Saikū, or Saigu known as Itsuki-no-miya, was a village located 10 kilometers north-west of Ise Shrine, arguably the most significant Shinto shrine in Japan. Sometimes referred to as the Bamboo Palace, Saikū served as the palace and public offices of the Saiō, an unmarried Imperial princess who served at Ise Shrine on behalf of the emperor from the Asuka period to the Nanboku-chō period of Japan. After the collapse of the Saiō system, Saikū reverted to a rice-farming village that exists as a part of Meiwa Town, Mie Prefecture. Saikū reached its peak from the late Nara period to the early Heian period. Many buildings and relics that date from this period have been found. Buildings that date from this time are of the shinden-zukuri style and were made of cedar and Japanese cypress and were constructed by interlocking wooden beams without the use of nails. While digging foundations for new housing in 1970 in the Saikū area, a large Haniwa horse was found, one of the largest found in Japan; the housing construction was halted and excavations began, confirming the site of the ancient Saikū town.
Saikū Historical Museum now stands on the site of the original discovery. Each year further excavations take place on a small scale, with much of the Saikū site still untouched; as the ancient buildings were made of wood, which has long since disappeared, the site was redeveloped several times over its long history, excavations can reveal several generations of buildings whose foundations must be matched together to form a view of the town's layout. Most focus is given to the early Heian period, when the town was at its peak in influence. In addition to the museum, a reconstructed Heian period residence, known as Itsukinomiya Hall of Historical Experience, has been built next to Saikū train station. Itsukinomiya Hall is not a restoration of a former building, but a reconstruction based on existing shinden-zukuri buildings elsewhere in Japan; the ancient Saikū site measures 2 kilometres from east to west, 700 metres from north to south and covers a total area of 137 hectares, making it one of the largest historical sites in Japan.
Sections of the eastern administrative district of the site have been excavated and working is being carried out in the site's central area. The town was built on a grid structure based on Chinese traditions and consisted of several large blocks of 120 metres in length, surrounded by high wooden walls. Inside each block were buildings of varying size and purpose, built of Japanese cypress in the method of the day, using interlocking blocks of wood to hold the structure together; the buildings were rectangular in shape and built on poles dug into the ground, with a floor raised up to a meter from the ground. Some blocks contained a small well from which to draw water, or shrines or structures for food storage. Itsukinomiya Hall of Historical Experience information brochure. Media related to Saikū at Wikimedia Commons Saiku Historical Museum Itsukinomiya Historical Experience Hall
Empress Kōgyoku known as Empress Saimei, was the 35th and 37th monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kōgyoku's reign spanned the years from 642 to 645, her reign as Saimei encompassed 655 to 661. In other words, 642: She ascended the throne as Kōgyoku-tennō, she stepped down in response to the assassination of Soga no Iruka. 645: She abdicated in favor of her brother, who would become known as Emperor Kōtoku. 654: Kōtoku died and the throne was vacant. 655: She re-ascended, beginning a new reign as Saimei-tennō. 661: Saimei ruled until her death caused the throne to be vacant again. The two reigns of this one woman spanned the years from 642 through 661. In the history of Japan, Kōgyoku/Saimei was the second of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the sole female monarch before Kōgyoku/Saimei was Suiko-tennō. The six women sovereigns reigning after Kōgyoku/Saimei were Jitō, Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō, Go-Sakuramachi. Before her ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, her personal name was Takara.
As empress, her name would have been Ametoyo Takara Ikashi Hitarashi hime. Princess Takara was a great-granddaughter of Emperor Bidatsu. During her first reign the Soga clan seized power, her son Naka no Ōe planned a coup slew Soga no Iruka at the court in front of her throne. The Empress, shocked by this incident, abdicated the throne. Kōgyoku's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great queen who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Kōgyoku might have been referred to as or the "Great Queen of Yamato". Empress Kōgyoku reigned for four years; the years of Kōgyoku's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – was yet to be initiated during her son's too-brief reign. In this context and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers an explanation about the years of Empress Jitō's reign which muddies a sense of easy clarity in the pre-Taiho time-frame: "The eras that fell in this reign were: the remaining seven years of Shuchō.
