Saxony-Anhalt is a state of Germany. Saxony-Anhalt covers an area of 20,447.7 square kilometres and has a population of 2.23 million, 108.69 inhabitants per km2, making it the 8th-largest state in Germany by area and the 10th-largest by population. Its capital is Magdeburg and its largest city is Halle. Saxony-Anhalt is surrounded by the states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg and Thuringia; the state of Saxony-Anhalt originated in July 1945 after World War II, when the Soviet army administration in Allied-occupied Germany formed it from the former Prussian Province of Saxony and the Free State of Anhalt. Saxony-Anhalt became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Halle and Magdeburg, with the city of Torgau joining the district of Leipzig. Saxony-Anhalt was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, excluding Torgau, became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states.
Saxony-Anhalt is one of 16 Bundesländer of Germany. It is located in the western part of eastern Germany. By size, it is the 8th largest state in Germany and by population it is the 10th largest, it borders four other Bundesländer: Lower Saxony to the north-west, Brandenburg to the north-east, Saxony to the south-east and Thuringia to the south-west. In the north, the Saxony-Anhalt landscape is dominated by the flat expanse of the North German Plain; the old Hanseatic towns Salzwedel, Gardelegen and Tangermünde are located in the sparsely populated Altmark. The Colbitz-Letzlingen Heath and the Drömling near Wolfsburg mark the transition between the Altmark region and the Elbe-Börde-Heath region with its fertile, sparsely wooded Magdeburg Börde. Notable towns in the Magdeburg Börde are Haldensleben, Wanzleben, Schönebeck and the capital Magdeburg, from which the Börde derives its name; the Harz mountains are located in the south-west, comprising the Harz National Park, the Harz Foreland and Mansfeld Land.
The highest mountain of the Harz is Brocken, with an elevation of 1,141 meters. In this area, one can find the towns of Halberstadt, Thale and Quedlinburg; the wine-growing area Saale-Unstrut and the towns of Zeitz, Weißenfels and Freyburg are located on the rivers Saale and Unstrut in the south of the state. The metropolitan area of Halle forms an agglomeration with Leipzig in Saxony; this area is known for its developed chemical industry, with major production plants at Leuna and Bitterfeld. In the east, Dessau-Roßlau and Wittenberg are situated on the Elbe in the Anhalt-Wittenberg region; the capital of Saxony-Anhalt is Magdeburg. It is the second-largest city in the state after Halle. From 1994 to 2003, the state was divided into three regions, Dessau and Magdeburg and, below the regional level, 21 districts. Since 2004, this system has been replaced by 11 rural districts and three urban districts; the counties are: Altmarkkreis Salzwedel Anhalt-Bitterfeld Börde Burgenlandkreis Harz Jerichower Land Mansfeld-Südharz Saalekreis Salzlandkreis Stendal WittenbergThe independent cities are: Dessau-Roßlau Halle Magdeburg The largest cities in Saxony-Anhalt according to a 31 December 2017 estimate: In April 1945 the US Army took control of most of the western and northern area of the future Saxony-Anhalt.
The U. S. Group Control Council, Germany appointed the first non-Nazi officials in leading positions in the area. So Erhard Hübener, put on leave by the Nazis, was reappointed Landeshauptmann. By early July the US Army withdrew from the former Prussian Province of Saxony to make way for the Red Army to take it as part of the Soviet occupation zone, as agreed by the London Protocol in 1944. On 9 July the Soviet SVAG ordered the merger of the Free State of Anhalt, Halle-Merseburg, the governorate of Magdeburg and some Brunswickian eastern exclaves and salients with the Province of Saxony; the Saxon Erfurt governorate had become a part of Thuringia. Anhalt takes its name from Anhalt Castle near Harzgerode; the SVAG appointed Hübener as president of the provincial Saxon administration, a newly created function. The administration was seated in Halle an der Saale, which became the capital of Saxony-Anhalt until 1952. On 3 September 1945 the new administration enacted by Soviet-inspired ordinance the mass expropriations hitting holders of large real estates of noble descent.
