Ernest, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels
Landgrave Ernest of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg was from 1649 to 1658 his death Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels and from 1658 until his death Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg. Because his brothers died young, all Landgraves in the Rotenburg Quarter are descendants of Ernest. Hence, Ernest is known as the ancestor of the Catholic Rotenburg Quarter, a group of junior lines of the House of Hesse. Ernst was the eleventh child of the second marriage of the Landgrave Maurice of Hesse-Kassel with Juliane of Nassau-Dillenburg, he was a great-grandson of Philip I "the Magnanimous". Landgrave Ernst married in 1647 in Frankfurt with Countess Maria Eleonore of Solms-Lich. Two sons from this marriage outlived Ernest: Charles. Ernest was brought up as a Calvinist during the Thirty Years' War, he made his Grand Tour to France and Italy, fought with Hesse-Kassel during the final years of the war, for example at the Battle of Nördlingen on 3 August 1645. In 1647, the army of Landgravine Amalie Elisabeth reconquered Lower Katzenelnbogen and returned it to Hesse-Kassel.
In 1649, Ernest received Lower Katzenelnbogen. This made him the founder of the Hesse-Rheinfels line. Hesse-Rheinfels was not considered sovereign: it remained under the sovereignty of Hesse-Kassel, as did the other parts of the Rotenburg Quarter. Details of the relationship between Hesse-Rheinfels and Hesse-Kassel were laid down in a series of house treaties. Ernest chose Burg Rheinfels castle, above St. Goar on the left bank of the Rhine, as his residence and extended the castle to an imposing fortress; the new Landgrave held his official into St. Goar on 30 March 1649; the construction activities associated with the extension of his castle and the fact that many landgraviate authorities resided at Rheinfels, contributed to the economic boom of St. Goar, which had suffered from the Thirty Years' War. Ernest and his family converted to Catholicism on 6 January 1652 in Cologne. However, he could not make Catholicism the established religion in his territory, because it fell under the jurisdiction of Hesse-Kassel and his half-nephew Landgrave William VI would not allow Ernest to undermine his authority and deviate from Calvinism, the established religion in Hesse-Kassel.
In 1654, a compromise was reached: the Treaty of Ravensburg allowed Ernest to create three Catholic parishes in his landgraviate, in St. Goar, Nastätten and Langen-Schwalbach. After the death of his brothers Frederick in 1655 and Herman IV in 1658, he inherited their sections of the Rotenburg Quarter, he called himself Ernest of Hesse-Rotenburg-Rheinfels. Ernest was interested in religious matters. In 1666, he had the Rheinfelsen Book of Hymns printed, which contained both Catholic and Lutheran and Reformed hymns. Ernest corresponded with the leading scholars of his time, such as Leibniz Ernest died in 1693 and was buried, at his request, in the Pilgrimage Church in Bornhofen Monastery in Kamp-Bornhofen Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz. "Ernst, Landgraf von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 1. Hamm: Bautz. Col. 1539. ISBN 3-88309-013-1. Gustav Könnecke, "Ernst, Landgraf von Hessen-Rheinfels", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 6, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 284–286
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Domshof is a town square in Bremen, north of the cathedral and the Marktplatz. The Domshof is used for markets as well as larger outdoor events May Day demonstrations; the Domshof is a trapezoid 67 m in width, 100 m long on the western side and 130 m long on the eastern side. Several streets radiate off the square. Buildings on the square include Bremen Cathedral, the Town Hall of Bremen, Bremen Landesbank, the Deutsche Bank am Domshof, SEB Bank, the Schifffahrtsbank and the Bremer Bank; the buildings around the Domshof are uniform in construction, being made of sandstone and dark red or clinker brick. The red Maintal sandstone of the Deutsche Bank and a white rendered building differ from the others. From the 10th century until 1803 the Domshof belonged to the Cathedral District, an enclave under the sovereign and legal control of the Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, was not under the control of the Free city of Bremen. After the construction of the cathedral in the early Middle Ages, a wall was built around the Cathedral District, which ran across the square.
