On a rail transport system, signalling control is the process by which control is exercised over train movements by way of railway signals and block systems to ensure that trains operate safely, over the correct route and to the proper timetable. Signalling control was exercised via a decentralised network of control points that were known by a variety of names including signal box, interlocking tower and signal cabin; these decentralised systems are being consolidated into wide scale signalling centres or dispatch offices. Whatever the form, signalling control provides an interface between the human signal operator and the lineside signalling equipment; the technical apparatus used to control switches and block systems is called interlocking. All signalling was done by mechanical means. Points and signals were operated locally from individual levers or handles, requiring the signalman to walk between the various pieces of equipment to set them in the required position for each train that passed.
Before long, it was realised that control should be concentrated into one building, which came to be known as a signal box. The signal box provided a dry, climate controlled space for the complex interlocking mechanics and the signalman; the raised design of most signal boxes provided the signalman with a good view of the railway under his control. The first use of a signal box was by the London and Croydon Railway in 1843 to control the junction to Bricklayers Arms in London. With the practical development of electric power, the complexity of a signal box was no longer limited by the distance a mechanical lever could work a set of points or a semaphore signal via a direct physical connection. Power operated switch points and signalling decides expanded the territory that a single control point could operate from several hundred yards to several miles; as the technology of electric relay logic was developed, it no longer became necessary for signalmen to operate control devices with any sort of mechanical logic at all.
With the jump to all electronic logic, physical presence was no longer needed and the individual control points could be consolidated to increase system efficiency. Another advancement made possible by the replacement of mechanical control by all electric systems was that the signalman's user interface could be enhanced to further improve productivity; the smaller size of electric toggles and push buttons put more functionality within reach of an individual signalman. Route-setting technology automated the setting of individual points and routes through busy junctions. Computerised video displays removed the physical interface altogether, replacing it with a point-and-click or touchscreen interface; the use of Automatic Route Setting removed the need for any human input at all as common train movements could be automated according to a schedule or other scripted logic. Signal boxes served as important communications hubs, connecting the disparate parts of a rail line and linking them together to allow the safe passage of trains.
The first signalling systems were made possible by technology like the telegraph and block instrument that allowed adjacent signal boxes to communicate the status of a section of track. The telephone put centralised dispatchers in contact with distant signal boxes and radio allowed direct communication with the trains themselves; the ultimate ability for data to be transmitted over long distances has proven the demise of most local control signal boxes. Signalmen next to the track are no longer needed to serve as the eyes and ears of the signalling system. Track circuits transmit train locations to distant control centres and data links allow direct manipulation of the points and signals. While some railway systems have more signal boxes than others, most future signalling projects will result in increasing amounts of centralised control relegating the lineside signal box to niche or heritage applications. In any node-based control system, proper identification is critical to ensuring that messages are properly received by their intended recipients.
As such, signalling control points are provided with names or identifiers that minimise the likelihood of confusion during communications. Popular naming techniques include using nearby geographic references, line milepost numbers, sequence numbers and identification codes. Geographic names can refer to a municipality or neighbourhood, a nearby road or geographic feature, local landmarks and industry which may provide the railway with traffic or railway features like yards, sidings or junctions. On systems where Morse code was in use it was common to assign control locations short identification codes to aid in efficient communication, although wherever signalling control locations are more numerous than mileposts, sequence numbers and codes are more to be employed. Entire rail systems or political areas may adopt a common naming convention. In Central Europe, for example, signalling control points were all issued regionally unique location codes based on the point's location and function, while the American state of Texas sequentially numbered all interlockings for regulatory purposes.
As signalling control centres are consolidated it can become necessary to differentiate between older style boxes and newer train control centres, where signalmen may have different duties and responsibilities. Moreover, the name of the signalling centre itself may not be employed operationally in preference to the name of individual signalling workstations; this is true when signalling centres control large amounts of territory spanning ma
An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to cost-effective reasons, they are useful within larger stations where local and express services for the same direction of travel can be provided from opposite sides of the same platform thereby simplifying transfers between the two tracks. An alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks; the historical use of island platforms depends upon the location. In the United Kingdom the use of island platforms is common when the railway line is in a cutting or raised on an embankment, as this makes it easier to provide access to the platform without walking across the tracks. Island platforms are necessary for any station with many through platforms. Building small two-track stations with a single island platform instead of two side platforms does have advantages.
