Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children. In theological discussions, the practice is sometimes referred to as paedobaptism, or pedobaptism, from the Greek pais meaning "child"; this can be contrasted with what is called "believer's baptism", or credobaptism, from the Latin word credo meaning "I believe", the religious practice of baptising only individuals who confess faith in Jesus, therefore excluding underage children. Opposition to infant baptism is termed catabaptism. Infant baptism is called "christening" by some faith traditions. Most Christians belong to denominations that practice infant baptism. Branches of Christianity that practice infant baptism include Catholics and Oriental Orthodox, among Protestants, several denominations: Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and other Reformed denominations and some Nazarenes, the Moravian Church; the exact details of the baptismal ceremony vary among Christian denominations. Many follow a prepared ceremony, called a liturgy.
In a typical ceremony, parents or godparents bring their child to their congregation's priest or minister. The rite used would be the same as that denomination's rite for adults, i.e. by pouring holy water or by sprinkling water. Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic traditions practise total immersion and baptise babies in a font, this practice is the first method listed in the baptismal ritual of the Roman Catholic, although pouring is the standard practice within the Latin branch of Catholicism. Catholic and Orthodox churches that do this do not sprinkle. At the moment of baptism, the minister utters the words "I baptise you in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit". Although it is not required, many parents and godparents choose to dress the baby in a white gown called a christening gown for the baptism ceremony. Christening gowns become treasured keepsakes that are used by many other children in the family and handed down from generation to generation. Traditionally, this gown is white or off white and made with much lace and intricate detail.
In the past, a gown was used for both girls. Made of white fabric, the outfit consists of a romper with a vest or other accessories; these clothes are kept as a memento after the ceremony. It is a naval tradition to baptise children using the ship's bell as a baptismal font and to engrave the child's name on the bell afterwards. Tracking down and searching for an individual's name on a specific bell from a ship may be a difficult and time-consuming task. Christening information from the bells held by the Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt Museum has been entered into a searchable data archive, accessible to any interested web site visitors. Scholars disagree on the date; some believe that 1st-century Christians did not practice it, noting the lack of any explicit evidence of paedobaptism. Others, noting the lack of any explicit evidence of exclusion of paedobaptism, believe that they did, understanding biblical references to individuals "and household" being baptised as well as "the promise to you and your children" as including young children.
The earliest extra-biblical directions for baptism, which occur in the Didache, are taken to be about baptism of adults, since they require fasting by the person to be baptised. However, inscriptions dating back to the 2nd century which refer to young children as "children of God" may indicate that Christians customarily baptised infants too; the earliest reference to infant baptism was by Irenaeus in his work Against Heresies. Due to its reference to Eleutherus as the current bishop of Rome, the work is dated c. 180. Irenaeus speaks of children being "born again to God." This reference has been described as "obscure." Three passages by Origen mention infant baptism as customary. While Tertullian writing c. 198–203 advises the postponement of baptism of little children and the unmarried, he mentions that it was customary to baptise infants, with sponsors speaking on their behalf. The Apostolic Tradition, sometimes attributed to Hippolytus of Rome, describes how to perform the ceremony of baptism.
From at least the 3rd century onward Christians baptised infants as standard practice, although some preferred to postpone baptism until late in life, so as to ensure forgiveness for all their preceding sins. In the 21st century, a number of incidents surrounding particularly "rough", "aggressive" or "violent" infant baptisms according to the Eastern Orthodox submersion or immersion rite have sparked controversies as to whether they constituted child abuse. In January 2017, Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia Ilia II performed a mass infant baptism of hundreds of children at the Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi during the Georgian Orthodox Church's celebration of Epiphany. Many foreign observers found this "shocking" and wondered whether such baptisms should be considered child abuse. A May 2018 viral video of an infant baptism – performed in Ayia Napa, Cyprus, at a Greek Orthodox church, although this remains unconfirmed – received much media attention. In a statement, the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia condemned the practice as "physically abusive", but claimed the performer was'not Greek Orthodo
Princess Stéphanie of Monaco
Princess Stéphanie of Monaco, Countess of Polignac is the youngest child of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, the American actress Grace Kelly. She is the younger sister of Albert II, Prince of Monaco, Caroline, Princess of Hanover. 13th in the line of succession to the Monegasque throne, she has been a singer, swimwear designer and fashion model. Stéphanie was born to Grace Kelly on 1 February 1965 at Prince's Palace in Monaco, she is the youngest of their three children, after Caroline and Albert II. Her godparents are her maternal uncle John B. Kelly Jr. and paternal first cousin Elisabeth-Anne de Massy. Her mother, who described Stéphanie as a "warm, amusing and capable girl" and a "good athlete", lovingly called her "wild child". On 13 September 1982, while returning home from their farm in Rocagel, France, Stéphanie and her mother had a car accident. Grace died the next day, on September 14, while Stéphanie sustained a hairline fracture of a neck vertebra. Although the official version was that Grace suffered a stroke while driving, rumors began that Stéphanie, who had to miss her mother's funeral due to her recovery, was the one driving.
