Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg was the second-eldest daughter of Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein and his wife Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. Karoline Mathilde's elder sister, Augusta Viktoria was German Empress and Queen of Prussia as the wife of Wilhelm II, German Emperor. Karoline Mathilde was Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein as the wife of Friedrich Ferdinand. Karoline's maternal grandmother Princess Feodora of Leiningen was the half-sister of Queen Victoria. Karoline Mathilde married Friedrich Ferdinand, the eldest son of Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Princess Adelheid of Schaumburg-Lippe and a nephew of Christian IX of Denmark, on 19 March 1885 at Primkenau. Friedrich Ferdinand and Karoline Mathilde had six children: Princess Victoria Adelaide Helene Luise Marie Friederike of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Princess Alexandra Viktoria Auguste Leopoldine Charlotte Amalie Wilhelmine of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Princess Helene Adelheid Viktoria Marie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Princess Adelheid Luise of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Wilhelm Friedrich Christian Günther Albert Adolf Georg, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg After the overthrow of the Hohenzollern dynasty at the end of World War I, Karoline and her family lived seldom seen outside Grünholz Castle.
Karoline died on 20 February 1932, aged 72, at their castle. A few years she had suffered an attack of heart disease and never recovered, her husband was the only family member present on her deathbed. 25 January 1860 – 19 March 1885: Her Serene Highness Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg 19 March 1885 – 27 November 1885: Her Highness The Hereditary Princess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 27 November 1885 – 27 April 1931: Her Highness The Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 27 April 1931 – 20 February 1932: Her Highness The Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin; the kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William, known as "The Great Elector". Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more known as Frederick the Great, the third son of Frederick William I. Frederick the Great was instrumental in starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia and Sweden and establishing Prussia's role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power.
After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a major power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles, many wars; because of its power, Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states under its rule, although whether Austria would be included in such a unified German domain was an ongoing question. After the Napoleonic Wars led to the creation of the German Confederation, the issue of more unifying the many German states caused revolution throughout the German states, with each wanting their own constitution. Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states and Austria; the North German Confederation, which lasted from 1867 to 1871, created a closer union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent. The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were used in the German Empire.
The German Empire lasted from 1871 to 1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony, this was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, with the victory came an overwhelming wave of nationalism which changed the opinions of some of those, against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the legal predecessor of the unified German Reich and as such a direct ancestor of today's Federal Republic of Germany; the formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the fiat of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction, made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the Free State of Prussia, which followed the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of World War I, was a major democratic force in Weimar Germany until the nationalist coup of 1932 known as the Preußenschlag.
The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world. In 1415 a Hohenzollern Burgrave came from the south to the March of Brandenburg and took control of the area as elector. In 1417 the Hohenzollern was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. After the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic towns of the German states, including Prussia, suffered many economic setbacks. Many of the Prussian towns could not afford to attend political meetings outside of Prussia; the towns were poverty stricken, with the largest town, having to borrow money from elsewhere to pay for trade. Poverty in these towns was caused by Prussia's neighbours, who had established and developed such a monopoly on trading that these new towns could not compete; these issues led to feuds, trade competition and invasions. However, the fall of these towns gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west, allowed the urban middle class of Brandenburg to prosper.
It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, as it faced two dangers that the other German territories did not, partition from within and the threat of invasion by its neighbours. It prevented partition by enacting the Dispositio Achillea, which instilled the principle of primogeniture to both the Brandenburg and Franconian territories; the second issue was resolved through expansion. Brandenburg was surrounded on every side by neighbours whose boundaries were political. Any neighbour could consume Brandenburg at any moment; the only way to defend herself was to absorb her neighbours. Through negotiations and marriages Brandenburg but expanded her borders, absorbing neighbours and eliminating the threat of attack; the Hohenzollerns were made rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1518. In 1529 the Hohenzollerns secured the reversion of the Duchy of Pomerania after a series of conflicts, acquired its eastern part following the Peace of Westphalia. In 1618 the Hohenzollerns inherited the Duchy of Prussia, since 1511 ruled by Hohenzollern Albrecht of Brandenburg Prussia, who in 1525 converted the Teutonic Order ruled state to a Protestant Duchy by accepting fiefdom of the crown of Poland.