Island platforms allow facilities such as shops and waiting rooms to be shared between both tracks rather than being duplicated or present only on one side. An island platform makes it easier for wheelchair users and other people with physical limitations to change services between tracks or access facilities. If the tracks are above or below the entrance level, an island platform layout requires only one staircase and one elevator be built to access the platforms. Building the tracks and entrance at the same level creates a disadvantage. If an island platform is not wide enough to cope with passenger numbers, overcrowding can be a problem. Examples of stations where a narrow island platform has caused safety issues include Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground. An island platform requires the tracks to diverge around the center platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station on high-speed lines. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are 3 to 5 meters.
If the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks must slew out by the same distance. While this requirement is not a problem on a new line under construction, it makes building a new station on an existing line impossible without altering the tracks. A single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, with slower trains diverging from the main line so that the main line tracks remain straight. High-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms; this arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where slow trains can be passed by faster trains. A variation at some stations is to have the slow and fast pairs of tracks each served by island platforms A rarer layout, present at Mets-Willets Point on the IRT Flushing Line, 34th Street – Penn Station on the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and 34th Street – Penn Station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, uses two side platforms for local services with an island in between for express services.
The purpose of this atypical design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Since the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and IND Eighth Avenue Line have adjacent express stations at 42nd Street, passengers can make their transfers from local to express trains there, leaving more space available for passengers utilizing intercity rail at Pennsylvania Station; the Willets Point Boulevard station was renovated to accommodate the high volume of passengers coming to the 1939 World's Fair. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form; this was. If this happened, the lines would need to be compatible with continental loading gauge, this would mean it would be easy to change the line to a larger gauge, by moving the track away from the platform to allow the wider bodied continental rolling stock to pass while leaving the platform area untouched. Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. All railway stations in India consist of island platforms.
In Toronto, 29 subway stations use island platforms. In Sydney, on the Eastern Suburbs Railway and the Epping Chatswood Railway, the twin tunnels are spaced and the tracks can remain at a constant track centres while still leaving room for the island platforms. A slight disadvantage is. In Edmonton, all 18 LRT stations on the Capital Line and Metro Line use island platforms; the Valley Line under construction, utilizes the new low-floor LRT technology, but will only use island platforms on one of the twelve stops along the line. In southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 s
Orbost railway line
The Orbost railway line is a closed railway line serving the Latrobe Valley and Gippsland regions of Victoria, Australia. It ran east from the state capital Melbourne through the cities of Moe, Traralgon and Bairnsdale until reaching the eventual terminus at Orbost. Today the line ends at Bairnsdale, with the remaining section to Orbost now existing as the East Gippsland Rail Trail, a shared bicycle and horseriding track. Metro Trains Melbourne operates suburban passenger services along the inner section of the line as the Pakenham line, while V/Line services operate as the Traralgon and the Bairnsdale lines. Freight services use the line, operated by Qube Holdings. Rail lines were built to Gippsland in the 1870s and played a crucial role in developing agricultural industries in Gippsland as well as tourism, it played a crucial role in the development of coal mining in the Latrobe Valley in the 1920s. At its peak, the railway travelled as far east as Orbost, there are still frequent services to many of the towns.
Some of the disused rail lines have been turned into tourist railways and/or rail trails. The Melbourne and Suburban Railway Company opened a line from Princes Bridge railway station to Punt Road and South Yarra in 1859, Prahran in 1859 and Windsor in 1860, connecting with the St Kilda and Brighton Railway Company line; this line was extended to Dandenong, Warragul, Morwell, Sale and Bairnsdale between 1877 and 1879. It was extended to Orbost in 1916; the railway to Orbost opened in 1916 and operated until 1987, principally carrying timber and farming produce. In the early days of the railway's operation, dedicated passenger trains ran, but these ceased by the 1930s; the track infrastructure was dismantled in 1994. The line traversed a mixture of farmland and heavily-forested country, it included numerous bridges, including the Stoney Creek Trestle Bridge, the largest of its kind in Victoria. In 1954, the line beyond Dandenong was electrified because of the expected briquette traffic from the brown coal mines in the Latrobe Valley, over the next two years most of the line between Dandenong and Pakenham was duplicated and provided with power signalling, although Narre Warren to Berwick was not done until 1962.