This was demolished by 1043 at the instigation of Archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg. Thereafter the Domshof was no longer marked off from the rest of the city. There was repeated conflict between the Prince-Archbishop and the city council about their respective rights and duties in the area; the cathedral was built at the highest point of the Bremen sandbank, was more than 5.5 m higher than the other end of the square in the Middle Ages. In the course of time, the ground built up until it reached its modern form in the 14th century, measuring 60 m × 135 m. At the west end there were houses of burghers, gabled houses stood in the north, with more burghers' houses to the northeast and the Prince-Archbishops' buildings stood in the east beside the cathedral; the Prince-Archbishop's Palace, the site of the City-Vogt, closed the southwest of the square off from the Bremer Marktplatz. During this time, the Domshof was used as a tourney field - a grand festive joust took place at Pentecost in 1335 on the occasion of the rediscovery of the relics of Saints Cosmas and Damian under Prince-Archbishop Burchard Grelle.
The boundaries of the Domshof remained an object of contention between the Prince-Archbishop and the city through the 14th and 15th centuries. The chroniclers record that the city held events in the square in the 16th century and exhibited the guns won by Bremen at the Battle of Drakenburg in the square from 1547 to 1557. There were disputes in 1592 when the council had a large amount of building material for the fortifications stored in the square and in 1636 when the council set up two pillories in front of the Prince-Archbishop's Palace; the sovereign government of the cathedral, along with the Cathedral District and the palace, changed several times. Until the Reformation it was the Catholic Prince-Archbishop the Lutheran Administrator regnant of the Prince-Archbishopric Swedish Bremen-Verden from 1648 Electoral Hanover from 1715 to 1719 becoming part of the City of Bremen in 1803. Up to 1803, the boundaries of the square remained unclear. In the agreement of 1654 which ended the First Swedish War on Bremen, only usage regulations were established with respect to the Domshof and the Domsheide.
Bremen claimed the whole square for itself, held military parades and other events on it and the square was used for the storage of lumber and peat, as well as a regular pig market. Swedish protests went unheard; the unclear usage regulations meant that the houses on the Domshof that were owned by the church and the Swedish Crown fell into disrepair. Johann Daniel Heinbach's plan of 1730 shows a large stack of timber in the northern part of the square from about 70 trees; the north side was ringed by the gabled houses of burghers in Renaissance style. The western and eastern sides with half-timbered houses, carriage houses and stables are shown with many vacant lots. Johann Christian Danckwerth listed 160 buildings belonging to the Electorate of Hanover, of which eight houses and five shabby stalls by the cathedral were in the "Great Doms Hof". In the 18th century, the square was used as a military assembly point as well as for executions and running the gauntlet. Bremen continued to use the square as before and, though Hanover made protests through its civic administration, these were unsuccessful.
The question of sovereignty over the Domshof remained "in suspenso". When stalls were set out for the Freimarkt, both the Mayor of Bremen and the Hanoverian alderman approved them and Hanover collected the rental fee. Hanover's intendant in Bremen, Theodor Olbers wrote "Since the Domshof is one of the most beautiful squares in the city of Bremen..." it would be good if "it were embellished." As a result of this proposal, the square was renovated by Bremen and Hanover together. Some 60 or 70 new linden trees were planted in two groups, bordered by 69 sandstone pillars and 195 m of chain, so that a tree-lined avenue ran through the middle of the square. An area between the cathedral and the palace was paved in 1799; the city council hoped, "that soon the rest of the Domshof may be lifted from its embarrassing and swampy condition by this opportunity."Soon after this the square received street lighting. In 1803, as part of German mediatization, the Cathedral District became part o
Siege of Turin
The Siege of Turin lasted from June to September 1706 when a French-led force besieged Victor Amadeus' capital of Turin during the War of the Spanish Succession. The siege was broken. By the end of 1705, France and its allies controlled most of Northern Italy, as well as the Savoyard territories of Villefranche and the County of Savoy, now in modern-day France. Vendôme decided it was too late in the year for a full-scale assault on Turin and its capture became the main objective for 1706. To prevent interference from Imperial forces in Lombardy, Vendôme took the offensive and his victory at Calcinato on 19 April drove them into the Trentino valley; the Austrian commander Prince Eugene now returned from Vienna and restored order, taking his remaining forces around Lake Garda and into the Province of Verona. This left 30,000 Imperial troops around Verona facing 40,000 French spread between the Mincio and Adige rivers. Marshall Louis de La Feuillade and 48,000 men arrived before Turin on 12 May, although the blockade was not completed until 19 June.
