Braemar is a village in Aberdeenshire, around 58 miles west of Aberdeen in the Highlands. It is the closest significantly-sized settlement to the upper course of the River Dee sitting at an altitude of 339 metres; the Gaelic Bràigh Mhàrr properly refers to the area of upper Marr, i.e. the area of Marr to the west of Aboyne, the village itself being Castleton of Braemar. The village used to be known as Cinn Drochaid. Braemar is approached from the South on the A93 from Glen Clunie and the Cairnwell Pass and from the East on the A93 from Deeside. Braemar can be approached on foot from the West through Glen Tilt, Glen Feshie, Glen Dee, Glen Derry. Braemar is within a one-and-a-half-hour drive of Aberdeen and Perth; the village is overlooked by Carn na Drochaide, by Creag Choinneach, by Carn na Sgliat, by Morrone. Braemar is the third-coldest low-lying place in the UK, after the villages of Dalwhinnie and Leadhills, with an annual average temperature of 6.8 °C. Braemar has twice entered the UK Weather Records with the lowest UK temperature of -27.2 °C, on 11 February 1895, 10 January 1982.
Braemar has an average of 102 days of air frost and 153 days with 1 mm or more of rainfall. Snowfall can be heavy in winter and early spring, accumulates to depths of 30 cm or more. On 30 September 2015, Braemar had one of the largest recorded diurnal ranges of temperature in the UK, it recorded the warmest and coldest temperatures for the UK for September 2015 on that day. The maximum temperature was 24.0 °C and the minimum was -1.3 °C. The next day it was again the coldest and warmest place in the UK; the minimum temperature was -2.0 °C and the maximum was a new record for Braemar—it was 22.7 °C. Braemar recorded -5.0 °C that month, meaning that for the second month in a row, Braemar recorded the warmest and coldest monthly temperatures for the UK. In 2015, temperatures reached a new record for November for Braemar of 17.7 °C set on the 2nd. The village is situated in the upper end of the historical Earldom of Mar or the Braes o' Mar. In Scottish Gaelic, Bràigh Mhàrr referred to the general locality rather than the village itself.
The use of Braemar to refer to the village dates to around 1870. Two independent hamlets existed on the banks of the Clunie Water named on the West bank; the names Auchendryne and Castleton are marked on the current Ordnance Survey maps below the larger and bolder Braemar. Traditionally, Malcolm III with his first Queen came to the area in around 1059, according to legend held a great gathering at the original settlement of Doldencha, situated under the present-day graveyard, he is credited with having built a timber bridge across the Clunie and the original Kindrochit Castle, the siting of, derived from a strategic relation to the crossings of the Grampian Mounth. The ruins of Kindrochit Castle on the east bank of the Clunie Water upriver from the bridge in Braemar, are considered to be of 14th-century origin replacing the presumed timber-construction of the original castle; the name Kindrochit is the source of the name Castleton being Bail Chasteil. On 6 September 1715, John Erskine, Earl of Mar raised the Jacobite standard at Braemar, instigating the 1715 rising against the Hanoverian Succession.
In 1795, a Roman Catholic chapel was built on the high-ground to the west of Auchendryne giving the name to Chapel Brae which, according to Wyness, was being used as a school. Into the 20th century, the village was completely owned and divided by the adjoining estates of Mar: Auchendryne and Invercauld on one side. To some extent the inter-estate rivalry led to the building of the Fife Arms Hotel in Auchendryne, the Invercauld Arms Hotel in Castleton; the Invercauld Arms was built over the mound where Erskine, had raised the Jacobite standard in 1715. Auchindryne from ach' an droighinn belonged to a branch of the Farquharsons until it was forfeited in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745; that century it was acquired by William Duff, 1st Earl Fife. Catholicism has traditionally been strong in the Braemar area, the bones of Saint Andrew rested in Braemar before being taken to the place now known as St. Andrews; the Catholic Church in Braemar is dedicated to Saint Andrew and was built in 1839.