In due course, the rail transport of briquettes petered out as industry converted to natural gas and homes were converted to other forms of heating. Electrification was cut back to Warragul in 1987, with suburban-style trains providing the services from there to Melbourne. Electrification was further cut back to Bunyip in 1998, before ceasing beyond Pakenham in 2001; the line east of Sale was closed in 1994, but was reopened to Bairnsdale in 2004. In 2005, the Regional Fast Rail project upgraded one of the two lines between Pakenham and Traralgon; this project included removing the remaining electrification infrastructure from Pakenham East to Traralgon, with the exception of a heritage-listed length in Bunyip. A branch line was built north from Warragul in stages from the 1890s, reaching Noojee in 1919; this was closed in stages from 1954 to 1958. The 762 mm narrow gauge Walhalla branch line was completed across mountainous country from Moe to Erica and Walhalla in 1910; the Platina to Walhalla section closed in 1944, Erica to Platina in 1952, Moe to Erica in 1954.
The northern-most section between Thomson and Walhalla stations has been reopened as a tourist railway by the Walhalla Goldfields Railway, provides scheduled trains. A branch line was opened from Moe to Thorpdale in 1888, closed in 1958; the Yallourn branch was opened from Hernes Oak to Yallourn in 1922 to serve the adjacent power station development. It was replaced by a line from Moe to Yallourn in 1953 because its route was required for brown coal mining, but the new line closed in 1987, having been disused since the late 1970s; the Mirboo North branch line was opened in stages from Morwell to Mirboo North between 1885 and 1886. The route of the line was dug up as part of the Hazelwood open cut mine; the Maryvale paper siding connects to the main line at Morwell and remains open today for regular freight traffic. The loop line via Maffra was opened from Traralgon to Heyfield and Stratford in 1887 and closed in stages between 1987 and 1993. A branch line was opened from Maffra to Briagolong in 1889 and closed in 1952.
Several timber tramways existed from many of the stations between Pakenham and Yarragon. The expansion of the railway in the late 1870s helped to develop Gippsland, it enabled milk from western Gippsland to be sold fresh into Melbourne while the dairy industry of East Gippsland provided cheese and butter. It enabled development of west Gippsland's market gardening and orcharding industry for sale in Melbourne markets, it encouraged the development of a tourism industry notably at Lakes Entrance. It did, end coastal shipping traffic and the use of Sale and Bairnsdale as ports. In the 1920s, the Gippsland railway played an important role in developing the mining of lignite coal and the development of the Latrobe Valley for power generation serving Melbourne and Victoria; this saw the development of industry in towns such as Yallourn, Traralgon, Moe and Drouin. The development of the Gippsland Railway helped fuel the Melbourne land boom in the 1870s; the original departure point for the railway was Oakleigh with the line connecting Oakleigh and Melbourne not built until 1879.
The Victorian Railways bought land in Oakleigh for use as workshops. Oakleigh became a centre of what was known as "railway fever" as developers developed and marketed houses c
Australian Centre for the Moving Image
The Australian Centre for the Moving Image, at Federation Square, Melbourne, is Australia's national museum of film, video games, digital culture and art. During the 2015-16 financial year, 1.45 million people visited ACMI, the second-highest attendance of any gallery or museum in Australia, the most visited moving image museum in the world. ACMI started life as the State Film Centre of Victoria in 1946. In the 1950s, the State Film Centre was involved in producing a number of projects for television a new medium in Australia, it played a role as an archive of Australian films, such as The Sentimental Bloke and On Our Selection. During the 1960s, the State Film Centre provided advice on film treatments, production and distribution outlets to local filmmakers. In 1969, the centre assumed management of the newly constructed State Film Theatre, providing a facility for exhibiting material not screened in commercial cinemas. In the 1970s, the centre began acquiring examples of student films as well as those made by the newly vibrant Australian film industry, such as Homesdale by Peter Weir and Alvin Purple by Tim Burstall, The Devil's Playground by Fred Schepisi.