On the occasion of the first election in the Soviet zone, allowing parties to compete for seats in provincial and state parliaments, on 20 October 1946, the Province of Saxony was renamed as the Province of Saxony-Anhalt, taking the prior merger into account. On 3 December 1946 the members of the new provincial parliament elected Hübener the first minister-president of Saxony-Anhalt with the votes of CDU and Liberal Democratic Party of Germany, thus he became the only governor in the Soviet zone, not a member of the communist Socialist Unity Party of Germany. He was an inconvenient governor for the Soviet rulers. After the official Allied decision to dissolve the Free State of Prussia, which had remained in limbo since the Prussian coup of 1932, its former provinces, in as
A prince is a male ruler ranked below a king and above a duke or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is a title of nobility hereditary, in some European states; the feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus and capio, meaning "the chief, most distinguished, prince"; the Latin word prīnceps, became the usual title of the informal leader of the Roman senate some centuries before the transition to empire, the princeps senatus. Emperor Augustus established the formal position of monarch on the basis of principate, not dominion, he tasked his grandsons as summer rulers of the city when most of the government were on holiday in the country or attending religious rituals, for that task, granted them the title of princeps. The title has generic and substantive meanings: generically, prince refers to a member of a family that ruled by hereditary right, the title referring either to sovereigns or to cadets of a sovereign's family.
The term may be broadly used of persons in various continents or eras. In Europe, it is the title borne by dynastic cadets in monarchies, borne by courtesy by members of reigning dynasties. as a substantive title, a prince was a monarch of the lowest rank in post-Napoleonic Europe, e.g. Princes of Andorra, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Monaco and Pyrmont, etc. substantively, the title was granted by popes and secular monarchs to specific individuals and to the heads of some high-ranking European families who, never exercised dynastic sovereignty and whose cadets are not entitled to share the princely title, viz the Princes de Beauvau-Craon, von Bismarck, von Dohna-Schlobitten, von Eulenburg, de Faucigny-Lucinge, von Lichnowsky, von Pless, Ruffo di Calabria, von Sagan, van Ursel, etc. generically, cadets of some non-sovereign families whose head bears the non-dynastic title of prince were sometimes authorized to use the princely title, e.g. von Carolath-Beuthen, de Broglie, Demidoff di San Donato, Lieven, de Merode, Radziwill, von Wrede, etc. substantively, the heirs apparent in some monarchies use a specific princely title associated with a territory within the monarch's realm, e.g. the Princes of Asturias, Grão Pará, Viana, etc. substantively, it became the fashion from the 17th century for the heirs apparent of the leading ducal families to assume a princely title, associated with a seigneurie in the family's possession.
These titles were borne by courtesy and preserved by tradition, not law, e.g. the princes de Bidache, Tonnay-Charente, Poix, Léon, The original, but now less common use of the word, originated in the application of the Latin word princeps, from late Roman law, the classical system of government that gave way to the European feudal society. In this sense, a prince is a ruler of a territory, sovereign, or quasi-sovereign, i.e. exercising substantial prerogatives associated with monarchs of independent nations, such as the immediate states within the historical boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. In medieval and Early Modern Europe, there were as many as two hundred such territories in Italy and Gaelic Ireland. In this sense, "prince" is used of all rulers, regardless of actual title or precise rank; this is the Renaissance use of the term found in Il Principe. As a title, by the end of the medieval era, prince was borne by rulers of territories that were either smaller than or exercised fewer of the rights of sovereignty than did emperors and kings.
A lord of a quite small territory might come to be referred to as a prince before the 13th century, either from translations of a native title into the Latin princeps, or when the lord's territory was allodial. The lord of an allodium owned his lands and exercised prerogatives over the subjects in his territory owing no feudal homage or duty as a vassal to a liege lord, nor being subject to any higher jurisdiction. Most small territories designated as principalities during feudal eras were allodial, e.g. the Princedom of Dombes. Lords who exercised lawful authority over territories and people within a feudal hierarchy were sometimes regarded as princes in the general sense if they held the rank of count or higher; this is attested in some surviving styles for e.g. British earls and dukes are still addressed by the Crown on ceremonial occasions as high and noble princes. In parts of the Holy Roman Empire in which primogeniture did not prevail, all legitimate agnates had an equal right to the family's hereditary titles.
While this meant that offices, such as emperor and elector could only be occupied by one dynast at a time, holders of such other titles as duke, landgrave, count palatine, prince could only differentiate themselves by adding the name of their appanage to the family's original title. Not only did this tend to proliferate unwieldy titles, but as agnatic primogeniture became the norm in the Holy Roman Empire by the end of the 18th century, another me
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor. From the 13th century onwards, the Prince-Electors had the privilege of electing the Holy Roman Emperor who would receive the Papal coronation after assuming the titles of King in Germany and King of Italy. Charles V was the last to be a crowned Emperor. In practice, every emperor from 1440 onwards came from the Austrian House of Habsburg, the Electors ratified the Habsburg succession; the dignity of Elector carried great prestige and was considered to be second only to that of King or Emperor. The Electors had exclusive privileges that were not shared with the other princes of the Empire, they continued to hold their original titles alongside that of Elector; the heir apparent to a secular prince-elector was known as an electoral prince. The German element Kur- is based on the Middle High German irregular verb kiesen and is related etymologically to the English word choose.
