The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ketchikan Gateway Borough, Alaska
Ketchikan Gateway Borough is a borough located in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,477; the borough seat is Ketchikan. Ketchikan Gateway Borough comprises AK Micropolitan Statistical Area; the borough has a total area of 6,654 square miles, of which 4,858 square miles is land and 1,795 square miles is water. On May 19, 2008 a large part of the former Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Census Area was annexed, including the remainder of Misty Fjords National Monument, not in the borough, making the current figures much larger than these. A map of the current area can be seen here: Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area, Alaska - east and west City and Borough of Wrangell, Alaska - north Kitimat-Stikine Regional District, British Columbia - east Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District, British Columbia - south Tongass National Forest Misty Fjords National Monument Misty Fjords National Monument Wilderness According to the 2010 census, there were 13,477 people, 5,305 households, 3,369 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 11 people per square mile. There were 6,166 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 68.7% White, 0.7% Black or African American, 14.3% Native American, 7.1% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 8.3% from two or more races. 4.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 3.31 % reported speaking Tagalog at home. The median income for a household in the city was $61,695 and the median income for a family was $45,417. Males had a median income of $35,139 versus $37,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $29,520. About 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line. In 2000, there were 5,399 households out of which 36.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.50% were married couples living together, 11.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.70% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.10. In the borough the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 31.40% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 7.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.30 males. Ketchikan Saxman Loring Ward Cove Ketchikan Gateway Borough School District List of airports in the Ketchikan Gateway Borough National Register of Historic Places listings in Ketchikan Gateway Borough, Alaska Ketchikan Gateway Borough official website Borough map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Borough map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor Ketchikan Gateway Borough School District official website City of Ketchikan official website Conservation in Ketchikan
The Dixon Entrance is a strait about 80 kilometres long and wide in the Pacific Ocean at the Canada–United States border, between the U. S. state of Alaska and the province of British Columbia in Canada. It was named by Joseph Banks for Captain George Dixon, a Royal Navy officer, fur trader, explorer, who surveyed the area in 1787; the Dixon Entrance is part of the Inside Passage shipping route. It forms part of the maritime boundary between the U. S. and Canada, although the location of that boundary here is disputed. A name used in the Haida language is Seegaay, which means only "ocean"; the Dixon Entrance lies between Clarence Strait in the Alexander Archipelago in Alaska to the north, Hecate Strait and the islands known as Haida Gwaii in British Columbia, to the south. Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, is the largest of the Alaskan islands on the north side of the entrance, is home to a branch of the Haida, known as the Kaigani Haida. Members of the Haida nation maintain free access across the Strait.
The so-called "A–B" line, which marks the northern boundary of the Dixon Entrance, was delineated by a court of arbitration set up by the 1903 Alaska Boundary Treaty. The meaning of the line remains in dispute between the United States. Canada claims the line is the international maritime boundary, while the United States holds that its purpose was only to designate the land masses belonging to each country. Hence, the U. S. does not recognize the "A–B" line as an official boundary. In 1977 the U. S. defined a maritime boundary as an equidistant line between land masses. The two differing boundary lines intersect to create four separate water areas with different claim status; the two areas south of the "A–B" line are claimed by both countries. The other two water areas are not claimed by either country; the two unclaimed areas are 1.4 km2 in size. In addition, Nunez Rocks is a low-tide elevation that lies south of the "A–B" Line, surrounded by the sea territory claimed by the U. S; the United States has not ratified the Law of the Sea Treaty, although it adheres to most of its principles as customary international law.
Under the treaty, LTEs may be used as basepoints for a territorial sea, the U. S. uses Nunez Rocks as a basepoint. As a non-signatory, there is nothing preventing the U. S. from claiming areas beyond the scope of the Law of the Sea Treaty. The fact remains that, for about half of each day, above-water territory that Canada regards as Canadian is surrounded by sea territory that the U. S. has declared to be American. Territorial fishing disputes between the countries remain today, as the United States has never shown the "A–B" line as an official boundary on its government maps. Alaska boundary dispute List of areas disputed by the United States and Canada
Petersburg Borough, Alaska
Petersburg Borough is a borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. According to Census Bureau estimates, the population was 3,196 in 2016; the borough seat is Petersburg. Petersburg is the most created county equivalent in the United States; when the borough incorporated in 2013, it took area from the Hoonah-Angoon Census Area and the former Petersburg Census Area. The remaining portion of Petersburg Census Area was added to Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area. Petersburg Census Area was created in 2008 from the remaining portion of Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area upon the incorporation of the City and Borough of Wrangell. Juneau Borough, Alaska - northwest Wrangell Borough, Alaska - southeast Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area, Alaska - southwest Hoonah–Angoon Census Area - north and west Regional District of Kitimat-Stikine, British Columbia, Canada - east Kupreanof Hobart Bay Petersburg Official website Petersburg Public Access Atlas Map of the former census area
Hecate Strait is a wide but shallow strait between Haida Gwaii and the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It merges with Queen Charlotte Sound to Dixon Entrance to the north. About 87 miles wide at its southern end, Hecate Strait narrows in the north to about 30 miles, it is about 160 miles in length. According to the BCGNIS, the southern boundary of Hecate Strait is defined as a line running from the southernmost point of Price Island to Cape St James on Kunghit Island, the southernmost point of Haida Gwaii; the northern boundary is a line from Rose Point, the northeastern tip of Graham Island, to Hooper Point at the north end of Stephens Island off the mainland. Hecate Strait, because it is so shallow, is susceptible to storms and violent weather; the Haida crossed the Hecate Strait to the mainland to plunder coastal villages to take slaves and booty. Only the Haida knew the real nature of the Strait's workings, so could not be followed by the tribes of the mainland. Hecate Strait, was one of the main defenses of the Haida people from attack.