Stéphanie herself refused to speak publicly about her mother's death until 1989, when she gave an interview to the author Jeffrey Robinson, insisting that the story was untrue. She said, "There was a lot of pressure on me because everyone was saying that I had been driving the car, that it was all my fault, that I'd killed my mother... It's not easy when you're 17 to live with that." She did not discuss the subject again until a 2002 interview with the French magazine Paris Match in which she repeated her earlier denial, discussed the trauma of being beside her mother at the time of the accident. She said, "Not only did I go through the horrible trauma of losing my mother at a young age, but I was beside her at the moment of the accident. Nobody can imagine how much I've suffered, still suffer."Stéphanie was educated at the Dames de Saint-Maur in Monaco, at the école and collège Dupanloup in Boulogne-Billancourt, France. Stéphanie received her baccalauréat from the Cours Charles de Foucauld in 1982.
During her school years, she studied classical dance and piano, competed in gymnastics and horse riding. She attended Camp Oneka, an all-girls' summer camp in the Pocono Mountains, in America, where both her sister and mother had attended previously. In 1983, after her physical recovery from the accident which killed her mother, Stéphanie started an apprentice programme at Christian Dior under the direction of head designer Marc Bohan; the following year, she debuted as a model on the biannual haute couture special published by Spanish magazine ¡Hola!, a venture that she repeated in 1990. In 1985, Stéphanie covered the American edition of Vanity Fair, she became the spokesman of the Swiss beauty line La Prairie, for which she was photographed by Horst, she appeared on the cover of French Vogue, photographed by the late Helmut Newton, in September 1986. In 1986, Stéphanie launched a swimwear line Pool Position with Alix de la Comble, whom she had met during her internship at Dior; the fashion show to present the line, held at the Sporting Club in Monaco and attended by Prince Rainier III, Prince Albert and Princess Caroline, was a major event covered by the worldwide media.
In 1989, Stéphanie launched her own self-titled perfume. Stéphanie co-owns Replay stores in both Monaco and Barcelona. In December 2008, she covered the Vogue Paris. In February 1986, Stéphanie self-produced and released her first single with the French label Carrere, under the production of Yves Roze; the song "Ouragan" and its English version "Irresistible" were both international hits selling more than 2 million copies. "Ouragan" is one of the best-selling singles in France of all time. The full album Besoin, released as Stéphanie in some countries, sold more than 1.5 million, with 100,000 in France. The single "Flash", as well as its English version "One Love to Give," achieved success throughout Europe. In January 1987, Stéphanie released the single "Young Ones Everywhere" to benefit UNICEF; the same year, Stéphanie moved to Los Angeles to record a new album. However, it took her five years to release it; the album Stéphanie, released in 1991, met with disappointing sales and negative reviews, despite the promotional tour that included a performance on The Oprah Winfrey Show.
Stéphanie ended her music career after recording "In the Closet" with Michael Jackson for his album Dangerous. The song became a worldwide hit and reached the top 10 in the United States but Stéphanie was credited on the single under the alias "Mystery Girl" and her involvement in the song was not revealed until a few years later, she made a brief return to singing in 2006, when she recorded "L'Or de nos vies", a charity single, along with her foundation Fight AIDS. Stéphanie is the president of several associations, including Monaco Youth Centre and Princess Stéphanie Activity Centre, is an honorary board member of the Princess Grace Foundation – United States, she has been the patron of the International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo, which she attends, the World Association of Children's Friends, founded in 1963 by her mother Grace, Princess of Monaco. Since 1985, Stéphanie has been the president of the Monte-Carlo Magic Grand Prix and the International Festival of Amateur Theatre, she is the president of the Théâtre Princesse Grace.
