Edward VIII was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor. Edward was the eldest son of King George Queen Mary, he was created Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday, nine weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, he served in the British Army during the First World War and undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father. Edward became king on his father's death in early 1936. However, he showed impatience with court protocol, caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing to Wallis Simpson, an American who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second; the prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands was politically and unacceptable as a prospective queen consort.
Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as the titular head of the Church of England, which at the time disapproved of remarriage after divorce if a former spouse was still alive. Edward knew the British government, led by Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have forced a general election and would ruin his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch; when it became apparent he could not marry Wallis and remain on the throne, Edward abdicated. He was succeeded by his younger brother, George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward is one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British history. After his abdication, he was created Duke of Windsor, he married Wallis in France on 3 June 1937. That year, the couple toured Germany. During the Second World War, he was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France, but after private accusations that he held Nazi sympathies he was appointed Governor of the Bahamas.
After the war, Edward spent the rest of his life in retirement in France. Edward and Wallis remained married until his death in 1972. Edward was born on 23 June 1894 at White Lodge, Richmond Park, on the outskirts of London during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, he was the eldest son of the Duchess of York. His father was the son of the Princess of Wales, his mother was the eldest daughter of the Duchess of Teck. At the time of his birth, he was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind his grandfather and father, he was baptised Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David in the Green Drawing Room of White Lodge on 16 July 1894 by Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury. The names were chosen in honour of Edward's late uncle, known to his family as "Eddy" or Edward, his great-grandfather King Christian IX of Denmark; the name Albert was included at the behest of Queen Victoria for her late husband Albert, Prince Consort, the last four names – George, Andrew and David – came from the patron saints of England, Scotland and Wales.
He was always known to his close friends by his last given name, David. As was common practice with upper-class children of the time and his younger siblings were brought up by nannies rather than directly by their parents. One of Edward's early nannies abused him by pinching him before he was due to be presented to his parents, his subsequent crying and wailing would lead the Duchess to send him and the nanny away. The nanny was discharged. Edward's father, though a harsh disciplinarian, was demonstrably affectionate, his mother displayed a frolicsome side with her children that belied her austere public image, she was amused by the children making tadpoles on toast for their French master, encouraged them to confide in her. Edward was tutored at home by Helen Bricka; when his parents travelled the British Empire for nine months following the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, young Edward and his siblings stayed in Britain with their grandparents, Queen Alexandra and King Edward VII, who showered their grandchildren with affection.
Upon his parents' return, Edward was placed under the care of two men, Frederick Finch and Henry Hansell, who brought up Edward and his brothers and sister for their remaining nursery years. Edward was kept under the strict tutorship of Hansell until thirteen years old. Private tutors taught him French. Edward took the examination to enter the Royal Naval College and began there in 1907. Hansell had wanted Edward to enter school earlier. Following two years at Osborne College, which he did not enjoy, Edward moved on to the Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. A course of two years, followed by entry into the Royal Navy, was planned. A bout of mumps may have made him infertile. Edward automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay on 6 May 1910 when his father ascended the throne as George V on the death of Edward VII, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester a month on 23 June 1910, his 16th birthday. Preparations for his future as king began in earnest, he was withdrawn from his naval course before his formal graduation, served as midshipman for three months aboard the battleship Hindustan immediately entered Magdalen College, for which, in the opinion of his biogra
Waterton Lake is a mountain lake in southern Alberta and northern Montana, United States. The lake is composed of two bodies of water, connected by a shallow channel known locally as the Bosporus; the two parts are referred to as Middle Waterton Lake, Upper Waterton Lake, the latter of, divided by the Canada–United States border with Canada having about two thirds of the lake while the United States has the Southern third. The United States Geological Survey gives the geocoordinates of 49°03′00″N 113°54′03″W for Upper Waterton Lake. There is Lower Waterton Lake, located located to the North of Middle Waterton Lake, it is separated by a channel known as the Dardanelles; the northern, lower end of the main lake lies in Waterton Lakes National Park while the upper, southern part of the lake is located in Glacier National Park. In 1979, UNESCO established the Waterton Biosphere Reserve to protect the diverse habitats including prairie grasslands, aspen parkland, subalpine forests, alpine tundra and freshwater fens that surround the lake.
Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park was created by the US and Canada in 1932, in 1976 it was designated an International Biosphere Reserve. In 1995, it was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO; the upper and middle Waterton Lake system has a surface of 10.1 km2, while the lower lake, in Canada only, has 1.5 km2 and lies at an altitude of 1,274 m. Two soundings of the lake were 210 feet and 317 feet, done in 1910. More recent soundings have revealed a depth of 490 ft. Highway 5 has its westernmost point on the shores of the lake; the Waterton River is part of the South Saskatchewan River Basin, the Oldman River Sub-Basin. Waterton River flows north from the Lower Waterton Lake for approx. 32 km to reach the Waterton Reservoir by the village of Hill Spring. The Waterton Reservoir diverts water of about 20 m3/s to the Belly River just upstream from the Belly's own diversion weir which diverts water to the St. Mary River; the Waterton continues north from the reservoir for approx. 39 km until it reaches the confluence with the Belly River, a tributary of the Oldman River.
Waterton River has reduced sediment concentrations due to the lakes and the reservoir acting as a sediment-settling trap. The total length of the river is 80 km. Waterton River's mean peak discharge averages about 80 m3/s. Tributaries to the Waterton River include: Foothill Creek Drywood CreekYarrow CreekDungarvan Creek Galwey BrookCottonwood CreekCrooked CreekWaterton Reservoir has a Full Supply Level of 1,185.67 metres, an Irrigation Capacity of 114,334 dam3
National Parks of Canada
National Parks of Canada are protected natural spaces throughout the country that represent distinct geographical regions of the nation. Under the administration of Parks Canada, a government branch, National Parks allow for public enjoyment without compromising the area for future generations, including the management of wildlife and habitat within the ecosystems of the park. Within Parks Canada's administration is a wide range of protected areas, encompassing National Historic Sites, National Marine Conservation Areas, National Park Reserves. Canada's first national park, located in Banff, was established in 1885. Tourism and commercialization dominated early park development, followed by resource extraction. Commodifying the parks for the profit of Canada's national economy as well as conserving the natural areas for public and future use became an integrated method of park creation; the process of establishing National Parks has included the forced displacement of indigenous and non-indigenous residents of areas within the proposed park boundaries.
The conflicts between the creation of parks and the residents of the area have been negotiated through co-management practices, as Parks Canada acknowledged the importance of community involvement in order to sustain a healthy ecosystem. A transition towards developing parks as a place of preservation began with the National Parks Act of 1930; this event marked a shift in park management practices. Revised in 1979 under the National Parks Policy, the Act placed greater emphasis on preserving the natural areas in an unimpaired state through ecological integrity and restoration, moving away from development based on profit. Acting as national symbols, Canada's National Parks exist in every province and territory representing a variety of landscapes that mark Canada's natural heritage. 1885 – Banff National Park established as Canada's first National Park. This park was called Banff Hot Springs Reserve and the Rocky Mountains National Park. 1908–1912 – Four National Parks established in Alberta and Saskatchewan with a mission akin to national wildlife refuges.
All would be abolished by 1947. 1911 – Dominion Parks Branch created, the world's first national park service. Resided in the Department of the Interior. Now known as Parks Canada, the governing body of Canada's National Parks. 1930 – Canada's parliament passes the first National Parks Act, regulating protection of the parks. 1930 – Transfer of resources agreement signed. 1970s – National Parks System Plan devised with an aim to protect a representative sample of each of Canada's 39 natural spaces. 1979 – National Parks policy is revised to make preserving ecological integrity the priority in Canadian Parks, ending the so-called dual-mandate with recreational uses. 1984 – First National Park established through a land claim agreement. 1988 – National Parks Act amended formalizing the principle of ecological integrity in the park system. 1989 – The Endangered Spaces campaign is launched by the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society and World Wildlife Canada to encourage the completion of the national parks system.
The goal of the campaign is to have parks and protected areas which represent each of the country's natural regions. 2011 – To mark the 100th anniversary of the creation of the national parks system, Parks Canada, Primitive Entertainment and Discovery World HD commissioned the National Parks Project to create a series of documentary films about various parks in the system. 2017 – Free National Parks in 2017: In celebration of Canada's 150th birthday on 1 July 2017, Parks Canada is offering free admission to national parks and national historic sites for the entire year. On July 20, 1871, the Crown Colony of British Columbia committed to Confederation with Canada. Under the union's terms, Canada was to begin construction of a transcontinental railway to connect the Pacific Coast to the eastern provinces; as the Canadian Pacific Railway went underway in 1875 and surveyors began to study the land, the location of the country's natural resources sprouted further interest. Evidence of minerals introduced the construction of mines and resource exploitation in Canada's untouched wilderness.