Hecate Strait was named by Captain George Henry Richards in 1861 or 1862 after his surveying vessel, HMS Hecate. During the last Ice Age, the seafloor in this area was a wide coastal plain stretching south to the Olympic Peninsula and including what is now Queen Charlotte Sound; the strait once contained strong halibut fisheries. Hecate Strait is one of the few locations in the world with species from the Glass Sponge class of fauna. Regions with these sponge are protected from damage by commercial fishing; the Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound Glass Sponge Reefs Marine Protected Area was designated by the Fisheries and Oceans Canada in February 2017. The MPA is located in the Northern Shelf bioregion of the Pacific Region, southeast of Haida Gwaii and South of the entrance to the Douglas Channel; the MPA is composed of three individual areas known as the Northern Reef, the Central Reefs, the Southern Reef. Together these three areas cover 2,410 square kilometers; the four reef complexes in the Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound discontinuously cover an area of about 1,000 km2, are located in glacial troughs between 140 m and 240 m deep
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Edna Bay, Alaska
Edna Bay is a city on Kosciusko Island in the Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. The community was incorporated on October 13, 2014 and has a population of 42 as of the 2010 Census, down from 49 in 2000. Edna Bay is the only populated town on Kosciusko Island, has both year-round and seasonal residents. Year-round residents are either retired or work in the fishing and logging industries; some permanent residents work seasonally off-island in various industries. Due to the remote location of Edna Bay and the subsequent difficulty and expense of traveling between Edna Bay and larger Southeast Alaska communities, subsistence hunting and gathering comprise a large portion of the livelihood activities for residents of Edna Bay. Edna Bay is located at 55°58′43″N 133°40′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Edna Bay has a total area of 58.8 square miles, of which, 56.0 square miles of it is land and 2.8 square miles of it is water. Edna Bay first appeared on the 1950 U.
S. Census as an unincorporated village, it did not appear on the 1980 census. In 1990, it was made a census-designated place, it formally incorporated in 2014. As of the census of 2000, there were 49 people, 19 households, 14 families residing in the city; the population density was 0.9 people per square mile. There were 40 housing units at an average density of 0.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 95.92% White, 4.08% from two or more races. There were 19 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.2% were married couples living together, 26.3% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.14. In the city the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 18.4% from 25 to 44, 40.8% from 45 to 64, 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 157.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 133.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,583, the median income for a family was $49,063. Males had a median income of $40,625 versus $0 for females; the per capita income for the city was $58,967. There were 15.4% of families and 23.1% of the population living below the poverty line, including 29.4% of under eighteens and 50.0% of those over 64. As of 2007, Edna Bay hosts a combined general store and post office, a non-denominational Christian church, several sawmills and two licensed building contractors. There is a small state-owned marina and float-plane dock. At present there are two lodges on Kosciusko Island. Visitors to Edna Bay without a local contact would be well advised to bring with them everything needed for remote outdoor survival, although food and a limited selection of non-food supplies can be purchased at the general store located 3 miles by road from the marina; the general store and post office is open from 2PM to 4PM Tuesdays through Saturdays.
Most land in and around Edna Bay is held and there are no public camping or day-use facilities. Unescorted visitors should first check with the local residents before attempting to trespass, camp, or hunt in the area. Residents of Edna Bay have available to them broadband internet. Cellular phone service in Edna Bay is intermittent. There are two outdoor public phones. Starting in 2008, Edna Bay will be home to an engineering and software development company, made possible due to the broadband-internet service brought to the community by the State of Alaska and AP&T. Official website