Johann von Lamont, the famous Scottish-German astronomer and astrophysicist who pioneered the study of the Earth's magnetic field was born in nearby Corriemulzie In the 1891 census, 59.2% of the population of Braemar spoke the Gaelic language "habitually", the percentage of those able to speak the language would have been somewhat higher. The small crofting township of Inverey was 86.3% Gaelic-speaking, most non-speakers being from Lower Deeside. The Gaelic spoken in the Aberdeenshire Highlands shared most features in common with the Gaelic of Strathspey and East Perthshire; the last native-speaker of the local Gaelic dialect died in 1984, though there are still surviving native-speakers of the s
Duke of Fife
Duke of Fife is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created twice, in both cases for Alexander Duff, 6th Earl Fife, who in 1889 married Louise, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of the future King Edward VII. The dukedom of Fife was created for Queen Victoria's grandson-in-law, thus for a member of the British Royal Family. Alexander Duff was the eldest son of 5th Earl Fife. Upon his father's death on 7 August 1879, he succeeded as the 6th Earl Fife. With this, he inherited the titles Baron Braco, Earl Fife and Viscount Macduff, all in the Peerage of Ireland, Baron Skene in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. In 1885, Queen Victoria created for Alexander Duff the title Earl of Fife in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. On Saturday, 27 July 1889, Alexander Duff married Princess Louise, the third child and eldest daughter of the then-Prince of Wales and his wife Princess Alexandra, in the Private Chapel at Buckingham Palace; the couple were third cousins in descent from George III. The wedding marked the second time.
Two days after the wedding, the Queen elevated Alexander Duff to the dignities of Duke of Fife and Marquess of Macduff, in the County of Banff, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Queen Victoria's Letters Patent of 29 June 1889 creating these titles contained the standard remainder to "heirs male of his body". On 24 April 1900, Queen Victoria issued another Letters Patent by which she created for the 1st Duke of Fife the further dignities of Duke of Fife and Earl of Macduff, both in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, both with a special remainder that allowed these titles to pass to his daughters, in default of a son, to the male heirs of those daughters; the one restriction was. On 9 November 1905, King Edward VII granted to Alexander Duff's two daughters Lady Alexandra and Lady Maud the styles of Highness and Princess. Upon Alexander Duff's death in 1912, the peerages created in 1889 and all the older peerages held by the Duff family became extinct, while the peerages created in 1900 passed to his elder daughter, Princess Alexandra.
On 15 October 1913, the 2nd Duchess of Fife married Prince Arthur of Connaught, the only son of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and thus a younger brother of her maternal grandfather King Edward VII. As such and Alexandra were first cousins once removed, their only son, died in 1943. When the 2nd Duchess of Fife died in 1959, her hereditary peerages passed to her nephew James Carnegie, eldest son of her sister Maud and her husband Charles Carnegie, 11th Earl of Southesk. Thirty-three years in 1992, the 3rd Duke of Fife succeeded his father as 12th Earl of Southesk and chief of the Clan Carnegie; as consequence, the following peerage titles became therefore subsidiary to that of the Dukedom: Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird in the Peerage of Scotland, Earl of Southesk and Lord Carnegie in the Peerage of Scotland, Baron Balinhard in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, the Carnegie Baronetcy in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia. Upon his death in 2015, he was succeeded in the Fife and Carnegie titles by his son, David Charles Carnegie.
The 4th Duke of Fife's heir apparent is his son Charles Duff Carnegie, who uses the courtesy title Earl of Southesk. The hypothetical grandson of the duke and heir-to-heir apparent would be styled instead Lord Carnegie; the family's current main residence is Elsick House near the town Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire, within the watershed of the Burn of Elsick. Another seat of the Duke is Kinnaird Castle near the town Brechin in Scotland; the Mar Lodge, to the west of the village Braemar in Aberdeenshire, was bequeathed by Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife to her nephew Alexander Ramsay of Mar, subsequently sold. The first two holders of the dukedom are buried in Braemar; the following heraldic achievement was matriculated by the Court of the Lord Lyon in 2017 for the 4th Duke of Fife: Shield: Or, a Lion rampant Gules and langued Azure, on an Inescutcheon Argent, ensigned of an Earl's Coronet proper, an Eagle displayed Azure, armed and membered Gules, charged on its breast with an Antique Covered Cup Or.
Crest: A Thunderbolt proper, winged Or. Supporters: Dexter: a Lion guardant Gules, langued Azure, collared with a Label of five-points Argent, charged with two Thistles proper, between three Crosses of St George Gules. Sinister: a Talbot Argent and langued Gules. Mottoes: Above the crest, on a Scroll DRED GOD; the arms as borne by the 3rd Duke of Fife were: Shield: Quarterly: 1st, Or a Lion rampant Gules armed and langued Azure.