In the third year of the Taka era, Empress Jitō yielded the throne to the Crown Prince."The years of Kōgyoku's reign are not more identified by more than one era name or nengō, an innovation of Kōtoku's brief reign. When Kōtoku died, his designated heir was Naka no Ōe; when Naka no Ōe's mother re-ascended, he continued in the role of her crown prince. In this role, he did remain active in the political life of Japan. In the fifth year of Saimei's reign, Paekche in Korea was destroyed in 660. Japan assisted Paekche loyals in an attempt to aid the revival of Paekche dynasty. Early in 661, Saimei responded to the situation by leaving her capital in Yamato Province, her plan was to lead a military expedition to Korea. The empress stayed in Ishiyu Temporary Palace in today Dōgo Onsen. In May she arrived at Asakura Palace in the north part of Tsukushi province in Kyūshū, today a part of Fukuoka Prefecture; the allied army of Japan and Baekje was preparing for war against Silla, but the death of the empress thwarted those plans.
In 661, Saimei died in the Asakura Palace. In October her body was brought from Kyūshū by sea to Port Naniwa-zu. Empress Saimei ruled for seven years; the years of Saimei's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Mommu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701; the actual site of Kōgyoku/Saimei's grave is known, having been identified as the Kengoshizuka tomb in the village of Asuka, Nara Prefecture. This empress is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Nara; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Kōgyoku/Seimei's mausoleum. It is formally named Ochi-no-Okanoe no misasagi. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career.
During Kōgyoku's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Sadaijin UdaijinThe kugyō during Saimei's reign included: Sadaijin, Kose no Tokoda, 649–658 Udaijin Naidaijin, Nakatomi no Kamako, 645–669 First Husband: Prince Takamuku, Prince Tame’s son First Son: Prince Kara Second Husband: Prince Tamura Emperor Jomei, Prince Oshisaka-no-hikohito-no-Ōe‘s son Second Son: Prince Naka no Ōe Emperor Tenji) First Daughter: Princess Hashihito, married Emperor Kōtoku Third Son: Prince Ōama Emperor Tenmu Portrayed by Kim Min-kyung in the 2012–2013 KBS1 TV series The King's Dream. Japanese empresses Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Kadokawa Shoten Kadokawa Shoten Co. Ltd. is a Japanese publisher and brand company of Kadokawa Corporation based in Tokyo, Japan. It became an internal division of Kadokawa Corporation on October 1, 2013. Kadokawa has published both manga such as Sora no Otoshimono and magazines, such as Newtype magazine. Since its founding, Kadokawa has expanded into the multimedia sector, namely in video games and movies. Kadokawa Shoten was established on November 1945 by Genyoshi Kadokawa; the company's first publication imprint, Kadokawa Bunko, was published in 1949. The company went public on April 2, 1954. In 1975, Haruki Kadokawa became the president of Kadokawa Shoten, following Genyoshi Kadokawa's death. On April 1, 2003, Kadokawa Shoten was renamed to Kadokawa Holdings, transferring the existing publishing businesses to Kadokawa Shoten. On July 1, 2006, the parent company was renamed to Kadokawa Group Holdings and in January 2007, Kadokawa Group Holdings inherited the management and integration businesses within Kadokawa Shoten.
The magazine businesses was transferred to the Kadokawa Magazine Group. The video game divisions of Kadokawa Shoten, ASCII Media Works and Enterbrain were merged into Kadokawa Games. Kadokawa Shoten ceased being a kabushiki gaisha on October 1, 2013 when it was merged with eight other companies to become a brand company of Kadokawa Corporation. Kadokawa Haruki Corporation: Founded in 1976 Haruki Kadokawa as a film production company; the company was merged into Kadokawa Shoten. When Haruki Kadokawa was still on bail following his 1993 arrest, Kadokawa Haruki Corporation was established by Haruki Kadokawa on September 12, 1995 as a publisher. Fujimi Shobo: In 1991, Fujimi Shobo was merged into Kadokawa Shoten, but continued operations as a division of Kadokawa Shoten; the Television): In 1993, it was merged into Kadokawa Shoten. Kadokawa Media Office: In 1993, it was merged into Kadokawa Shoten. Kadokawa J-com media Kadokawa Gakugei Shuppan Publishing: Formerly Hichō Kikaku, it was renamed on April 1, 2003.
