by eclipsed by the commercial activity in Kingston.
By the end of the 18th century, the city contained more than 3,000 brick buildings. The harbour fostered trade, played part in several naval wars of the 18th century. Kingston took over the functions of Spanish Town; these functions included agriculture, processing and a main transport hub to and from Kingston and other sections of the island. The government passed an act to transfer the government offices to Kingston from Spanish Town, which occurred in 1872, it kept this status when the island was granted independence in 1962. In 1907, 800 people died in another earthquake known as the 1907 Kingston earthquake, destroying nearly all the historical buildings south of Parade in the city; that was. These three-story-high buildings were built with reinforced concrete. Construction on King Street in the city was the first area to breach this building code. During the 1930s, island-wide riots led to the development of trade unions and political parties to represent workers; the city became home to the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies founded in 1948, with 24 medical students.
Not until the 1960s did major change occur in the development of Kingston's city centre. The international attention of reggae music at that time coincided with the expansion and development of 95 acres of the Kingston city centre waterfront area; these developments led to an influx of shops and offices, the development of a new financial centre: New Kingston, which replaced the Knutsford Racetrack. Multi-story buildings and boulevards were placed within that section. In 1966 Kingston was the host city to the Commonwealth Games; the western section of the city was not the focus of development, that area proved to be politically tense. The 1970s saw deteriorating economic conditions that led to recurrent violence and a decline in tourism which affected the island. In the 1980 general elections, the democratic socialist People's National Party government was voted out, subsequent governments have been more market-oriented. Within a global urban era, the 1990s saw that Kingston has made efforts to modernise and devel
Langenburg is a town in the district of Schwäbisch Hall, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on a hill above the river Jagst, 18 km northeast of Schwäbisch Hall, it is the place where the Wibele - small, biscuit-like pastries - were invented and are still baked today. The history of Langenburg begins with the building of a castle on the western hill crag. Prehistoric settling is but not proven. Langenburg is first documented in 1226; the free Lords of Langenburg, which stepped into history in 1201, were related to the Lords of Hohenlohe. Maybe they held family bonds. After the Langenburgs had died out, the Hohenlohe family inherited the possessions. Langenburg thus came under the rule of Hohenlohe and remained part of the Principality for the next centuries. Since 1568 Langenburg was the residency of latter principality Hohenlohe-Langenburg. In the 17th Century, Langenburg was the site of witch trials; the last victims, Anna Schmieg and Barbara Schleicher, were executed in 1672. Langenburg has a vintage car museum and the large Langenburg Castle, the seat of the family of Hohenlohe-Langenburg.
Robisheaux, Thomas. The Last Witch of Langenburg: Murder in a German Village. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-06551-0
The Victoria Cross is the highest and most prestigious award of the British honours system. It is awarded for gallantry "in the presence of the enemy" to members of the British Armed Forces, it may be awarded posthumously. It was awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours, it may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians under military command although no civilian has received the award since 1879. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857, two-thirds of all awards have been presented by the British monarch; these investitures are held at Buckingham Palace. The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War. Since the medal has been awarded 1,358 times to 1,355 individual recipients. Only 15 medals, 11 to members of the British Army, four to the Australian Army, have been awarded since the Second World War.
The traditional explanation of the source of the metal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the Siege of Sevastopol. However, research has suggested another origin for the material. Historian John Glanfield has established that the metal for most of the medals made since December 1914 came from two Chinese cannon, that there is no evidence of Russian origin. Owing to its rarity, the VC is prized and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auction. A number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross; the private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one-tenth of all VCs awarded. Following a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museum's Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010. Beginning with the Centennial of Confederation in 1967, followed in 1975 by Australia and New Zealand, developed their own national honours systems, separate from and independent of the British or Imperial honours system.
As each country's system evolved, operational gallantry awards were developed with the premier award of each system—the Victoria Cross for Australia, the Canadian Victoria Cross and the Victoria Cross for New Zealand—being created and named in honour of the Victoria Cross. These are unique awards of each honours system, assessed and presented by each country. In 1854, after 39 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a major war against Russia; the Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, the dispatches of William Howard Russell described many acts of bravery and valour by British servicemen that went unrewarded. Before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. Officers were eligible for an award of one of the junior grades of the Order of the Bath and brevet promotions while a Mention in Despatches existed as an alternative award for acts of lesser gallantry; this structure was limited. Brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were confined to those who were under the immediate notice of the commanders in the field members of the commander's own staff.
Other European countries had awards that did not discriminate against rank. There was a growing feeling among the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with the length or merit of a man's service. Queen Victoria issued a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that constituted the VC; the order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War. Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class; the medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services. To maintain its simplicity, Queen Victoria, under the guidance of Prince Albert, vetoed the suggestion that the award be called The Military Order of Victoria and instead suggested the name Victoria Cross; the original warrant stated that the Victoria Cross would only be awarded to officers and men who had served in the presence of the enemy and had performed some signal act of valour or devotion.