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother Queen Victoria, George was third in the line of succession behind his father, Prince Albert Edward, his own elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. From 1877 to 1891, George served in the Royal Navy, until the unexpected death of his elder brother in early 1892 put him directly in line for the throne. On the death of his grandmother in 1901, George's father ascended the throne as Edward VII, George was created Prince of Wales, he became king-emperor on his father's death in 1910. George V's reign saw the rise of socialism, fascism, Irish republicanism, the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape; the Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. As a result of the First World War, the empires of his first cousins Nicholas II of Russia and Wilhelm II of Germany fell, while the British Empire expanded to its greatest effective extent.
In 1917, George became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which he renamed from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a result of anti-German public sentiment. In 1924 he appointed the first Labour ministry and in 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the dominions of the Empire as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations, he had smoking-related health problems throughout much of his reign and at his death was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII. George was born on 3 June 1865, in London, he was the second son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, Alexandra, Princess of Wales. His father was the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, his mother was the eldest daughter of King Christian IX and Queen Louise of Denmark, he was baptised at Windsor Castle on 7 July 1865 by the Archbishop of Charles Longley. As a younger son of the Prince of Wales, there was little expectation, he was third in line after his father and elder brother, Prince Albert Victor.
George was only 17 months younger than Albert Victor, the two princes were educated together. John Neale Dalton was appointed as their tutor in 1871. Neither Albert Victor nor George excelled intellectually; as their father thought that the navy was "the best possible training for any boy", in September 1877, when George was 12 years old, both brothers joined the cadet training ship HMS Britannia at Dartmouth, Devon. For three years from 1879, the royal brothers served on HMS Bacchante, accompanied by Dalton, they toured the colonies of the British Empire in the Caribbean, South Africa and Australia, visited Norfolk, Virginia, as well as South America, the Mediterranean and East Asia. In 1881 on a visit to Japan, George had a local artist tattoo a blue and red dragon on his arm, was received in an audience by the Emperor Meiji. Dalton wrote an account of their journey entitled The Cruise of HMS Bacchante. Between Melbourne and Sydney, Dalton recorded a sighting of the Flying Dutchman, a mythical ghost ship.
When they returned to Britain, Queen Victoria complained that her grandsons could not speak French or German, so they spent six months in Lausanne in an unsuccessful attempt to learn another language. After Lausanne, the brothers were separated, he travelled the world. During his naval career he commanded Torpedo Boat 79 in home waters HMS Thrush on the North America station, before his last active service in command of HMS Melampus in 1891–92. From on, his naval rank was honorary; as a young man destined to serve in the navy, Prince George served for many years under the command of his uncle, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, stationed in Malta. There, he fell in love with his cousin, Princess Marie, his grandmother and uncle all approved the match, but the mothers—the Princess of Wales and the Duchess of Edinburgh—opposed it. The Princess of Wales thought the family was too pro-German, the Duchess of Edinburgh disliked England. Marie's mother was the only daughter of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
She resented the fact that, as the wife of a younger son of the British sovereign, she had to yield precedence to George's mother, the Princess of Wales, whose father had been a minor German prince before being called unexpectedly to the throne of Denmark. Guided by her mother, Marie refused George, she married Ferdinand, the future King of Romania, in 1893. In November 1891, George's elder brother, Albert Victor, became engaged to his second cousin once removed, Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, known as "May" within the family. May's father, Prince Francis, Duke of Teck, belonged to a morganatic, cadet branch of the house of Württemberg, her mother, Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, was a male-line granddaughter of King George III and a first cousin of Queen Victoria. On 14 January 1892, six weeks after the formal engagement, Albert Victor died of pneumonia, leaving George second in line to the throne, to succeed after his father. George had only just recovered from a serious illness himself, after being confined to bed for six weeks with typhoid fever, the disease, thought to have killed his grandfather Prince Albert.