In 2003, Stéphanie created her own Women Face the AIDS Association, which became Fight AIDS Monaco in 2004, in order to support people living with HIV and to combat the social st
Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Albert II is the reigning monarch of the Principality of Monaco and head of the princely house of Grimaldi. He is the son of the American actress Grace Kelly. Prince Albert's sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover, Princess Stéphanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock. Prince Albert II is one of the wealthiest royals in the world, with assets valued at more than $1 billion, which include land in Monaco and France. Although Prince Albert does not own the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he does own shares in the Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which operates Monaco's casino and other entertainment properties in the principality. Albert was born in the Prince's Palace of Monaco, he has ancestry from Italy, Britain, the United States, France, Mexico and Monaco. He was baptized on 20 April 1958, by Monsignor Jean Delay, archbishop of Marseille, in the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of Monaco, before being presented at the balcony of the Palace to the people of Monaco.
His godmother was the Spanish queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain, his godfather was Prince Louis de Polignac. Albert graduated with distinction from the Lycée Albert Premier, in 1976, he was a camper and a counselor for six summers at Camp Tecumseh, on Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, in the 1970s. He spent a year training in various princely duties and enrolled at Amherst College, in western Massachusetts, in 1977 as Albert Grimaldi, studying political science, economics and English literature, he speaks French, English and Italian. He spent the summer of 1979 touring Europe and the Middle East with the Amherst Glee Club, graduated in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science. Albert undertook an exchange program with the University of Bristol, at the Alfred Marshall School of Economics and Management in 1979. Prince Albert's mother was killed in a car accident in 1982 at age 52. In 2017, in In Depth interview with Graham Bensinger, the Prince stated that his mother's death was a'traumatic' event for him and the family.
He revealed that his father was never the'same man' after the loss. Albert was an enthusiastic sportsman, participating in cross country, javelin throwing, judo, tennis, sailing, skiing and fencing, he is a patron of AS Monaco. Albert competed in the bobsleigh at five consecutive Winter Olympics for Monaco, taking part in both the two-man and four-man events. In the two-man bobsleigh Albert finished 25th at the 1988 games in Calgary, 43rd at the 1992 games in Albertville, 31st at the 2002 games. In the four-man bobsleigh Albert finished 27th in 1992, 26th at the 1994 games in Lillehammer, 28th at both the 1998 games in Nagano and the 2002 games in Salt Lake City. Albert was Monaco's flag bearer at the 1988, 1994, 1998 Winter Olympics. Albert has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 1985, his maternal grandfather, John B. Kelly Sr. and maternal uncle, John B. Kelly Jr. were both Olympic medalists in rowing. Albert has been the patron of the World Olympians Association since 2012.
In 2017 Albert gained OLY post-nominal status under his competition name of Albert Grimaldi rather than his royal title. Albert did not finish it, he became a judo black belt. On 31 March 2005, following consultation with the Crown Council of Monaco, the Palais Princier announced that Rainier's son, Hereditary Prince Albert, would take over the duties of his father as regent since Rainier was no longer able to exercise his royal functions. On 6 April 2005, Rainier III died and Albert succeeded him as Albert II; the first part of Prince Albert II's enthronement as ruler of the Principality was on 12 July 2005, after the end of the three-month mourning period for his father. A morning Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral presided over by the Archbishop of Monaco, the Most Reverend Bernard Barsi, formally marked the beginning of his reign. Afterward Albert II returned to the princely palace to host a garden party for 7,000 Monégasques born in the principality. In the courtyard, the Prince was presented with two keys of the city as a symbol of his investiture and he made a speech.
The evening ended with a spectacular fireworks display on the waterfront. The second part of his investiture was on 19 November 2005. Albert was enthroned at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, his family was there in attendance, including his elder sister Princess Caroline with her husband Ernst, Prince of Hanover and three of her four children, Andrea and Charlotte. Royalty from 16 delegations were present for the festivities throughout the country; the evening ended with an opera performance in Monte Carlo. Prince Albert continues the policy – initiated by previous rulers of Monaco – of strengthening environmental awareness. Just like his great-great-grandfather Albert I, he travelled to Spitsbergen in July 2005. During this trip, he visited the glaciers Monacobreen. Prince Albert II engaged in a Russian Arctic expedition, reaching the North Pole on Easter, 16 April 2006; as a result, he is the first incumbent head of state to have reached the North Pole. Prince Albert is the Vice-Chairman of the Princess Grace Foundation-USA, an American charity founded in 1982, after his mother's death, which supports emerging artists in theatre and film, as Princess Grace did in her lifetime.