The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857 at which Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park, London. A single company of jewellers, Hancocks of London, has been responsible for the production of every VC awarded since its inception, it has long been believed that all the VCs were cast from the cascabels of two cannon that were captured from the Russians at the siege of Sevastopol. However, in 1990 Creagh and Ashton conducted a metallurgical examination of the VCs in the custody of the Australian War Memorial, the historian John Glanfield wrote that, through the use of X-ray studies of older Victoria Crosses, it was determined that the metal used for all VCs since December 1914 is taken from antique Chinese guns, replacing an earlier gun. Creagh noted the existence of Chinese inscriptions on the cannon, which are now legible due to corrosion. A explanation is that these cannon were taken as trophies during the First Opium War and held in the Woolwich repository.
It was thought that some medals made during the First World War were composed of metal captured from different Chinese guns during the Boxer Rebellion. This is not so
Greenwich is an area of southeast London, located 5.5 miles east-southeast of Charing Cross. It is located within the Royal Borough of Greenwich. Greenwich is notable for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian and Greenwich Mean Time; the town became the site of a royal palace, the Palace of Placentia from the 15th century, was the birthplace of many Tudors, including Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. The palace fell into disrepair during the English Civil War and was rebuilt as the Royal Naval Hospital for Sailors by Sir Christopher Wren and his assistant Nicholas Hawksmoor; these buildings became the Royal Naval College in 1873, they remained an establishment for military education until 1998 when they passed into the hands of the Greenwich Foundation. The historic rooms within these buildings remain open to the public; the town became a popular resort in the 18th century and many grand houses were built there, such as Vanbrugh Castle established on Maze Hill, next to the park.
From the Georgian period estates of houses were constructed above the town centre. The maritime connections of Greenwich were celebrated in the 20th century, with the siting of the Cutty Sark and Gipsy Moth IV next to the river front, the National Maritime Museum in the former buildings of the Royal Hospital School in 1934. Greenwich formed part of Kent until 1889; the place-name ` Greenwich' is first attested in a Saxon charter of 918. It is recorded as Grenewic in 964, as Grenawic in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1013, it is Grenviz in the Domesday Book of 1086, Grenewych in the Taxatio Ecclesiastica of 1291. The name means'green wic or settlement'; the settlement became known as East Greenwich to distinguish it from West Greenwich or Deptford Strond, the part of Deptford adjacent to the Thames, but the use of East Greenwich to mean the whole of the town of Greenwich died out in the 19th century. However, Greenwich was divided into the registration subdistricts of Greenwich East and Greenwich West from the beginning of civil registration in 1837, the boundary running down what is now Greenwich Church Street and Crooms Hill, although more modern references to "East" and "West" Greenwich refer to the areas east and west of the Royal Naval College and National Maritime Museum corresponding with the West Greenwich council ward.
An article in The Times of 13 October 1967 stated: East Greenwich, gateway to the Blackwall Tunnel, remains solidly working class, the manpower for one eighth of London's heavy industry. West Greenwich is a hybrid: the spirit of Nelson, the Cutty Sark, the Maritime Museum, an industrial waterfront and a number of elegant houses, ripe for development. Royal charters granted to English colonists in North America used the name of the manor of East Greenwich for describing the tenure as that of free socage. New England charters provided that the grantees should hold their lands "as of his Majesty's manor of East Greenwich." This was in relation to the principle of land tenure under English law, that the ruling monarch was paramount lord of all the soil in the terra regis, while all others held their lands, directly or indirectly, under the monarch. Land outside the physical boundaries of England, as in America, was treated as belonging constructively to one of the existing royal manors, from Tudor times grants used the name of the manor of East Greenwich, but some 17c.
Grants named the castle of Windsor. Places in North America that have taken the name "East Greenwich" include a township in Gloucester County, New Jersey, a hamlet in Washington County, New York, a town in Kent County, Rhode Island. Greenwich, Connecticut was named after Greenwich. Tumuli to the south-west of Flamsteed House, in Greenwich Park, are thought to be early Bronze Age barrows re-used by the Saxons in the 6th century as burial grounds. To the east between the Vanbrugh and Maze Hill Gates is the site of a Roman temple. A small area of red paving tesserae protected by railings marks the spot, it was excavated in 1902 and 300 coins were found dating from the emperors Claudius and Honorius to the 5th century. This was excavated by the Channel 4 television programme Time Team in 1999, broadcast in 2000, further investigations were made by the same group in 2003; the Roman road from London to Dover, Watling Street crossed the high ground to the south of Greenwich, through Blackheath. This followed the line of an earlier Celtic route from Canterbury to St Albans.
As late as Henry V, Greenwich was only a fishing town, with a safe anchorage in the river. During the reign of Ethelred the Unready, the Danish fleet anchored in the River Thames off Greenwich for over three years, with the army being encamped on the hill above. From here they attacked Kent and, in the year 1012, took the city of Canterbury, making Archbishop Alphege their prisoner for seven months in their camp at Greenwich, at that time within the county of Kent, they stoned him to death for his refusal to allow his ransom to be paid. For this miracle his body was released to his followers, he achieved sainthood for his martyrdom and, in the 12th century, the parish church was dedicated to him; the present church on the site west of the town centre is St Alfege's Church, designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor in 1714 and completed in 1718. Some vestiges of the Danish camps may be traced in the nam