Queen Victoria still regarded Princess May as a suitable match for her grandson, George and May grew close during their shared perio
Princess Royal is a substantive title customarily awarded by a British monarch to his or her eldest daughter. There have been seven Princesses Royal. Princess Anne is the current Princess Royal. Queen Elizabeth II never held the title as her aunt, Princess Mary, was in possession of the title; the title Princess Royal came into existence when Queen Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV, King of France, wife of King Charles I, wanted to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the King of France was styled "Madame Royale". Thus Princess Mary, the daughter of Henrietta Maria and Charles, became the first Princess Royal in 1642. Princess Mary, eldest daughter of King James II & VII, Princess Sophia Dorothea, only daughter of King George I, were eligible for this honour but did not receive it. At the time she became eligible for the title, Princess Mary was Princess of Orange, while Sophia Dorothea was Queen in Prussia when she became eligible for the title. Princess Louisa Maria, the last daughter of King James II, born after he lost his crown in the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689, was considered to be Princess Royal during James's exile by Jacobites at Saint-Germain-en-Laye and was so called by Jacobites though she was not James's eldest living daughter at any time during her life.
Before the title of Princess Royal came into use in England, the eldest daughter of the King or Queen of England had a special status in law. For instance, according to Magna Carta, the barons of the realm owed aids to finance the first wedding of the king's eldest daughter; the following is a complete list of women formally styled Princess Royal: In the House of M alternate universe of Marvel Comics, Elizabeth Braddock is the elder twin sister of the British King and bears the title Princess Royal. The novel The Lady Royal, by Molly Costain Haycraft, is a fictionalized account of the life of Isabella de Coucy. According to the narrative, Isabella was titled the Princess Royal and later given the more'adult' title of the Lady Royal by her parents; this is a fabrication. The title of "the Lady Royal" has never existed. Princess Royal was one of the GWR 3031 Class locomotives that were built for and run on the Great Western Railway between 1891 and 1915; the LMS Class 8P "Princess Royal" 4-6-2 was a type of express passenger locomotive built between 1933 and 1935 by the London Midland & Scottish Railway Princess Royal is an abandoned town in the Western Australian Goldfields, named for Victoria, Princess Royal, daughter of Queen Victoria.
Five ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Princess Royal. "The Princess Royal" is the name of a folk tune from the British Isles, of a morris dance performed to that tune. In the Thai monarchy, the style of Sayamboromrajakumari for Princess Sirindhorn of Thailand is similar to the position of Princess Royal. In the Kingdom of Tonga, Princess Sālote Mafileʻo Pilolevu is the Princess Royal. In a number of African monarchies, the title of the principal non-spousal female titleholder in the kingdom is translated as Princess Royal; this happens in kingdoms that don't make use of the higher title of queen mother. Princess Elizabeth, Batebe of Toro in Uganda, for example has her title translated in this manner; this happens though it has meant something closer to "queen sister"
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952; the monarch and their immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister; the monarch is commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate executive authority over the government is still formally by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent; the British monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England, which consolidated into the kingdoms of England and Scotland by the 10th century.
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, after which Wales too came under control of Anglo-Normans. The process was completed in the 13th century when the Principality of Wales became a client state of the English kingdom. Meanwhile, Magna Carta began a process of reducing the English monarch's political powers. From 1603, the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married them, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the British monarch was the nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. In the early 1920s the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the Dominions of the Empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations.
After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent bringing the Empire to an end. George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states; the United Kingdom and fifteen other independent sovereign states that share the same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. Although the monarch is shared, each country is sovereign and independent of the others, the monarch has a different and official national title and style for each realm. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the monarch is the head of state; the Queen's image is used to signify British sovereignty and government authority—her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, her portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, salutes. "God Save the Queen" is the British national anthem. Oaths of allegiance are made to her lawful successors.
The monarch takes little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers are delegated from the monarch, either by statute or by convention, to ministers or officers of the Crown, or other public bodies, exclusive of the monarch personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by the monarch, such as the Queen's Speech and the State Opening of Parliament, depend upon decisions made elsewhere: Legislative power is exercised by the Queen-in-Parliament, by and with the advice and consent of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by Her Majesty's Government, which comprises ministers the prime minister and the Cabinet, technically a committee of the Privy Council, they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the various judiciaries of the United Kingdom, who by constitution and statute have judicial independence of the Government.