In English, the "s"/"r" mix in the Germanic verb conjugation has been regularized to "s" throughout, while German retains the r in Kur-. There is a modern German verb küren which means'to choose' in a ceremonial sense. Fürst is German for'prince', but while the German language distinguishes between the head of a principality and the son of a monarch, English uses prince for both concepts. Fürst itself is related to English first and is thus the'foremost' person in his realm. Note that'prince' derives from Latin princeps, which carried the same meaning. Electors were reichsstände, they were, until the 18th century entitled to be addressed with the title Durchlaucht. In 1742, the electors became entitled to the superlative Durchläuchtigste, while other princes were promoted to Durchlaucht; as Imperial Estates, the electors enjoyed all the privileges of the other princes enjoying that status, including the right to enter into alliances, autonomy in relation to dynastic affairs and precedence over other subjects.
The Golden Bull had granted them the Privilegium de non appellando, which prevented their subjects from lodging an appeal to a higher Imperial court. However, while this privilege, some others, were automatically granted to Electors, they were not exclusive to them and many of the larger Imperial Estates were to be individually granted some or all those rights and privileges; the electors, like the other princes ruling States of the Empire, were members of the Imperial Diet, divided into three collegia: the Council of Electors, the Council of Princes, the Council of Cities. In addition to being members of the Council of Electors, several lay electors were therefore members of the Council of Princes as well by virtue of other territories they possessed. In many cases, the lay electors ruled numerous States of the Empire, therefore held several votes in the Council of Princes. In 1792, the King of Bohemia held three votes, the Elector of Bavaria six votes, the Elector of Brandenburg eight votes, the Elector of Hanover six votes.
Thus, of the hundred votes in the Council of Princes in 1792, twenty-three belonged to electors. The lay electors therefore exercised considerable influence, being members of the small Council of Electors and holding a significant number of votes in the Council of Princes; the assent of both bodies was required for important decisions affecting the structure of the Empire, such as the creation of new electorates or States of the Empire. In addition to voting by colleges or councils, the Imperial Diet voted on religious lines, as provided for by the Peace of Westphalia; the Archbishop of Mainz presided over the Catholic body, or corpus catholicorum, while the Elector of Saxony presided over the Protestant body, or corpus evangelicorum. The division into religious bodies was on the basis of the official religion of the state, not of its rulers, thus when the Electors of Saxony were Catholics during the eighteenth century, they continued to preside over the corpus evangelicorum, since the state of Saxony was Protestant.
The electors were summoned by the Archbishop of Mainz within one month of an Emperor's death, met within three months of being summoned. During the interregnum, imperial power was exercised by two imperial vicars; each vicar, in the words of the Golden Bull, was "the administrator of the empire itself, with the power of passing judgments, of presenting to ecclesiastical benefices, of collecting returns and revenues and investing with fiefs, of receiving oaths of fealty for and in the name of the holy empire". The Elector of Saxony was vicar in areas operating under Saxon law, while the Elector Palatine was vicar in the remainder of the Empire; the Elector of Bavaria replaced the Elector Palatine in 1623, but when the latter was granted a new electorate in 1648, there was a dispute between the two as to, vicar. In 1659, both purported to act as vicar; the two electors made a pact to act as joint vicars, but the Imperial Diet rejected the agreement. In 1711, while the Elector
German mediatisation was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatisation and secularisation of a large number of Imperial Estates. Most ecclesiastical principalities, free imperial cities, secular principalities, other minor self-ruling entities of the Holy Roman Empire lost their independent status and were absorbed into the remaining states. By the end of the mediatisation process, the number of German states had been reduced from 300 to just 39. In the strict sense of the word, mediatisation consists in the subsumption of an immediate state into another state, thus becoming mediate, while leaving the dispossessed ruler with his private estates and a number of privileges and feudal rights, such as low justice. For convenience, historians use the term mediatisation for the entire restructuring process that took place at the time, whether the mediatized states survived in some form or lost all individuality.