Kadokawa Digix Kids Net Asmik Ace Entertainment: In 2006, Sumitomo Corporation purchased the 27.6% common stock of Asmik Ace from Kadokawa Shoten, distributed the 75.3% stock of Asmik Ace into a subsidiary of Sumitomo, leaving Kadokawa Shoten a 20% stake holder. In 2007, Kadokawa's stake of Asmik Ace was transferred to Kadokawa Group Holdings. In 2010, Sumitomo purchased the remaining 20% stake from Kadokawa Group Holdings. Cinema Paradise Taiwan Animate Chara Ani.hack//G. U.: The World Asuka Asuka CIEL Ceil TresTres Comp Ace Comptiq Gundam Ace Kerokero Ace Monthly Ace Next Newtype Shōnen Ace The Sneaker Young Ace Altima Ace Another.hack//Legend of the Twilight Angelic Layer Baka and Test Basquash! Bio Booster Armor Guyver Black Rock Shooter Brain Powerd Cardfight!! Vanguard Chrono Crusade Cloverfield/Kishin Cowboy Bebop Code Geass Cowboy Bebop: Shooting Star Deadman Wonderland Dragon Half Girls Bravo Escaflowne The movie: Girl In Gaya Escaflowne: The Series Eureka Seven Hakkenden Haruhi Suzumiya Highschool of the Dead Hybrid Child Junjo Mistake Junjo Romantica: Pure Romance Kannazuki no Miko Kantai Collection Kemono Friends Kerberos Panzer Cop Legal Drug Love Stage!!
Lucky Star Ludwig II Maoyū Maō Yūsha Marionette Generation Martian Successor Nadesico Mirai Nikki Miyuki-chan in Wonderland Multiple Personality Detective Psycho Neon Genesis Evangelion Nichijou Record of Lodoss War Rental Magica Romeo × Juliet Sekai-ichi Hatsukoi Sgt. Frog Shangri-La Shibuya Fifteen Shirahime-Syo: Snow Goddess Tales Slayers Sora no Otoshimono Steel Angel Kurumi Strider Hiryu Super Lovers Tenchi Muyo! The Kurosagi Corpse Delivery Service The One I Love The Vision of Escaflowne Tokumei Kakarichō Tadano Hitoshi Shin Tokumei Kakarichō Tadano Hitoshi Trinity Blood X Yamada Taro Monogatari Tokyo ESP PublishedAbarenbou Princess Buile Baku Lunar: Silver Star Story Complete Lunar 2: Eternal Blue Complete Sorcerous Stabber Orphen Yōkai Buster: Ruka no Daibōken Lodoss Tou Senki 1995 Hippa Linda 2001 Sora no Otoshimono Forte: Dreamy Season 2011 Steins.
Waka is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature. Waka are composed in Japanese, are contrasted with poetry composed by Japanese poets in Classical Chinese, which are known as kanshi. Although waka in modern Japanese is written as 和歌, in the past it was written as 倭歌, a variant name is yamato-uta; the word waka has two different but related meanings: the original meaning was "poetry in Japanese" and encompassed several genres such as chōka and sedōka. Up to and during the compilation of the Man'yōshū in the eighth century, the word waka was a general term for poetry composed in Japanese, included several genres such as tanka, chōka, bussokusekika and sedōka. However, by the time of the Kokinshū's compilation at the beginning of the tenth century, all of these forms except for the tanka and chōka had gone extinct, chōka had diminished in prominence; as a result, the word waka became synonymous with tanka, the word tanka fell out of use until it was revived at the end of the nineteenth century.