In 2006, Prince Albert created the Prince Albert II of Monac
Grace Patricia Kelly was an American film actress who became Princess of Monaco after marrying Prince Rainier III in April 1956. After embarking on an acting career in 1950, when she was 20, Kelly appeared in New York City theatrical productions and more than 40 episodes of live drama productions broadcast during the early 1950s Golden Age of Television. In October 1953, she gained stardom from her performance in director John Ford's film Mogambo starring Clark Gable and Ava Gardner, which won her a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination in 1954. Subsequently, she had leading roles in five films, including The Country Girl with Bing Crosby, for which her deglamorized performance earned her an Academy Award for Best Actress. Other films include High Noon, with Gary Cooper. Kelly retired from acting at the age of 26 to marry Rainier, began her duties as Princess of Monaco, they had three children: Caroline, Stéphanie. Kelly retained her link to America by her dual U. S. and Monégasque citizenship.
Princess Grace died at Monaco Hospital on September 14, 1982, succumbing to injuries sustained in a traffic collision the day before. After her death the French physicians treating her reported that a CAT scan had revealed she had suffered two brain hemorrhages; the first occurred prior to the crash, is believed to have been the inciting incident that led to the crash. The second, suffered while in hospital, is believed to have been the result of physical trauma sustained in the crash. At the time of her death, she was 52 years old, she is listed 13th among the American Film Institute's 25 Greatest Female Stars of Classical Hollywood Cinema. Kelly was born on November 12, 1929, at Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to an affluent and influential family, her father, Irish-American John B. Kelly Sr. had won three Olympic gold medals for sculling and owned a successful brickwork contracting company, well known on the East Coast. A registered Democrat, he was nominated to be mayor of Philadelphia for the 1935 election but lost by the closest margin in the city's history.
In years, he served on the Fairmount Park Commission and, during World War II, was appointed by President Roosevelt as National Director of Physical Fitness. His brother Walter C. Kelly was a vaudeville star, who made films for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Paramount Pictures, another named George was a Pulitzer Prize-winning dramatist and director. Kelly's mother Margaret Katherine Majer had German parents. Margaret had taught physical education at the University of Pennsylvania and had been the first woman to coach women's athletics at the institution, she modeled for a time in her youth. After marrying John B. Kelly in 1924, Margaret focused on being a housewife until all her children were of school age, following which she began participating in various civic organizations. Kelly had two older siblings and John Jr. and a younger sister, Elizabeth. The children were raised in the Catholic faith. While attending Ravenhill Academy, a prestigious Catholic girls' school, Kelly modeled fashions at local social events with her mother and sisters.
In 1942, at the age of 12, she played the lead in Don't Feed the Animals, a play produced by the East Falls Old Academy Players. Before graduating in May 1947 from Stevens School, a prominent private institution in Chestnut Hill, a neighborhood of Philadelphia, she acted and danced, her graduation yearbook listed her favorite actress as Ingrid Bergman and her favorite actor as Joseph Cotten. Written in the "Stevens' Prophecy" section was: "Miss Grace P. Kelly – a famous star of stage and screen". Owing to her low mathematics scores, Kelly was rejected by Bennington College in July 1947. Despite her parents' initial disapproval, Kelly decided to pursue her dreams of being an actress. John was displeased with her decision. To start her career, she auditioned for the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York, using a scene from her uncle George Kelly's The Torch-Bearers. Although the school had met its semester quota, she obtained an interview with the admission officer, Emile Diestel, was admitted through the influence of George.