The secularization of ecclesiastical states took place concurrently with the mediatisation of free imperial cities and other secular states. The mass mediatisation and secularisation of German states that took place at the time was not initiated by Germans, it came under diplomatic pressure from revolutionary France and Napoleon. It constituted the most extensive redistribution of property and territories in German history prior to 1945; the two highpoints of the process were the secularization/annexation of ecclesiastical territories and free imperial cities in 1802–03, the mediatisation of secular principalities and counties in 1806. Although most of its neighbors coalesced into centralized states before the 19th century, Germany did not follow that path. Instead, the Holy Roman Empire maintained its medieval political structure as a "polyglot congeries of hundreds of nearly sovereign states and territories ranging in size from considerable to minuscule". From a high of nearly 400 – 136 ecclesiastical and 173 secular lords plus 85 free imperial cities – on the eve of the Reformation, this number had only reduced to a little less than 300 by the late-18th century.
The traditional explanation for this fragmentation has focused on the gradual usurpation by the princes of the powers of the Holy Roman Emperor during the Staufen period, to the point that by the Peace of Westphalia, the Emperor had become a mere primus inter pares. In recent decades, many historians have maintained that the fragmentation of Germany – which started out as a large polity while its neighbors started small – can be traced back to the geographical extent of the Empire – the German part of the Empire being about twice the size of the realm controlled by the king of France in the second half of the 11th century – and to the vigor of local aristocratic and ecclesiastical rule from early on in the medieval era. In the 12th century, the secular and spiritual princes did not regard themselves as the Emperor's subordinates, still less his subjects, but as rulers in their own right - and they jealously defended their established sphere of predominance. At the time of Emperor Frederick II's death in 1250, it had been decided that the regnum teutonicum was "an aristocracy with a monarchical head".
Among those states and territories, the ecclesiastical principalities were unique to Germany. The Ottonian and early Salian Emperors, who appointed the bishops and abbots, used them as agents of the imperial crown - as they considered them more dependable than the dukes they appointed and who attempted to establish independent hereditary principalities; the emperors expanded the power of the Church, of the bishops, with land grants and numerous privileges of immunity and protection as well as extensive judicial rights, which coalesced into a distinctive temporal principality: the Hochstift. The German bishop became a "prince of the Empire" and direct vassal of the Emperor for his Hochstift, while continuing to exercise only pastoral authority over his larger diocese; the personal appointment of bishops by the Emperors had sparked the investiture controversy in the 11th century, in its aftermath the emperor‘s control over the bishops' selection and rule diminished considerably. The bishops, now elected by independent-minded cathedral chapters rather than chosen by the emperor or the pope, were confirmed as territorial lords equal to the secular princes.
Having to face with the territorial expansionism of the powerful secular princes, the position of the prince-bishops became more precarious with time. In the course of the Reformation, several of the bishoprics in the north and northeast were secularized to the benefit of Protestant princes. In the sixteenth century the Counter-Reformation attempted to reverse some of these secularizations, the question of the fates of secularized territories became an important one in the Thirty Years' War. In the end, the Peace of Westphalia confirmed the secularization of a score of prince-bishoprics, including the archbishoprics of Bremen and Magdeburg and six bishoprics with full political powers, which were assigned to Sweden and Mecklenburg. On the other hand and Paderborn – under Protestant administration for decades and given up for lost – were restored as prince-bishoprics. In addition, the Peace conclusively reaffirmed the imperial immediacy, therefore the de facto independence, of the prince-bishops and imperial abbots, free imperial cities, imperial counts, as well as the imperial knights.
According to one authority, the sixty-five ecclesiastical rulers cont
A crown is an emblem of a sovereign state a monarchy, but used by some republics. A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium. Crowns are often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees. A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, as with the coat of arms of Norway. Oftentimes, the crown depicted and used in heraldry differs from any specific physical crown that may be used by a monarchy. If the bearer of a coat of arms has the title of baron or higher, he or she may display a coronet of rank above the shield below the helm in British heraldry, above the crest in Continental heraldry. In this case, the appearance of the crown or coronet follows a strict set of rules.
