United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps
The Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps are a mountain range system in the Holm Land Peninsula, King Frederick VIII Land, northeastern Greenland. Administratively this range is part of the Northeast Greenland National Park zone; the range was named by the 1938–39 Mørkefjord Expedition after Princess Caroline-Mathilde of Denmark, wife of Prince Knud of Denmark, patron of the expedition. The Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps run from north to south across the western half of the Holm Land peninsula; the Princess Elizabeth Alps located to the north across the Ingolf Fjord display a similar structure. The range is bound to the north and northwest by the inner Ingolf Fjord, to the east by the flatter eastern part of Holm Land, to the west by the Vandre Valley and the Saefaxi River, to the south by the Marmorvigen and the inner Hekla Sound, the NW branch of the Scoresby Sound; the range has numerous rocky ridges that are unnamed. The highest point of the Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps reaches 1,627 m at 80°28′28″N 19°36′38″W with an as high 1,618 m peak located close about 5 km to the southeast.
US Air Force maps display the same highest point reaching other sources 1,744 m. The Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps lie in a uninhabited part of Greenland; the nearest settlement is Nord, a military outpost with an airfield located about 120 km to the north. The main glaciers in the Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps are: Gaflen Glacier, on the western side. Skeen Glacier, on the western side. Spaerre Brae, a large glacier on the northern side. Tungen Glacier, on the western side; the Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps lie in the high Arctic zone. Polar climate prevails in the area of the range, the average annual temperature in the area being -16° C; the warmest month is July when the average temperature rises to -1° C and the coldest is January with -28° C. A. K. Higgins, M. P. Smith, N. J. Soper, A. G. Leslie, J. A. Rasmussen and M. Sønderholm 2000: The Neoproterozoic Hekla Sund Basin, eastern North Greenland: a pre-Iapetan extensional sequence thrust across its rift shoulders during the Caledonian orogeny.
The Geological Society of London. 2001. Pedersen, S. A. S. Leslie, A. G. & Craig, L. E. 1995. Proterozoic and Caledonian geology of the Prinsesse Caroline Mathilde Alper, eastern North Greenland. In: Higgins, A. K. Express Report Eastern North and North-East Greenland 1995. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, 71–86. List of mountain ranges of Greenland Pictures
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, parts of Alaska, Greenland, Northern Canada, Norway and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost -containing tundra. Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places; the Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. For example, the cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, land animals and human societies. Arctic land is bordered by the subarctic; the word Arctic comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός, "near the Bear, northern" and that from the word ἄρκτος, meaning bear. The name refers either to the constellation Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", prominent in the northern portion of the celestial sphere, or to the constellation Ursa Minor, the "Little Bear", which contains Polaris, the Pole star known as the North Star.
There are a number of definitions of. The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle, the approximate southern limit of the midnight sun and the polar night. Another definition of the Arctic is the region where the average temperature for the warmest month is below 10 °C; the Arctic's climate is characterized by cool summers. Its precipitation comes in the form of snow and is low, with most of the area receiving less than 50 cm. High winds stir up snow, creating the illusion of continuous snowfall. Average winter temperatures can go as low as −40 °C, the coldest recorded temperature is −68 °C. Coastal Arctic climates are moderated by oceanic influences, having warmer temperatures and heavier snowfalls than the colder and drier interior areas; the Arctic is affected by current global warming, leading to Arctic sea ice shrinkage, diminished ice in the Greenland ice sheet, Arctic methane release as the permafrost thaws. Due to the poleward migration of the planet's isotherms, the Arctic region is shrinking.
The most alarming result of this is Arctic sea ice shrinkage. There is a large variance in predictions of Arctic sea ice loss, with models showing near-complete to complete loss in September from 2040 to some time well beyond 2100. About half of the analyzed models show near-complete to complete sea ice loss in September by the year 2100. Arctic life is characterized by adaptation to short growing seasons with long periods of sunlight, to cold, snow-covered winter conditions. Arctic vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, herbs and mosses, which all grow close to the ground, forming tundra. An example of a dwarf shrub is the Bearberry; as one moves northward, the amount of warmth available for plant growth decreases considerably. In the northernmost areas, plants are at their metabolic limits, small differences in the total amount of summer warmth make large differences in the amount of energy available for maintenance and reproduction. Colder summer temperatures cause the size, abundance and variety of plants to decrease.
Trees cannot grow in the Arctic, but in its warmest parts, shrubs are common and can reach 2 m in height. In the coldest parts of the Arctic, much of the ground is bare. Herbivores on the tundra include the Arctic hare, lemming and caribou, they are preyed on by the snowy owl, Arctic fox, Grizzly bear, Arctic wolf. The polar bear is a predator, though it prefers to hunt for marine life from the ice. There are many birds and marine species endemic to the colder regions. Other terrestrial animals include wolverines, Dall sheep and Arctic ground squirrels. Marine mammals include seals and several species of cetacean—baleen whales and narwhals, killer whales, belugas. An excellent and famous example of a ring species exists and has been described around the Arctic Circle in the form of the Larus gulls; the Arctic includes sizable natural resources to which modern technology and the economic opening up of Russia have given significant new opportunities. The interest of the tourism industry is on the increase.