The strong French position changed after their disastrous defeat at Ramillies on 23 May. As was now customary, Turin's defences were divided between the outer City, containing the residential and commercial areas, with the Citadel at its core. La Feuillade and Vendôme proposed digging trenches around the City at a distance of 300-400 metres blasting the Citadel into submission; the Citadel's defences had been improved since 1696 based on advice provided by Vauban. This advice was ignored and Vauban offered to have his throat cut if Turin were captured using this approach. With Philipp von Daun commanding the garrison, Victor Amadeus left the city on 17 June with 6,000 cavalry, seeking to disrupt French supply lines and buy time for Prince Eugene's relief force. La Feuillade spent most of the next month chasing him around Southern Piedmont and by the end of July, it was clear the siege was moving too slowly; as Vauban predicted, the bombardment inflicted considerable damage but the Citadel walls remained intact and on 15 August, Prince Eugene began his advance on Turin.
Orléans' covering force joined La Feuillade. On 29 August Prince Eugene reached Carmagnola. Overlooked, this was a considerable achievement and shows why Eugene was so well regarded. French forces around Turin still outnumbered those of Eugene and Victor Amadeus by 42,000 to 30,000. On 5 September, the Savoyard/Imperial army concentrated at Collegno, between the Dora Riparia and the Stura di Lanzo rivers near a weak spot in the French lines, they launched their attack around 10:00 am on 7 September. Both Marsin and Orléans were wounded, Marsin fatally. While French positions around the rest of Turin remained intact, the siege was broken. On 8 September, a French detachment in Lombardy under the Count of Médavy defeated a Hessian corps at Castiglione but this did not affect the strategic position. Although the French still had substantial numbers of men in both Pinerolo and Susa, Victor Amadeus calculated they would not conduct offensive operations, his Duchy was enlarged by the new territory of Montferrat but Nice and the County of Savoy were not returned until 1713 while Savoyard ambitions to gain Milan remained unfulfilled for another 150 years.
To the fury of his Allies, in March 1707, Emperor Joseph signed the Convention of Milan with France ending the war in Italy. The French withdrew their remaining garrisons, ceding control of Milan and Mantua to Austria but given free passage to France, allowing them to be redeployed elsewhere. Prince Eugene agreed to support Allied operations in Spain by attacking the French naval base at Toulon but the Austrians diverted 10,000 troops to capture the Spanish-held Kingdom of Naples, making it the dominant power in Italy; the Siege of Turin and the death of the Piedmontese hero Pietro Micca became significant parts of the history first of the Savoyard and the Italian state. This was portrayed in the 1938 Italian film Pietro Micca. On its third centenary in 2006, a number of studies were published to mark the occasion including Le Aquile e i Gigli. Una storia mai scritta. Bevilacqua, P and Zannoni, F.
Gandersheim Abbey is a former house of secular canonesses in the present town of Bad Gandersheim in Lower Saxony, Germany. It was founded in 852 by Duke Liudolf of Saxony, progenitor of the Liudolfing or Ottonian dynasty, whose rich endowments ensured its stability and prosperity; the "Imperial free secular foundation of Gandersheim", as it was known from the 13th century to its dissolution in 1810, was a community of the unmarried daughters of the high nobility, leading a godly life but not under monastic vows, the meaning of the word "secular" in the title. In the collegiate church the original Romanesque church building is still visible, with Gothic extensions, it is a cruciform basilica with two towers on the westwork, consisting of a flat-roofed nave and two vaulted side-aisles. The transept has a square crossing with less square arms, with a square choir to the east. Beneath the crossing choir is a hall-crypt; the westwork consist of a connecting two-storey block. The present church building, subject to restoration in the 19th and 20th centuries, was begun in about 1100 and dedicated in 1168.