A royal coat of arms may display a royal crown, such as that of Norway. A princely coat of arms may display a princely crown, so on. A mural crown is displayed on coats of arms of towns and some republics. Other republics may omit the use of a crown altogether; the heraldic forms of crowns are inspired by the physical appearance of the respective country's actual royal or princely crowns. Ships and other units of some navies have a naval crown, composed of the sails and sterns of ships, above the shield of their coats of arms. Squadrons of some air forces have an astral crown, composed of stars. There is the Eastern crown, made up of spikes, when each spike is topped with a star, it becomes a celestial crown. Whereas most county councils in England use mural crowns, there is a special type of crown, used by Scottish county councils, it was composed of spikes, was shown vert and had golden wheat sheaves between the spikes. Today, most of the Scottish unitary authorities still use this "wheat sheaf crown", but it is now the usual gold.
In formal English, the word crown is reserved for the crown of a monarch, whereas the word coronet is used for all other crowns used by members of the British royal family and peers of the realm. In the British peerage, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German and various other heraldic traditions; the coronet of a duke has eight strawberry leaves, that of a marquess has four strawberry leaves and four silver balls, that of an earl has eight strawberry leaves and eight "pearls" raised on stalks, that of a viscount has sixteen "pearls", that of a peerage baron or lord of parliament has six "pearls". Between the 1930s and 2004, feudal barons in the baronage of Scotland were granted a chapeau or cap of maintenance as a rank insignia; this is placed between the helmet in the same manner as a peer's coronet. Since a person entitled to heraldic headgear customarily displays it above the shield and below the helm and crest, this can provide a useful clue as to the owner of a given coat of arms.
Members of the British royal family have coronets on their coats of arms, they may wear physical versions at coronations. They are according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661, shortly after his return from exile in France and Restoration, they vary depending upon the holder's relationship to the monarch. Additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals. In Canadian heraldry, special coronets are used to designate descent from United Empire Loyalists. A military coronet signifies ancestors who served in Loyalist regiments during the American Revolution, while a civil coronet is used by all others; the loyalist coronets are used only in heraldry, never worn. Because there are many traditions and more variation within some of these, there are a plethora of continental coronet types. Indeed, there are some coronets for positions that do not exist, or do not entitle use of a coronet, in the Commonwealth tradition; such a case in French heraldry of the Ancien Régime, where coronets of rank did not come into use before the 16th century, is the vidame, whose coronet is a metal circle mounted with three visible crosses.
Helmets are substitutes for coronets, some coronets are worn only on a helmet. Austrian Empire German Empire The older crowns are still seen in the heraldry of older families. Kingdom of Portugal Empire of Brazil During the Swedish reign, Swedish coronets were used. Crowns were used in the coats of arms of the historical provinces of Finland. For Finland Proper, Satakunta and Karelia, it was a ducal coronet, for others, a comital coronet. In 1917 with independence, the coat of arms of Finland was introduced with a Grand Ducal coronet, but it was soon removed, in 1920. Today, some cities use coronets, e.g. Pori has Vaasa a Crown of Nobility. In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field of a coat of arms. Many coats of arms incorporate crowns as charges. One notable example of this lies in the Three Crowns of the arms of Sweden. Additionally, many animal charges and sometimes human heads appear crowned. Animal charges gorged of an open coronet occur, though far less frequently. Crown jewels Imperial crown List of monarchies Cor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries. From an autocracy in Carolingian times the title by the 13th century evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de-facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians and the Salians. Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440–1740; the final emperors were from the House of Lorraine, from 1765–1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved after the defeat at Austerlitz by emperor Francis II, who continued to rule as Austrian emperor; the Holy Roman Emperor was perceived to rule by divine right, though he contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares among other Catholic monarchs.
In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him. There was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria served as de facto Empresses regnant. Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith; until the Reformation, the Emperor elect was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the last to be crowned by the Pope in 1530. After the Reformation, the elected Emperor always was a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, the electors voted in their own political interest. From the time of Constantine I, the Roman emperors had, with few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity; the reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the Christian emperor in the Church.
Emperors considered themselves responsible to the gods for the spiritual health of their subjects, after Constantine they had a duty to help the Church define orthodoxy and maintain orthodoxy. The emperor's role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, uphold ecclesiastical unity. Both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire throughout the medieval period; the ecumenical councils of the 5th to 8th centuries were convoked by the Eastern Roman Emperors. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor became defunct after the death of Julius Nepos in 480, although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms continued to recognize the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century. From the western perspective, the interregnum in the Roman Empire spanned the 8th centuries; the title of Emperor was revived in 800, when Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III. The title of Emperor in the West implied recognition by the pope; as the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages and emperors came into conflict over church administration.