The Church of England, of which the monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise; the sovereign's role as a constitutional monarch is limited to non-partisan functions, such as granting honours. This role has been recognised since the 19th century; the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government. Whenever necessary, the monarch is responsible for appointing a new prime minister. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the sovereign must appoint an individual who commands the support of the House of Commons the leader of the party or coalition that has a majority in that House; the prime minister takes office by attending the monarch in private audience, after "kissing hands" that appointment is effective without any other f
William IV of the United Kingdom
William IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837. The third son of George III, William succeeded his elder brother George IV, becoming the last king and penultimate monarch of Britain's House of Hanover. William served in the Royal Navy in his youth, spending time in North America and the Caribbean, was nicknamed the "Sailor King". In 1789, he was created Duke of St Andrews. In 1827, he was appointed as Britain's first Lord High Admiral since 1709; as his two older brothers died without leaving legitimate issue, he inherited the throne when he was 64 years old. His reign saw several reforms: the poor law was updated, child labour restricted, slavery abolished in nearly all of the British Empire, the British electoral system refashioned by the Reform Act 1832. Although William did not engage in politics as much as his brother or his father, he was the last monarch to appoint a prime minister contrary to the will of Parliament.
Through his brother Adolphus, the Viceroy of Hanover, he granted his German kingdom a short-lived liberal constitution. At the time of his death William had no surviving legitimate children, but he was survived by eight of the ten illegitimate children he had by the actress Dorothea Jordan, with whom he cohabited for twenty years. Late in life, he married and remained faithful to the young princess who would become Queen Adelaide. William was succeeded in the United Kingdom by his niece Victoria and in Hanover by his brother Ernest Augustus. William was born in the early hours of the morning on 21 August 1765 at Buckingham House, the third child and son of King George III and Queen Charlotte, he had two elder brothers and Frederick, was not expected to inherit the Crown. He was baptised in the Great Council Chamber of St James's Palace on 20 September 1765, his godparents were his paternal uncles, the Duke of Gloucester and Prince Henry, his paternal aunt, Princess Augusta hereditary duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
He spent most of his early life in Richmond and at Kew Palace, where he was educated by private tutors. At the age of thirteen, he joined the Royal Navy as a midshipman, was present at the Battle of Cape St Vincent in 1780, his experiences in the navy seem to have been little different from those of other midshipmen, though in contrast to other sailors he was accompanied on board ships by a tutor. He did his share of the cooking and got arrested with his shipmates after a drunken brawl in Gibraltar, he served in New York during the American War of Independence, making him the only member of the British royal family to visit America up to and through the American Revolution. While William was in America, George Washington approved a plot to kidnap him, writing: "The spirit of enterprise so conspicuous in your plan for surprising in their quarters and bringing off the Prince William Henry and Admiral Digby merits applause. I am persuaded, that it is unnecessary to caution you against offering insult or indignity to the persons of the Prince or Admiral..."
The plot did not come to fruition. In September 1781, William held court at the Manhattan home of Governor Robertson. In attendance were Mayor David Mathews, Admiral Digby, General Delancey, he became captain of HMS Pegasus the following year. In late 1786, he was stationed in the West Indies under Horatio Nelson, who wrote of William: "In his professional line, he is superior to two-thirds, I am sure, of the list; the two were great friends, dined together nightly. At Nelson's wedding, William insisted on giving the bride away, he was given command of the frigate HMS Andromeda in 1788, was promoted to rear-admiral in command of HMS Valiant the following year. William sought to be made a duke like his elder brothers, to receive a similar parliamentary grant, but his father was reluctant. To put pressure on him, William threatened to stand for the House of Commons for the constituency of Totnes in Devon. Appalled at the prospect of his son making his case to the voters, George III created him Duke of Clarence and St Andrews and Earl of Munster on 16 May 1789 saying: "I well know it is another vote added to the Opposition."
William's political record was inconsistent and, like many politicians of the time, cannot be ascribed to a single party. He allied himself publicly with the Whigs as well as his elder brothers George, Prince of Wales, Frederick, Duke of York, who were known to be in conflict with the political positions of their father. William ceased his active service in the Royal Navy in 1790; when Britain declared war on France in 1793, he was anxious to serve his country and expected a command, but was not given a ship at first because he had broken his arm by falling down some stairs drunk, but perhaps because he gave a speech in the House of Lords opposing the war. The following year he spoke in favour of the war; the Admiralty did not reply to his request. He did not lose hope of being appointed to an active post. In 1798 he was made an admiral. Despite repeated petitions, he was never given a command throughout the Napoleonic Wars. In 1811, he was appointed to the honorary position of Admiral of the Fleet.