Kelly worked diligently, practiced her speech by using a tape recorder. Her early acting pursuits led her to the stage, she made her Broadway debut in Strindberg's The Father, alongside Raymond Massey. At 19, her graduation performance was as Tracy Lord in The Philadelphia Story. Television producer Delbert Mann cast Kelly as Bethel Merriday in an adaptation of the Sinclair Lewis novel of the same name; as a theatre personality, she was mentioned in Theatre World magazine as: " most promising personality of the Broadway stage of 1950." Some of her well-known works as a theater actress were: The Father, The Rockingham Tea Set, The Apple Tree, The Mirror of Delusion, among others. Success on television brought her a role in a major motion picture. Impressed by her work in The Father, the director of the Twentieth Century-Fox film Fourteen Hours, Henry Hathaway, offered her a small role in the film. Kelly had a minor role, opposite Paul Douglas, Richard Basehart, Barbara Bel Geddes, as a young woman contemplating divorce.
Kelly's co-artist Paul Douglas commented of her acting in this film: "In two senses, she did not have a bad side – you could film her from any an
Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Wilhelm II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, reigning from 15 June 1888 until his abdication on 9 November 1918 shortly before Germany's defeat in World War I. He was the eldest grandchild of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe, most notably his first cousin King George V of the United Kingdom and Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, whose wife, was Wilhelm and George's first cousin. Assuming the throne in 1888, he dismissed the country's longtime chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 before launching Germany on a bellicose "New Course" to cement its status as a respected world power. However, due to his impetuous personality, he undermined this aim by making tactless, alarming public statements without consulting his ministers beforehand, he did much to alienate other Great Powers from Germany by initiating a massive build-up of the German Navy, challenging French control over Morocco, backing the Austrian annexation of Bosnia in 1908.
Wilhelm II's turbulent reign culminated in his guarantee of military support to Austria-Hungary during the crisis of July 1914, which resulted in the outbreak of World War I. A lax wartime leader, he left all decision-making regarding military strategy and organisation of the war effort in the hands of the German General Staff; this broad delegation of authority gave rise to a de facto military dictatorship whose authorisation of unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmerman Telegram led to the United States' entry into the conflict in April 1917. After Germany's defeat in 1918, Wilhelm lost the support of the German army, abdicated on 9 November 1918, fled to exile in the Netherlands, where he died in 1941. Wilhelm was born on 27 January 1859 at the Crown Prince's Palace, Berlin, to Victoria, Princess Royal, the wife of Prince Frederick William of Prussia, his mother was the eldest daughter of Britain's Queen Victoria. At the time of his birth, his great-uncle Frederick William IV was king of Prussia, his grandfather and namesake Wilhelm was acting as regent.
He was the first grandchild of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, but more the first son of the crown prince of Prussia. From 1861, Wilhelm was second in the line of succession to Prussia, after 1871, to the newly created German Empire, according to the constitution of the German Empire, was ruled by the Prussian king. At the time of his birth, he was sixth in the line of succession to the British throne, after his maternal uncles and his mother. A traumatic breech birth resulted in Erb's palsy, which left him with a withered left arm about six inches shorter than his right, he tried with some success to conceal this. In others, he holds his left hand with his right, has his crippled arm on the hilt of a sword, or holds a cane to give the illusion of a useful limb posed at a dignified angle. Historians have suggested. In 1863, Wilhelm was taken to England to be present at the wedding of his Uncle Bertie, Princess Alexandra of Denmark. Wilhelm attended the ceremony in a Highland costume, complete with a small toy dirk.
During the ceremony, the four-year-old became restless. His eighteen-year-old uncle Prince Alfred, charged with keeping an eye on him, told him to be quiet, but Wilhelm drew his dirk and threatened Alfred; when Alfred attempted to subdue him by force, Wilhelm bit him on the leg. His grandmother, Queen Victoria, missed seeing the fracas, his mother, was obsessed with his damaged arm, blaming herself for the child's handicap and insisted that he become a good rider. The thought that he, as heir to the throne, should not be able to ride was intolerable to her. Riding lessons were a matter of endurance for Wilhelm. Over and over, the weeping prince was compelled to go through the paces, he fell off time despite his tears was set on its back again. After weeks of this he got it right and was able to maintain his balance. Wilhelm, from six years of age, was tutored and influenced by the 39-year-old teacher Georg Hinzpeter. "Hinzpeter", he wrote, "was a good fellow. Whether he was the right tutor for me, I dare not decide.