It was ruled in a personal union with Brandenburg
Ernst Gunther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein
Ernst Gunther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein was a son of Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein and Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. He inherited his father's title as titular duke of Schleswig-Holstein. On August 2, 1898 in Coburg, he married Princess Dorothea of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, daughter of Prince Philipp of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Princess Louise of Belgium; the grandfather of the bride, King Leopold II, did not attend the wedding but sent the Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold as wedding gift. The couple had no children. However, on 11 November 1920, Ernst Gunther adopted Prince Johann Georg and his sister Princess Marie Luise, children of Prince Albrecht of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Austria-Hungary: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen of Hungary Knight Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of Leopold Belgium - Grand Cordon in the Order of Leopold - 1898 German Empire: Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle Kingdom of Bavaria: Knight of the Order of St. Hubert - February 1901 Kingdom of Württemberg: Knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Crown This article is a translation of the corresponding article on the Swedish Wikipedia, accessed 8 May 2007
Princess Feodora of Leiningen
Princess Feodora of Leiningen was the only daughter of Emich Carl, Prince of Leiningen, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Feodora and her older brother Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen, were maternal half-siblings to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, she is a matrilineal ancestor of King Felipe VI of Spain. Feodora was born in Amorbach in Bavaria, on 7 December 1807 to Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and her husband, Emich Carl, Prince of Leiningen, her father died in 1814. On 29 May 1818, her mother remarried to Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III of the United Kingdom; the following year, the household moved to the United Kingdom because the duchess's pregnancy reaching full term and so that the new potential heir to the British throne could be born in Britain. Feodora enjoyed a close relationship with Victoria, devoted to her, although Victoria resented the fact that Feodora was one of only a few other children with whom she was allowed regular interaction.
Despite their closeness, Feodora was eager to leave their residence at Kensington Palace permanently, as her "only happy time was driving out" with Victoria and her governess Baroness Louise Lehzen, when she could "speak and look as she liked". In early 1828, Feodora married Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, at Kensington Palace. Prior to that, she had only met him twice. After their honeymoon, she returned to the German Confederation, where she lived until her death in 1872; the prince had no domain, however, as the principality had been mediatised to Württemberg in 1806. The couple lived in Schloss Langenburg. Feodora maintained a lifelong correspondence with her half-sister Victoria and was granted an allowance of £300 whenever she could visit England. Feodora's youngest daughter, the Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen, died in early 1872 of scarlet fever. Feodora died that year. Feodora and Ernest had six children: Carl Ludwig II, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg 25 October 1829–16 May 1907), succeeded his father on 12 April 1860, but abdicated his rights on 21 April to marry unequally.
He married Maria Grathwohl on 22 February 1861. They had three children. Princess Elise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg died at the age of 19. Hermann, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg married Princess Leopoldine of Baden on 24 September 1862, they had three children. Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg married Lady Laura Seymour on 24 January 1861, they had four children. Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg married Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein on 11 September 1856, they had five children. Princess Feodora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg married George II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen on 23 October 1858, they had three sons. In 2019, English actress Kate Fleetwood appeared as Feodora in the third season of the Victoria television series. In the programme Feodora is portrayed as a scheming, jealous sister who has fled Langenburg and refuses to return to her home, although this is not accurate. Albert, Harold A.. Queen Victoria's sister: the life and letters of Princess Feodora. London: Hale. Gill, Gillian.