In 1988, the State Film Centre Education Program was set up. The program provided screenings for Victorian Certificate of Education students, based on core texts, in-service days for their teachers. In 1993, a Victorian state government report reaffirmed the viability of a proposal for an Australian Centre for the Moving Image. In July 1997, following an open and two-stage design competition, Lab Architecture Studio, in association with their joint venture partners, Bates Smart architects, was announced as the winner. Federation Square was to be a new civic space, built above the Jolimont railyards, to mark the celebration of Australia's Centenary of Federation. On 1 January 2002, the Australian Centre for the Moving Image was established by the Film Act 2001; the first stage was opened in October, with two exhibitions, Deep Space: Sensation & Immersion and Ngarinyin Pathways Dulwan, running in ACMI's Screen Gallery. A few weeks ACMI Cinemas opened. In September 2009, the Australian Mediatheque and the Screen Worlds gallery opened.
The Screen Worlds exhibition was opened by Cate Blanchett, who loaned her Oscar for best supporting actress for her part as Katharine Hepburn in The Aviator. Screen Worlds: The Story of Film and Digital Culture is a free and permanent exhibition space constructed to educate the public about the moving image, a museum about moving pictures; the Mediatheque is a partnership with the National Film and Sound Archive, which provides a space with 12 viewing booths where people can drop in and watch films, television clips, new media and artworks from the NFSA and ACMI collections. From 1992, John J. Smithies was Director of the State Film Centre of Victoria, until its merger with Film Victoria in 1997 formed Cinemedia. At Cinemedia, Smithies was Deputy Director, with prime responsibility for developing the Australian Centre for the Moving Image, he became the first director and CEO of ACMI in March 2002. He was responsible for opening the new public facilities in October 2002. After a period of turmoil, with the organisation over budget, Smithies left ACMI in 2004, said the facility had been forced to open while "under-funded" by the Victorian Government.
Tony Sweeney was appointed director and CEO of ACMI in 2005. Before his move to Australia, he had been the Deputy Director of the National Museum of Photography, Film & Television, focused on developing the Museum's brand profile and content strategies, he directed the Museum's Imaging Frontiers masterplan re-development, which generated record visitor numbers and international critical acclaim. The Museum is now seen as one of the leading international centres for culture and learning of its kind in the world. At ACMI he oversaw record organisational growth and visitation, a prolonged period of sustained success and achievement. Having spent ten years in the role, Sweeney resigned. Katrina Sedgwick took up the position in February 2015. ACMI has two main cinemas that are equipped to play every film and digital video format, with the most extensive projection facilities in the southern hemisphere. THX certified sound systems allow high quality attention to acoustics. Cinema 1 seats 168, Cinema 2 seats 390.
ACMI's weekly and monthly film programs include: Australian Perspectives - Contemporary Australian filmmaking with archival classics and special guest presentations. Matinees - Ongoing program of quality films. Family films - Regular screenings and school holiday programs of movies for families. Cinémathèque - Double feature every Wednesday night of rare and imported prints. ACMI regularly profiles actors, writers and film genres through its retrospective seasons and screenings. Highlights have included seasons on Serge Gainsbourg, Dario Argento, William Klein, Xavier Dolan, John Cassavetes, Claudia Cardinale and Jim Henson. Genres have included Ozploitation, East German Cinema, Monsters and Melancholy Misfits in conjunction with the Tim Burton exhibition. ACMI undertakes partnerships with a variety of Film Festivals. In ACMI's Studios, Public Programs take place, such as A Moon Safari by Steam Bicycle and Kaleidoscope! Kids Animation. Open from 18 September 2009, Screen Worlds is an evolving permanent exhibition exploring all aspects
The Victorian Railways operated in the Australian state of Victoria from 1859 to 1983. The first railways in Victoria were private companies, but when these companies failed or defaulted, the Victorian Railways was established to take over their operations. Most of the lines operated by the Victorian Railways were of 5 ft 3 in. However, the railways operated up to five 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge lines between 1898 and 1962, a 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge line between Albury and Melbourne from 1961. A Department of Railways was created in 1856 with the first appointment of staff. British engineer, George Christian Darbyshire was made first Engineer-in-Chief in 1857, steered all railway construction work until his replacement by Thomas Higginbotham in 1860; because of political turmoil in the Victorian Government, Higginbotham was one of 137 officials removed from office on Black Wednesday on 8 January 1878 when the Government was denied supply. He, like a number of other senior officers, was not reappointed.