The torments inflicted on me, in this pony riding, must be attributed to my mother."As a teenager he was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium. In January 1877, Wilhelm finished high school and on his eighteenth birthday received as a present from his grandmother, Queen Victoria, the Order of the Garter. After Kassel he spent four terms at the University of Bonn, he became a member of the exclusive Corps Borussia Bonn. Wilhelm possessed a quick intelligence, but this was overshadowed by a cantankerous temper; as a scion of the royal house of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm was exposed from an early age to the military society of the Prussian aristocracy. This had a major impact on him and, in maturity, Wilhelm was seen out of uniform; the hyper-masculine military culture of Prussia in this period did much to frame his political ideals and personal relationships. Crown Prince Frederick was viewed by his respect, his father's status as a hero of the wars of unification was responsible for the young Wilhelm's attitude, as were the circumstances in which he was raised.
Federal Court of Justice
The Federal Court of Justice in Karlsruhe is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction in Germany. It is the supreme court in all matters of private law. A decision handed down by the BGH can be reversed only by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany in the rare cases that the Constitutional Court rules on constitutionality. Before the Federal Court of Justice of Germany was created in its present form, Germany has had several prior highest courts: As early as 1495 there was the so-called Reichskammergericht, which existed until 1806; as from 1870, in the time of the North German Confederation, there was the Bundesoberhandelsgericht in Leipzig. In 1871, it was renamed to Reichsoberhandelsgericht and its area of responsibility was amplified as well; this court was unsoldered by the Reichsgericht at October 1, 1879, in Leipzig. On 1 October 1950, five years after the German Reich had collapsed, the Bundesgerichtshof —as it exists nowadays— was founded. Together with the Federal Administrative Court of Germany, the Federal Finance Court of Germany, the Federal Labor Court of Germany and the Federal Social Court of Germany, the Federal Court of Justice is one of the highest courts of Germany today, located in Karlsruhe and Leipzig.
The Federal Court of Justice of Germany is subdivided in twenty-five senates: Twelve are civil panels, five are the criminal panels and eight are special panels. The Federal Court of Justice is to develop the law, it just reconsiders the legal assessment of a case as a court of last resort. To that effect, it can be differentiated in the area of responsibility of the Federal Court of Justice: In civil law, it reconsiders decrees of the regional courts and of the regional appeal courts. In some special cases, it reconsiders first-instance decrees of the local courts and the regional courts, it can decide that an application for revision is improper the or that it is valid, when it decides the case. In criminal law, it has to decide about applications for revision against first-instance decrees of the regional courts the regional appeal courts, it has to decide. It can decide without a main trial. In any other case, it decides the legal remedy after a main trial, it decides the Vorlagesachen. If a regional appeal court plans to differ from a decision of another regional appeal court or a decision of the Federal Court of Justice, it has to inform the Federal Court of Justice, which decides the case and protects the unity of the jurisdiction.
Since 2000, its decisions have been published on its official website. Judges of the Federal Court of Justice are selected by an electoral committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice of the 16 German Bundesländer and of 16 representatives appointed by the German Federal Parliament. Once a judge has been chosen by this committee, he or she is appointed by the President of Germany. Only individuals who possess German citizenship within the meaning of Art. 116 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, who are formally qualified to serve as a judge in accordance with § 9 DRiG and are at minimum 35 years of age can be appointed as a Judge at the Federal Court of Justice. Horst Hagen Fritz Hauß Burkhard Jähnke Gerda Müller Joachim Wenzel In all civil cases heard by the Federal Court of Justice, the parties need to be represented by an attorney, admitted to the bar at the Federal Court of Justice; this admission is the only'special' admission within the German court system, in that an attorney at the Federal Court of Justice for civil cases cannot appear in any other court in the country.
Admission at the Bundesgerichtshof is selective. Candidates for admission are nominated by an electoral committee and are chosen and appointed by the Federal Ministry of Justice; the requirement for a representative admitted to the Federal Court of Justice does not apply in criminal cases. Here, representation by any lawyer admitted to the bar in Germany suffices. Brockhaus in drei Bänden. 2006. P. 839. ISBN 978-3-7653-1514-5. Meyers Großes Taschenlexikon in 24 Bänden. 2006. P. 1038. ISBN 978-3-411-10063-7. "The Federal Court of Justice". Karlsruhe, Leipzig: Federal Court of Justice of Germany. 2014. Official website