The Arctic contains some of the last and most extensive continuous wilderness areas in the world, its significance in preserving biodiversity and genotypes is considerable. The increasing presence of humans fragments vital habitats; the Arctic is susceptible to the abrasion of groundcover and to the disturbance of the rare breeding grounds of the animals that are characteristic to the region. The Arctic holds 1/5 of the Earth's water supply. During the Cretaceous time period, the Arctic still had seasonal snows, though only a light dusting and not enough to permanently hinder plant growth. Animals such as the Chasmosaurus, Hypacrosaurus and Edmontosaurus may have all migrated north to take advantage of the summer growing season, migrated south to warmer climes when the winter ca
The Mørkefjord expedition of 1938–1939 was sent out by Alf Trolle, Ebbe Munck, Eigil Knuth in order to continue the work of the Denmark Expedition. It was an exploratory expedition to Northeast Greenland led by Eigil Knuth and had been planned to last from 1938 to 1939, it was affected by the outbreak of World War II. There had been a previous expedition to Northeast Greenland led by Johan Peter Koch in 1913. -- which Alfred. Eigil Knuth arrived in Greenland with his co-leader and friend, Ebbe Munck, on 19 June 1938; the other expedition members were botanist Paul Gelting, Alf Trolle, five more men. The expedition made use of an aircraft – a Tiger Moth; the expedition members began by building a scientific station north of the mouth of the Mørkefjord, west of Hvalrosodden. It was used as a base; the expedition used a hunting hut in nearby Godfred Hansen Island built by the Nanok East Greenland Fishing Company. Mørkefjord Station was manned for a further two years after the end of the expedition, from 1938 to 1941.
The additional two years were for two reasons, first because of the Danish Meteorological Institute having requested a continuation of weather reports and second, because Eigil Knuth, faced with the outbreak of World War II, could not return to Greenland as planned and decided to continue the activities of the expedition. The Mørkefjord Expedition would map and name a number of geographic features in East Greenland during the years it operated in the area; the Mørkefjord station is now a ruin. Cartographic expeditions to Greenland List of Arctic expeditions
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Station Nord, Greenland
Station Nord is a military and scientific station in northeastern Greenland 1700 km north of the Arctic Circle at 81°43'N, 17°47'W. ICAO: BGNO, it is about 924 km from the geographic North Pole, on Prinsesse Ingeborg Halvø in northern Kronprins Christian Land, making it the second northernmost permanent settlement and base of the Northeast Greenland National Park and of Greenland as a whole. The Danish Defense Command base is staffed by five Danish non-commissioned officers on a 26-month tour of duty; the station has about 35 buildings. It is not accessible by ship; the name Nord means "north" in Danish. Winter darkness extends from 15 October to 28 February. In June 1950, the United States Weather Bureau first developed plans for a joint weather station in Northeast Greenland to supplement the joint weather stations being built with Canada in the high Arctic. At that time, Thule was itself a joint Danish-American weather station; the next year, in conjunction with the construction of Thule Air Base, Norwegian-born United States Air Force Colonel Bernt Balchen proposed a major air base in Northeast Greenland, useful for radar coverage, navigation aids, search-and-rescue, recovery of heavy bombers returning from the USSR.
Two 10,000 foot runways were contemplated. After consultations with Denmark, a weather station was operational at Nord by 1 May 1952, a U. S.-built landing strip was available by July of that year. At that time, American interest was still focused on the possibility of a major airfield either near Nord or in Peary Land. By February 1953, the United States Air Force abandoned the air base plans and settled on a minor role for the airstrip at Nord. During that summer, an expansion of the gravel strip was carried out, a team of 41 Danes was sent to construct facilities, the finished weather station was in operation on 1 October; the major reason for the reduction in the United States Air Force's plans was that resupply of the station was difficult and expensive. Permanent polar ice prevents supply by sea, attempts to move heavy supplies by trans-icecap convoys from Camp TUTO were problematic. In practice, everything had to be flown in from Thule. While this was a United States Air Force task, it devolved on the Royal Danish Air Force, which flew C-130s from Thule to Nord in biannual operations codenamed Brilliant Ice.
Another factor was Danish sensitivity to U. S. activities. It was important for the Danish government to preempt a permanent U. S. presence, for that reason Denmark assumed responsibility for Nord's operation and refused an American offer for a lease on the station. The understanding, codified by Memorandum of Understanding in 1954, was that Nord would be available to U. S. forces as needed. Nord did serve as an emergency recovery site for American bombers in the 1950s, for the occasional civilian aircraft in trouble. A U. S. satellite tracking station operated there. In 1968, Nord had a staff of 30 men, 25 buildings, seven antennas. Routine communications was by radiotelegraphy to Angmagssalik. By the time of the end of the United States' responsibilities, Nord had a 6,200-foot runway, a non-directional beacon, a meteorological observatory for synoptic and radiosonde observations, a seismic station; the original station was built by "Grønlands Televæsen" for the United States during the period of 1952 to 1956 as a weather and telecommunications site with a runway, International Civil Aviation Organization code BGMI.