Exploration led to the discovery of hot springs near Banff, Alberta and in November 1885, the Canadian Government made the springs public property, removing them from the possibility of private ownership and exploitation. This event brought about the beginning of Canada's movement towards preserving land and setting it aside for public usage as National Parks. By the late 1880s, Thomas White, Canada's Minister of the Interior, responsible for federal land management, Indian affairs, natural resources extraction, began establishing a legislative motion towards establishing Canada's first National Park in Banff. May 1911 marked one of the most significant events in the administration and development of National Parks in Canada as the Dominion Forest Reserves and Parks Act were granted royal assent; this law saw the creation of the first administrative body, the Dominion Parks Branch, now known as Parks Canada, to administer National Parks in Canada. With the Branch in place, the parks system expanded from Banff eastward, combining both use and protection as the foundation to national park management.
The major motives behind the creation of National Parks in Canada were preservation. Inspired by the establishment and success of Yellowstone National Park in the United States, Canada blended the conflicting ideas of preservation and commercialism in order to satisfy its natural resource needs, conservationist views of modern management, a growing public interest in the outdoors and the new popularity of getting back to nature; this growing interest to escape the hustle and bustle of the cit
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Waterton Park referred to as Waterton, is a hamlet in southwestern Alberta, Canada within Improvement District No. 4 Waterton. It is located at the southwestern terminus of Highway 5 54 kilometres west of the Town of Cardston and 55 kilometres south of the Town of Pincher Creek; this hamlet is north of Glacier National Park in Montana. It has an elevation of 1,280 metres; the hamlet is located in the federal riding of Lethbridge. As a designated place in the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Waterton Park recorded a population of 105 living in 39 of its 168 total private dwellings, a change of 19.3% from its 2011 population of 88. With a land area of 485.66 km2, it had a population density of 0.2/km2 in 2016. As a designated place in the 2011 Census, Waterton Park had a population of 88 living in 31 of its 181 total dwellings, a -45% change from its 2006 population of 160. With a land area of 480.58 km2, it had a population density of 0.1831/km2 in 2011. Waterton Park has a humid continental climate, just above the subarctic climate.
List of communities in Alberta List of designated places in Alberta List of hamlets in Alberta
Mount Crandell is a 2,381-metre mountain summit located in Waterton Lakes National Park, in the Canadian Rockies of Alberta, Canada. It is situated north of the Waterton townsite, its nearest higher peak is 2.94 km to the south-southwest. Mount Crandell was named in 1914 after Edward H. Crandell, one of Calgary's first oilmen; the mountain's name was made official in 1943 by the Geographical Names Board of Canada. Like other mountains in Waterton Lakes National Park, Mount Crandell is composed of sedimentary rock laid down during the Precambrian to Jurassic periods. Formed in shallow seas, this sedimentary rock was pushed east and over the top of younger Cretaceous period rock during the Laramide orogeny. Based on the Köppen climate classification, Mount Crandell is located in a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, mild summers. Temperatures can drop below −20 C with wind chill factors below −30 C. Precipitation runoff from Mount Crandell drains into thence Waterton River. Geology of Alberta Mountains of Alberta Parks Canada web site: Waterton Lakes National Park
Mount Alderson is a 2,692-metre summit located in Waterton Lakes National Park, in the Canadian Rockies of Alberta, Canada. Its nearest higher peak is 8.0 km to the southwest. Mount Richards is situated 2.0 km to the southeast, Bertha Peak is to the immediate northeast. Mount Alderson was named for Sir Edwin Alfred Hervey Alderson, a senior British Army officer who served in several campaigns of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in command of the Canadian Corps in World War I; the mountain's name was adopted in 1943 by the Geographical Names Board of Canada. Like other mountains in Waterton Lakes National Park, Mount Alderson is composed of sedimentary rock laid down during the Precambrian to Jurassic periods. Formed in shallow seas, this sedimentary rock was pushed east and over the top of younger Cretaceous period rock during the Laramide orogeny. Based on the Köppen climate classification, Mount Alderson is located in a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, mild summers.
Temperatures can drop below −20 °C with wind chill factors below −30 °C. Precipitation runoff from Mount Alderson drains into thence Waterton River. Mountains of Alberta Geography of Alberta Parks Canada web site: Waterton Lakes National Park