Robert Watson took over as Engineer-in-Chief. But in 1880 a new Ministry expressed a wish to redress the injustice by re-instating Higginbotham. However, at the sudden death of Higginbotham in 1880, William Elsdon took over for two years before his retirement in 1882, Watson returned to his former position as Engineer-in-Chief, which he held up to the time of his death. On 1 November 1883 assent was given to the Victorian Railways Commissioners Act 47 Vic. No.767, to construct and manage the state's railways. The staff of the Department of Railways came under the authority of the Railway Commissioners, which became known as Victorian Railways; the elaborate headquarters at 67 Spencer Street were opened in 1893. Victorian Railways grew to service all parts of the state extending some lines into New South Wales under the 1922 Border Railways Act. In the late 19th century the railways became something of a political football with politicians demanding new lines to be built in places where traffic levels never justified it.
In 1864 there was just 254 miles of railway. The system expanded to reach 2,900 route miles by 1891 and to its greatest extent of 4,755 route miles in 1939; the result was that by the beginning of the 20th century, no Victorian were more than 25 miles from a railway line. The period from the end of the 1930s saw a slow decline in route mileage as unprofitable branches were closed. Conversion of the Melbourne suburban system to electric operation commenced in 1919 and was completed by 1930, creating what was claimed at the time to be the world's largest electric suburban rail system. 1937 saw the introduction of the streamlined Spirit of Progress passenger train, with air conditioning and all steel carriage construction. Diesel power was introduced in 1951 with ten F-class diesel-electric shunting locomotives, followed by B-class mainline diesel-electric locomotives in 1952/53. A standard gauge line connecting to the New South Wales system was constructed in 1961 allowing through trains to operate between Melbourne and Sydney, Australia's two largest cities, for the first time.
The last steam locomotive was withdrawn in 1972. In May 1973 the Railways Act 1972 passed the management of the Railways from the Victorian Railways Commissioners to a Victorian Railways Board. In 1974 the Victorian Railways was rebranded as VicRail, but the royal blue and gold livery used on rolling stock was retained until 1981. In 1983 VicRail was divided into two—the State Transport Authority taking responsibility for the provision of country rail and road and freight services, the Metropolitan Transit Authority taking over suburban passenger operations; the State Transport Authority traded under the V/Line name, while the Metropolitan Transit Authority used that name until the Public Transport Corporation was formed in 1989. Between 1996 and 1999 V/Line and The Met were privatised. V/Line Passenger was franchised to National Express, returning to government ownership in 2002; the V/Line Freight division is now owned by Pacific National. The infrastructure is now managed by VicTrack with the interstate rail freight infrastructure leased to the Australian Rail Track Corporation.
Metro Trains Melbourne now operates the suburban railway network. When first formed in 1857, the management of the Railways Department was vested in the President of the Board of Land and Works, this situation remaining until 1884. With the passing of the Victorian Railways Commissioners Act 1883, a board of four commissioners was put in charge, responsible to the Minister of Railways; the Chairman of Commissioners of the Victorian Railways were: Richard Speight: 1883 to 1892 Richard Hodge Francis: 1892 to 1894 James Syder: 1894 to 1896 John Mathieson: 1896 to 1901 William Francis Joseph Fitzpatrick: 1901 to 1903 Thomas James Tait: 1903 to 1910 William Francis Joseph Fitzpatrick: 1910 to 1915 Charles Ernest Norman: 1915 to 1920 Harold Winthrop Clapp: 1920 to 1939 Norman Charles Harris: 1940 to 1950 Robert George Wishart: 1950 to 1955 Edgar Henry Brownbill: 1956 to 1967 George Frederick Brown: 1967 to 1973After the Bland Report of 1972, in May 1973 the Railways Act 1972 passed the management of the Railways from the Victorian Railways Commissioners to a Victorian Railways Board.
The board could have up to seven members, with six being appointed. This remained until 1983 when the board was discontinued under the Transport Act 1983; the Victorian Railways operated a wide variety of locomotives and rolling stock to provide passenger and goods services. This included equipment acquired from the private com
Princes Bridge Prince's Bridge, is a bridge in central Melbourne, Australia that spans the Yarra River. It is built on the site of one of the oldest river crossings in Australia; the bridge connects Swanston Street on the north bank of the Yarra River to St Kilda Road on the south bank, carries road and pedestrian traffic. The present bridge is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register; because of its position, Princes Bridge is a focal point for celebratory events in Melbourne such as the Moomba Festival, New Year's Eve and many celebrations taking place on the Yarra River where it flows through the city. When the first European settlers settled in Melbourne in 1835 there was no permanent crossing point of the Yarra River. Over time various punt and ferry operators set up business to ferry people and other traffic across the river; the colonial government in Sydney was unreliable in providing funds for the construction of a bridge, resulting in most of Melbourne’s early infrastructure being provided by private enterprise.