From the perspective of Denmark, Nord was meteorologically needed as the only weather station within hundreds of miles, as a resupply base for the Sirius Patrol, a dog-sledge patrol that replaced the improvised wartime sledge patrol in Northeast Greenland. The construction of Station Nord was undertaken by Danish construction companies and financed by the Danish government, with the United States contributing to the transportation of equipment from the Thule Air Base and paying subsidies to maintain the operation of the station; some of the equipment supplied by the United States Air Force is still in use. Until its closure in 1972, it was run as a civilian base by the Greenland Technical Organisation; when Denmark requested funds for repairs to the runway in 1964, the United States Department of State advised that Nord was no longer essential, that new cost arrangements would have to be made. In April 1971, the United States Air Force announced it would cease sending goods and fuel from Thule to Station Nord.
Without support from the United States, the government of Denmark decided to close the station as the relevant agencies considered it expensive to run. After the closure in late June 1972, many scientists and military officers protested and demanded that it be reopened. Station Nord was important to the Royal Danish Army and the Royal Danish Air Force as a military base, enabling flights to the northern part of the National Park and support of the Sirius Patrol. Civilian scientific activities in the area were gradually increasing. In 1974, the Defence Command submitted plans to build a landing strip. Reconnaissance began in March 1974 by the air force and helicopters from
Knud, Hereditary Prince of Denmark
Knud, Hereditary Prince of Denmark, was the younger son and child of Christian X and Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. From 1947 to 1953, he was heir presumptive to his older brother, Frederick IX, would have succeeded him as king had it not been for a change in the Danish Act of Succession that replaced him with his niece, Margrethe II. Prince Knud was born on 27 July 1900 at Sorgenfri Palace in Kongens Lyngby north of Copenhagen during the reign of his great-grandfather, King Christian IX, his parents were Christian of Denmark, son of the heir apparent Frederick, Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Knud's only sibling, had been born one year before him. Christian IX died on 29 January 1906, Knud's grandfather succeeded him as Frederick VIII. Six years on 14 May 1912, Frederick VIII died, Knud's father ascended the throne as Christian X; as was customary for princes at that time, Knud started a military education and entered the naval college. He married his first cousin, Princess Caroline-Mathilde of Denmark, on 8 September 1933 at Fredensborg Palace.
She was a daughter of Frederick VIII's son Harald. Knud and Caroline-Mathilde had three children: Princess Elisabeth, Prince Ingolf and Prince Christian. On 20 April 1947, Christian X died, Knud's brother Frederick succeeded to the throne as Frederick IX. Since Frederick IX had fathered no sons and the Danish Act of Succession at the time followed the principle of agnatic primogeniture, Prince Knud became heir presumptive and next in line to succeed his brother as king. Frederick IX had, fathered three daughters. In 1953, the Danish Act of Succession was amended to follow the principle of male-preference primogeniture; the new law made Frederick IX's thirteen-year-old daughter Margrethe the new heir presumptive, placing her and her two sisters before Knud and his family in the line of succession. King Frederick IX died in 1972 and was succeeded by his daughter Queen Margrethe II. Prince Knud died in Gentofte on 14 June 1976, he was buried at Roskilde Cathedral. His widow died on 12 December 1995.
In 1953 a students home in Copenhagen was named "Arveprins Knuds Kollegium" in honor of Prince Knud. At the time, Prince Knud was protector of Sydslesvigsk Studie- og Hjælpefond, an area that could be considered the birthplace of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, the royal family Knud was a part of; the Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps in Greenland were named by the 1938–39 Mørkefjord Expedition in his wife's honour for Prince Knud had been the patron of the expedition. Princess Elisabeth Caroline-Mathilde Alexandrine Helena Olga Thyra Feodora Estrid Margarethe Désirée Prince Ingolf Christian Frederik Knud Harald Gorm Gustav Viggo Valdemar Aage of Denmark. Lost his title and became Count Ingolf of Rosenborg after marrying without royal consent to Inge Terney, he has no issue. Prince Christian Frederik Franz Knud Harald Carl Oluf Gustav Georg Erik of Denmark. Lost his title and became Count Christian of Rosenborg after marrying without consent to Anne Dorte Maltoft-Nielsen.
He had three daughters, Countess Josephine, Countess Camilla, Countess Feodora. 27 July 1900 – 20 April 1947: His Royal Highness Prince Knud of Denmark 20 April 1947 – 27 March 1953: His Royal Highness The Hereditary Prince of Denmark 27 March 1953 – 14 June 1976: His Royal Highness Hereditary Prince Knud of Denmark Prince Knud at the website of the Royal Danish Collection at Amalienborg Palace