We Two: Victoria and Albert: Rulers, Rivals. New York: Ballatine Books. ISBN 0-345-52001-7. Hibbert, Christopher. Queen Victoria: A Personal History. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-638843-4. Pakula, Hannah. An Uncommon Woman: The Empress Frederick, Daughter of Queen Victoria, Wife of the Crown Prince of Prussia, Mother of Kaiser Wilhelm. New York: Simon and Schuster Inc. ISBN 0-684-84216-5. Vallone, Lynne. Becoming Victoria. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08950-3
Lusatia is a region in Central Europe. The region is the home of the ethnic group of a small West Slavic people, it stretches from the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers in the east to the Pulsnitz and Black Elster in the west, today located within the German states of Saxony and Brandenburg as well as in the Lower Silesian and Lubusz voivodeships of western Poland. Lusatia belonged to several different countries. Being part of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown for three hundred years, alongside them it passed to the Habsburg Monarchy and from it to the Electorate of Saxony; the greater part passed to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815 and the whole region merged into Germany in 1871. After the occupation of Eastern Germany by the Red Army and the partition in 1945, the eastern part of Lusatia along the Lusatian Neisse river was given to Poland where the boundary is called the Oder–Neisse line. In the Polish part today, Polish is spoken, in the German part German, Upper- and Lower Sorbian; the biggest Lusatian town is Cottbus.
The name derives from the Sorbian word łužicy meaning "swamps" or "water-hole", Germanised as Lausitz. Lusatia is the Latinised form which spread in the Romance languages area. Lusatia comprises two both scenically and different parts: a hilly southern "upper" section and a "lower" region, which belongs to the North European Plain; the border between Upper and Lower Lusatia is marked by the course of the Black Elster river at Senftenberg and its eastern continuation toward the Silesian town of Przewóz on the Lusatian Neisse. Neighbouring regions were Silesia in the east, Bohemia in the south, the Margraviate of Meissen and the Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg in the west as well as the Margraviate of Brandenburg in the north. Upper Lusatia is today part of the German state of Saxony, except for a small part east of the Neisse River around Lubań, which now belongs to the Polish Lower Silesian voivodeship, it consists of hilly countryside rising in the South to the Lusatian Highlands near the Czech border, even higher to form the Zittau Hills, the small northern part of the Lusatian Mountains in the Czech Republic.
Upper Lusatia is characterised by fertile soil and undulating hills as well as by historic towns and cities such as Bautzen, Görlitz, Zittau, Löbau, Lubań, Herrnhut and Bad Muskau. Many villages in the south of Upper Lusatia contain a typical attraction of the region, the so-called Umgebindehäuser, half-timbered-houses representing a combination of Franconian and Slavic style. Among those villages are Niedercunnersdorf, Wehrsdorf, Sohland an der Spree with Taubenheim, Varnsdorf or Ebersbach. Most of the area belonging to the German state of Brandenburg today is called Lower Lusatia and is characterised by forests and meadows. In the course of much of the 19th and the entire 20th century, it was shaped by the lignite industry and extensive open-pit mining. Important towns include Cottbus, Eisenhüttenstadt, Lübben, Lübbenau, Finsterwalde, Żary, now considered the capital of Polish Lusatia. Between Upper and Lower Lusatia is a region called the Grenzwall meaning "border dyke", although it is in fact a morainic ridge.
In the Middle Ages this area had dense forests, so it represented a major obstacle to civilian and military traffic. Some of the region's villages were damaged or destroyed by the open-pit lignite mining industry during the DDR era. Some, now exhausted, former open-pit mines are now being converted into artificial lakes, with the hope of attracting holiday-makers, the area is now being referred to as the Lusatian Lake District; the Lusatian Lake District will become Europe's largest artificial lake district. Some of the biggest lakes are Bluno Southern Lake; the Upper Lusatian Heath and Pond Landscape is the region richest in ponds in Germany, together with the Lower Lusatian Pond Landscape forms the biggest pond landscape in Central Europe. As Lusatia is not, never has been, a single administrative unit and Lower Lusatia have different, but in some respects similar, histories; the city of Cottbus is the largest in the region, though it is recognized as the cultural capital of Lower Lusatia, it was a Brandenburg exclave since 1445.