The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. After the coronation of Charlemagne, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy in 924; the comparatively brief interregnum between 924 and the coronation of Otto the Great in 962 is taken as marking the transition from the Frankish Empire to the Holy Roman Empire. Under the Ottonians, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. Since 911, the various German princes had elected the King of the Germans from among their peers; the King of the Germans would be crowned as emperor following the precedent set by Charlemagne, during the period of 962–1530. Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned by the pope, his successor, Ferdinand I adopted the title of "Emperor elect" in 1558; the final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution.
The term sacrum in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa. The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was "August Emperor of the Romans"; when Charlemagne was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title. The word Roman was a reflection of the principle of translatio imperii that regarded the Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, that of German Emperor on the other; the English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.e. the adjective "holy" is not intended as modifying "emperor".
Eike of Repgow
Eike of Repgow was a medieval German administrator who compiled the Sachsenspiegel code of law in the 13th century. Little is known about Eike of Repgow, but he is mentioned in several documents dating from the period between 1209 and 1233, he was a scion of the Eastphalian gentry and it is thought that his family were vassals of the Magdeburg archbishops. His ancestors had moved to the Gau of Serimunt, south of Magdeburg, in the 12th century, where they acquired land in the village of Reppichau. Other members of the family are mentioned earlier in 1156 and 1159. From his mention in court proceedings in 1209 it is inferred that he was born around 1180. Lack of mentions after 1233 suggests. From the prologue to the Sachsenspiegel it is clear, it is not known if he could write, since it was quite common, at the time, to employ scribes. He was versed both in Roman law, it is clear that he was a respected personage, but his precise place in the feudal hierarchy is not known with certainty, since he is sometimes listed among the free nobles and sometimes among the bondsmen.
Eike of Repgow may have been a bondsman of Count Henry I of Anhalt or of Count Hoyer of Falkenstein, who served as Vogt of Quedlinburg Abbey. He was a free noble, one of the so-called schöffenbar freie, which entitled him to sit in the Thing. One theory is that he was of noble birth, but like many others, became a ministerialis or bondsman, while retaining his noble status. Eike of Repgow translated the Sachsenspiegel at the behest of Count Hoyer of Falkenstein between 1220 and 1233, it was intended by its compiler not to create new law. The work is of great significance not only as the first German legal code but as one of the first major works of Middle Low German prose; as the author writes in the verse prologue of the Sachsenspiegel, he first wrote it in Latin and with some reluctance, at the wishes of Count Hoyer of Falkenstein, translated it into German. The Latin version of the first part, on Landrecht, has been lost, but the second part, on Lehensrecht was, as is now believed, preserved.
This is the Vetus auctor de beneficiis, written in verse. There was a debate as to whether this was the Latin original of the part of the Sachsenspiegel on feudal law or a translation of it into Latin, for some time the latter view prevailed. However, the current consensus is that the Vetus auctor de beneficiis is indeed the Latin original of the feudal law section of the Sachsenspiegel. Where the original was compiled is unclear, it was thought to have been written in Quedlinburg or at Falkenstein Castle in the Harz Mountains, but Peter Landau, an expert in medieval canon law suggested that it may have been written at the Cistercian abbey of Altzelle. Another work, the Sächsische Weltchronik has been dated about 1230 and been attributed to Eike, but this is now thought unlikely. There are monuments to Eike of Repgow in Magdeburg, Dessau and Halberstadt and at Falkenstein Castle in the Harz Mountains. There is a square named after him in Berlin, there is an open-air museum devoted to him and the Sachsenspiegel in his village of Reppichau.
There are schools named after Eike of Repgow in Halberstadt and Magdeburg. The Eike of Repgow prize, which comes with a statuette of Eike, a certificate, 5,000 euros, is awarded jointly by awarded annually by the city of Magdeburg and the Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg for academic work of a historical or legal nature; the origin of the modern German saying "Wer zuerst kommt, mahlt zuerst" can be traced to Eike of Repgow, who wrote Die ok irst to der molen kumt, die sal erst malen. Hiram Kümper. "Repgow, Eike von". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 24. Nordhausen: Bautz. Cols. 1208–1213. ISBN 3-88309-247-9. Article on Eike of Repgow by the radio station MDR Eike of Repgow; the Saxon Mirror: a Sachsenspiegel of the fourteenth century /. Transl. by Maria Dobozy. The Middle Ages Series. Dobozy, Maria. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3487-1