Remains of the previous building are incorporated into the present structure. Gandersheim Abbey was a proprietary foundation by Duke Liudolf of Saxony and his wife Oda, who during a pilgrimage to Rome in 846 obtained the permission of Pope Sergius II for the new establishment and the relics of the sainted former popes Anastasius and Innocent, who are still the patron saints of the abbey church; the community settled first at Brunshausen. The first abbess was a daughter of Liudolf, as were the two succeeding abbesses. In 856 construction began on the church at Gandersheim and in 881 Bishop Wigbert dedicated it to the Saints Anastasius and John the Baptist, after which the community moved in. In 877 King Louis the Younger placed the abbey under the protection of the Empire, which gave it extensive independence. In 919 King Henry I granted it Imperial immediacy; the close connection to the Empire meant that the abbey was obliged to provide accommodation to the German kings on their travels, numerous royal visits are recorded.
The establishment of the abbey by the founder of the Liudolfingers gave it especial importance during the Ottonian period. Until the foundation of Quedlinburg Abbey in 936, Gandersheim was among the most important Ottonian family institutions, its church was one of the Ottonian burial places; the canonesses known as Stiftsdamen, were allowed private property and, as they had taken no vows, were free at any time to leave the abbey. The Ottonian and Salian kings and their entourages stayed in Gandersheim, the canonesses were by no means remote from the world. Apart from the memorial Masses for the founding family, one of the main duties of the canonesses was the education of the daughters of the nobility. One of the abbey's best-known canonesses was Roswitha of Gandersheim, famous as the first female German language poet. During a period of 20 years – from about 950 to 970 or so – she wrote historical poetry, spiritual pieces and dramas, the Gesta Ottonis, expressing her veneration of Otto I. In the Great Gandersheim Conflict, as it is called, originating from the turn of the 10th and 11th centuries, the Bishop of Hildesheim asserted claims over the abbey and its estates, which were located in an area where the boundaries between the Bishopric of Hildesheim and the Archbishop of Mainz were unclear.
The pressure from Hildesheim moved the abbey into the sphere of Mainz. The situation was only resolved by a privilege of Pope Innocent III of 22 June 1206 freeing the abbey once and for all from all claims of Hildesheim, granting the abbesses the title of Imperial princesses. With the death of the last Salian king in 1125 the importance of the abbey began to diminish and it came more and more under the influence of the local territorial rulers; the Welfs in particular attempted to gain control over the abbey, until its dissolution. The abbeys were not able to establish their own territorial lordship. No than the mid-1270s, the Dukes of Brunswick succeeded in obtaining the Vogtei of the abbey and in the late 13th century built a castle in Gandersheim. Another way to gain influence over the abbey was to place relatives in the abbess's chair; this took the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg rather longer to achieve, but they were at last successful in 1402 with the election of their first family abbess, Sophia III, Princess of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The Reformation was first introduced into the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in 1542 when troops of the Schmalkaldic League occupied it. The Reformers ignored the abbey's Imperial immediacy and ordained the use of Lutheran church services, the introduction of which however the canonesses were able to postpone on account of the absence of the prioress, governing the abbey on behalf of the seven-year-old abbess; the townspeople of Gandersheim had received the Reformation enthusiastically and on 13 July 1543 undertook an iconoclastic attack on the abbey church, where they destroyed images and altars. Henry V changed his mind however and the principality changed back to Roman Catholicism, he made good at least some of the damages, the church was re-dedicated. In 1568 the Reformation was implemented under Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg; the abbey and its dependencies at Brunshausen and Clus became Lutheran, the Marienkloster and the Franciscan friaries were suppres
A vanitas is a symbolic work of art showing the transience of life, the futility of pleasure, the certainty of death contrasting symbols of wealth and symbols of ephemerality and death. Best-known are vanitas still lifes, a common genre in Netherlandish art of the 16th and 17th centuries; the Latin noun vanitas means'emptiness','futility', or'worthlessness', the traditional Christian view being that earthly goods and pursuits are transient and worthless. It alludes to Ecclesiastes 1:2. Vanitas themes were common with most surviving examples in sculpture. By the 15th century, these could be morbid and explicit, reflecting an increased obsession with death and decay seen in the Ars moriendi, the Danse Macabre, the overlapping motif of the Memento mori. From the Renaissance such motifs became more indirect and, as the still-life genre became popular, found a home there. Paintings executed in the vanitas style were meant to remind viewers of the transience of life, the futility of pleasure, the certainty of death.