The administrative centres of Lower Lusatia were at Luckau and Lübben, while the historical capital of Upper Lusatia is Bautzen. Since 1945, when a small part of Lusatia east of the Oder–Neisse line was incorporated into Poland, Żary, has been touted as the capital of Polish Lusatia. According to the earliest records, the area was settled by culturally Celtic tribes. Around 100 BC, the Germanic Semnones settled in that area; the name of the region may be derived from that of the Ligians. From around 600 onwards, West Slavic tribes known as the Milceni and Lusici settled permanently in the region. In the 10th century, the region came under the influence of the Kingdom of Germany, starting with the 928 eastern campaigns of King Henry the Fowler; until 963 the Lusatian tribes were subdued by the Saxon margrave Gero and upon his death two years the March of Lusatia was established on the territory of today's Lower Lusatia and
Gotha is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia, located 20 kilometres west of Erfurt and 25 km east of Eisenach with a population of 44,000. The city is the capital of the district of Gotha and was a residence of the Ernestine Wettins from 1640 until the end of monarchy in Germany in 1918; the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha originating here spawned many European rulers, including the royal houses of the United Kingdom, Belgium and Bulgaria. In the Middle Ages, Gotha was a rich trading town on the trade route Via Regia and between 1650 and 1850, Gotha saw a cultural heyday as a centre of sciences and arts, fostered by the dukes of Saxe-Gotha; the first duke, Ernest the Pious was famous for his wise rule. In the 18th century, the Almanach de Gotha was first published in the city; the cartographer Justus Perthes and the encyclopedist Joseph Meyer made Gotha a leading centre of German publishing around 1800. In the early 19th century, Gotha was a birthplace of the German insurance business; the SPD was founded in Gotha in 1875 by merging two predecessors.
In that period Gotha became an industrial centre, with companies such as the Gothaer Waggonfabrik, a producer of trams and aeroplanes. The main sights of Gotha are the early-modern Friedenstein Castle, one of the largest Renaissance/Baroque castles in Germany, the medieval city centre and the Gründerzeit buildings of 19th-century commercial boom. Gotha lies in the southern part of the Thuringian Basin in a agricultural landscape. Gotha has existed at least since the 8th century, when it was mentioned in a document signed by Charlemagne as Villa Gotaha in 775; the first settlement was located around today's Hersdorfplatz outside the north-eastern edge of the city centre. During the 11th century, the nearby Ludowingians received the village and established the city in the late 12th century, as Gotha became their second most important city after Eisenach; the city generated wealth because it was conveniently located at the junction of two important long-distance trade routes: the Via Regia from Mainz and Frankfurt to Leipzig and Breslau and a north-south route from Mühlhausen over the Thuringian Forest to Franconia.
One of the oldest pieces of evidence of busy trade in the city is the "Gotha cache of coins" with nearly 800 Bracteates, buried in 1185 in the central city. In 1180, Gotha was first mentioned as a city, when the area between Brühl and Jüdenstraße became the core of urban development, highlighting the early presence of Jews in this old trading town; the parish church of this first urban settlement was St. Mary's Church at Schlossberg; the castle was first mentioned in 1217. As the Ludowingians died out in 1247, Gotha became part of the Wettins' territories, where it remained until 1918; the new town east of Querstraße was established in the early 15th century. The monastery was founded before 1251 and abandoned in 1525; until 1665, the bourse of Gotha was located in the centre of Hauptmarkt square inside the Renaissance building, which hosts the town hall today. The medieval town hall was located on the north-eastern edge of Hauptmarkt, at the site of today's Innungshalle. Water supply was a big problem.
In 1369, Landgrave Balthasar had the Leinakanal built. This channel, over 25 kilometres long, brought fresh water from the Thuringian Forest to the city; the main businesses of medieval Gotha were the woad trade. The Reformation was introduced in Gotha in 1524 and the castle was rebuilt as a larger fortress between 1530 and 1541. Gotha was part of the Ernestine Wettins territory after the 1485 Treaty of Leipzig. However, the Ernestines' loss of power after the Schmalkaldic War in 1547, the Treaty of Erfurt in 1572, when the city became part of Saxe-Coburg, the Thirty Years' War resulted in Gotha's decline; the local castle, was razed by Imperial troops in 1572. The turnaround was brought about by the selection of Gotha as a ducal residence in the 1640 territorial partition, when Ernest the Pious founded the duchy of Saxe-Gotha; the Protestant and absolutist sovereign began to reorganize his small state and in particular fostered the school system, for example by introducing compulsory education up to the age of 12 in 1642.