On 22 April 1840, a private company was formed to construct a bridge across the Yarra. Traders in Elizabeth Street vied with those in Swanston Street to have the through traffic that would be generated by a bridge. On the south bank of the river, St Kilda Road was still a dirt track. Lieutenant-Governor Charles La Trobe favoured an Elizabeth Street crossing, but despite such official pressure the private company favoured the construction conditions at Swanston Street, which had become regarded as the growing town's main street, it was on that street in 1840. In 1844, a wooden trestle bridge was built across the river, was a toll bridge; the foundation stone for a new bridge was laid in 1846 and the bridge was opened in 1851. The bridge was a single span 150 ft bluestone and granite arch bridge, with a rise of only 24 ft, it was at the time, one of the longest, flattest stone arch bridges in the world. Built with government funds, the bridge was designed by David Lennox, built by James Linacre, it was opened on 15 November without tolls.
It was known as Lennox’s Bridge.. Within a year of Lennox Bridge's opening, gold was discovered in country Victoria and Melbourne saw a massive increase in population. In addition to the increase in traffic crossing the bridge, there was a need to handle increased shipping traffic on the Yarra River and the river was widened to cope with this. By that time the Yarra River had been modified both upstream and downstream and the major floods of the early years were becoming less common; the new bridge was designed by John Grainger, the father of the Australian composer Percy Grainger, built by David Munro using ironwork fabricated by Langlands foundry in Melbourne. Munro was responsible for the construction of Queens Bridge and the nearby Sandridge Bridge; each stone of the old bridge was lettered and numbered and neatly stacked with the intention of re-erection at another location. This never eventuated because in November 1885, the contract for the construction of the new bridge was awarded to David Munroe & Co. for £136,998 9s.9d.
Which included the use of the materials from the old arched bridge. The foundation stone of the new bridge was laid on the 7th September 1886, a memorial stone with a suitable inscription had been built in over its position in the west end of the south abutment; the new bridge was opened on 4 October 1888, in time for the second International Exhibition to be held in Melbourne. As with many historic Melburnian buildings and bridges, the bridge is built on solid bluestone and concrete bulwarks with plenty of cast iron; the abutments and wing walls are built of solid bluestone. The bridge was named Prince's Bridge, after Edward, Prince of Wales. In 1924,the bridge was reinforced to take the weight of the electric trams which were soon to replace the previous cable trams along St Kilda Road and the side-streets; the name of the bridge is now rendered as Princes Bridge, in line with the policy that possessive apostrophes are not used in place names. Princes Bridge was the name of a railway station located on the northern side of the river, to the east of the bridge, on the current site of Federation Square.
It was linked to Flinders Street station by the railway tracks that run underneath the northern approach to the bridge. Until about June 2013 there were two vehicle lanes, a tram lane and a bicycle lane across the bridge in each direction. At that time the bicycle lane was widened and the number of vehicle lanes was reduced to a single lane in each direction. Pedestrians account for the majority of traffic over the bridge, but other forms of traffic include motor vehicles, trams and bicycles, as well as an occasional tourist-orientated horse-drawn carriage; the destination of pedestrian traffic is two way, with many commuters parking at the Arts Centre and going to work in the CBD, as well as visitors to the Melbourne Arts Precinct on the Southbank side. Princes Bridge is 30 metres wide and 120 metres long, with Harcourt granite squat half columns resting on the bluestone piers that support the three iron girder arch spans; the coat of arms on the bridge belong to the municipal councils who contributed towards the cost of construction.
Other design features include an elaborate balustrade along the top of the bridge, lamp standards crowning each pier. The bridge design bears a close resemblance to the earlier Blackfriars Bridge over the River Thames in London, completed in 1869. Princes Bridge is wider, 30 metres compared with 26 metres, but with 3 spans of 33 metres and an overall length of 131 metres it is much shorter that Blackfriars Bridge's 5 spans