Tanka consist of five lines of 5-7-5-7-7 on or syllabic units. Therefore, tanka is sometimes called meaning it contains 31 syllables in total. The term waka encompassed a number of differing forms, principally tanka and chōka, but including bussokusekika, sedōka and katauta; these last three forms, fell into disuse at the beginning of the Heian period, chōka vanished soon afterwards. Thus, the term waka came in time to refer only to tanka. Chōka consist of 5-7 on phrases repeated at least twice, conclude with a 5-7-7 ending The briefest chōka documented is Man'yōshū no. 802, of a pattern 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-7-7. It was composed by Yamanoue no Okura in the Nara period and runs: The chōka above is followed by an envoi in tanka form written by Okura: In the early Heian period, chōka was written and tanka became the main form of waka. Since the generic term waka came to be synonymous with tanka. Famous examples of such works are the diaries of Ki no Tsurayuki and Izumi Shikibu, as well as such collections of poem tales as The Tales of Ise and The Tales of Yamato.
Lesser forms of waka featured in the Man'yōshū and other ancient sources exist. Besides that, there were many other forms like: Bussokusekika: This form carved on a slab of slate – the "Buddha footprint" or bussokuseki – at the Yakushi-ji temple in Nara. Recorded in the Man'yōshū; the pattern is 5-7-5-7-7-7. Sedōka: The Man'yōshū and Kokinshū recorded this form; the pattern is 5-7-7-5-7-7. Katauta: The Man'yōshū recorded this form. Katauta means "half-poem"; the pattern is 5-7-7. Waka has a long history, first recorded in the early 8th century in the Kojiki and Man'yōshū. Under influence from other genres such as kanshi and stories such as Tale of Genji and Western poetry, it developed broadening its repertoire of expression and topics. In literary historian Donald Keene's books, he uses four large categories: Early and Heian Literature The Middle Ages Pre-Modern Era Modern Era; the most ancient waka were recorded in the historical record the Kojiki and the 20 volumes of the Man'yōshū, the oldest surviving waka anthology.
The editor of the Man'yōshū is anonymous, but it is believed that the final editor was Ōtomo no Yakamochi. He was a waka poet; the first waka of volume 1 was by Emperor Ōjin. Nukata no Ōkimi, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Yamabe no Akahito, Yamanoue no Okura, Ōtomo no Tabito and his son Yakamochi were the greatest poets in this anthology; the Man'yōshū recorded not only the works of the royalty and nobility, but works of soldiers and farmers whose names were not recorded. The main topics of the Man'yōshū were love and other miscellaneous topics. Early songsSongs and poetry in the Kojiki and the Nihon ShokiThe Man'yōshū During the Nara period and the early Heian period, the court favored Chinese-style poetry and the waka art form fell out of official favor, but in the 9th century, Japan stopped sending official envoys to Tang dynasty China. This severing of ties, combined with Japan's geographic isolation forced the court to cultivate native talent and look inward, synthesizing Chinese poetic styles and techniques with local traditions.
The waka form again began flourishing and Emperor Daigo ordered the creation of an anthology of waka. where the waka of ancient poets and their contemporaries were collected and the anthology named "Kokin Wakashū", meaning Collection of Ancient and Modern Japanese Poems. It was presented to the emperor in 905; this was the first waka anthology edited and issued under imperial auspices, it commenced a long and distinguished tradition of imperial anthologies of waka that continued up to the Muromachi period. Rise of Japanese national cultureThe first three chokusenshūThe first three imperially-commissioned waka anthologies were the Kokin Wakashū, the Gosen Waka
Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, affiliated with Columbia University. It is directed by Jennifer Crewe and publishes titles in the humanities and sciences, including the fields of literary and cultural studies, social work, religion and international studies. Founded in 1893, Columbia University Press is notable for publishing reference works, such as The Columbia Encyclopedia, The Columbia Granger's Index to Poetry and The Columbia Gazetteer of the World and for publishing music. First among American university presses to publish in electronic formats, in 1998 the Press founded an online-only site, Columbia International Affairs Online and Columbia Earthscape. In 2011, Columbia University Press bought UK publisher Wallflower Press. Official website Columbia Earthscape Columbia International Affairs Online Columbia Granger's World of Poetry Columbia Gazetteer of the World
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word