This was the origin of the noted liberal education of the Gotha citizenry and the following cultural heyday. Veit Ludwig von Seckendorff was one of numerous experienced and loyal civil servants employed by the duke. Seckendorff was considered one of the most able and influential thinkers on administration and public law of his time, his book Der teutsche Fürstenstaat, written by order of Ernest, served for decades as a standard work in teaching political science at Protestant universities in Germany. Friedenstein Castle was built between 1643 and 1654 and is one of the first large Baroque residence castles in Germany. Between 1657 and 1676, the city received a stronger fortification, demolished between 1772 and 1811. In their place, a park around Friedenstein and a boulevard around the city were established; some important scientific institutions were the ducal library, founded in 1650, the "coin cabinet", the "art and natural collection", basis of today's museums, the Gotha Observatory at Seeberg mountain, established 1788.
The Gotha porcelain manufactory was famous around 1800 for their faiences. In 177
Carola of Vasa
Carola of Vasa was a titular princess of Sweden, the queen consort of Saxony. She was the last Queen of Saxony, she was the daughter of the former Crown Prince Gustav of Sweden and Princess Louise Amelie of Baden, a granddaughter of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, deposed in 1809. In the early 1850s, she was considered one of the most beautiful royal princesses of Europe. Suitors were not lacking, there had been plans for her to marry Napoléon III, Emperor of the French, she was a cousin of the Emperor's through her maternal grandmother Stéphanie de Beauharnais the adoptive daughter of Napoleon I and a Princess of the First French Empire. Her father was against the marriage due to the volatile political situation in France and his dynasty's historical dispute with the Napoleonic monarchy. 20 years when Napoleon III fell from power, her father is quoted as saying, "I foresaw that correctly!" In 1852, against her father's wishes, Carola converted to Catholicism. On 18 June 1853, Carola married in Crown Prince Albert of Saxony.
Their marriage was childless. Her closest heirs were: in paternal side, Frederick II, Grand Duke of Baden, son of her first cousin, she had a good relationship to her parents-in-law and was described as their support during difficult times. As a crown princess, Carola began the activity within social issues which she would continue as a queen. In 1866, she visited Saxony's field hospitals in Vienna, where she made herself known as a good samaritan. In 1867, she founded the Albert commission, which contributed to the medical care of the German army during the war of 1870-71. For her work, she was decorated with the Saxon Order of Sidonia. In 1871, she accompanied Albert to Compiègne after the defeat of France, where she entertained the officers of the victorious armies as a popular hostess. In 1873, her spouse succeeded his father as King Albert I. In 1884, the deposed Vasa dynasty made peace with the new Swedish Bernadotte dynasty through her, when the remains of her grandfather, king Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, her father and her brother Ludvig were taken to Stockholm and interred in the royal crypt.
In 1888, Carola and her spouse made an official visit to Sweden. Queen Carola made an important contribution to the health care organisation in Saxony. In 1867, as Crown princess and Marie Simon founded the Albert-Verein, she founded a wet nurse school at Leipziger Tor, the hospital "Carola-Haus", the women employment agency Johannes-Verein, a women's school in Schwarzenberg, the home "Gustavheim" for the old and weak in Niederpoyritz, the school Lehrertöchterheim Carola-Stift Klotzsche and the home for handicapped Amalie hus Löbtau, Friedrichstadt. Carola was a popular queen, she was widowed in 1902. She was the 499th Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa. At the time of her death, she was the last surviving grandchild of Gustaf IV Adolf. Idun number 28, Friday 13 July 1888 Schimpff, George von. Aus dem Leben der Königin Carola von Sachsen: zur fünfundzwanzigjährigen Regierungs-Jubelfeier Seiner Majestät des Königs und Ihrer Majestät der Königin. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1898. Almanach de Gotha, Gotha 1887 und 1901 Hultman, H.: Prinsen av Vasa, Stockholm 1974 Louisa of Tuscany, Ex-Crown Princess of Saxony: My Own Story, London 1911