They provided a moral justification for painting attractive objects. Common vanitas symbols include skulls. Fruit and butterflies can be interpreted in the same way, a peeled lemon was, like life, attractive to look at but bitter to taste. Art historians debate how much, how the vanitas theme is implied in still-life paintings without explicit imagery such as a skull; as in much moralistic genre painting, the enjoyment evoked by the sensuous depiction of the subject is in a certain conflict with the moralistic message. Composition of flowers is a less obvious style of Vanitas by Abraham Mignon in the National Museum, Warsaw. Visible amid vivid and perilous nature, a bird skeleton is a symbol of vanity and shortness of life; the first movement in composer Robert Schumann's 5 Pieces in a Folk Style, for Cello and Piano, Op. 102 is entitled Vanitas vanitatum: Mit Humor. Vanitas vanitatum is the title of an oratorio written by an Italian Baroque composer Giacomo Carissimi. Composer Richard Barrett's Vanity, for orchestra, is inspired by this movement.
Vanitas is the seventh album by British Extreme Metal band Anaal Nathrakh. Vanitas is the name of a character from the Kingdom Hearts franchise. C. Allan Gilbert, All Is Vanity, drawing, 1892. Jana Sterbak, Vanitas: Flesh Dress for an Albino Anorectic, artwork, 1987. Alexander de Cadenet, Skull Portraits, various subjects, 1996 – present. Philippe Pasqua, series of skulls, sculpture, 1990s – present. Damien Hirst, For the Love of God, sculpture, 2007. Anne de Carbuccia, One Planet One Future, various subjects, 2013 – present. Vanitas Emptiness Memento mori Mortality salience Sic transit gloria mundi Ubi sunt Vanitas in contemporary art An exhibition at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts Vanitas in the London National Gallery Vanités An exhibition at Musée Maillol, Paris vanitas - Encyclopædia Britannica Vanitas concept expressed in ceramic compositions "An Exploration of Vanitas: The 17th Century and the Present", online exhibit at Google Arts & Culture
Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern
Ferdinand Albert I, a member of the House of Welf, was a Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. After a 1667 inheritance agreement in the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, he received the secundogeniture of Brunswick-Bevern, which he ruled until his death. Ferdinand Albert was born in Brunswick, the fourth son of Duke Augustus the Younger, reigning Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, from his third marriage with Duchess Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg. Raised at his father's residence, the young man received a comprehensive education, with Justus Georg Schottel and Sigmund von Birken among his tutors. After the father's death in 1666, the sons quarreled about the heritage. Ferdinand Albert received the palace of Bevern near Holzminden, some feudal rights, a certain amount of money in exchange for his claims to the government of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, to be ruled by his elder half-brothers Rudolph Augustus and Anthony Ulrich. Ferdinand Albert joined the Royal Society in 1665 and was admitted to the Fruitbearing Society by Duke Augustus of Saxe-Weissenfels in 1673.
Over the years, however, he grew more and more eccentric, at some point his brothers had to send a military force to restore order at his palace. He collected many works of art, which became part of the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum in Brunswick, he died in 1687 at Bevern. Ferdinand Albert married Christine, a daughter of Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Eschwege, in 1667, they had the following children that reached adulthood: Sophia Eleanora, died childless Augustus Ferdinand, died childless Ferdinand Albert II Ferdinand Christian, died childless Ernest Ferdinand Henry Ferdinand, died childless At the House of Welf site Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliographie, vol. 6, p. 679-681