Friedrich II, Duke of Anhalt
Frederick II was the Duke of Anhalt from 1904 until 1918. He was born in Dessau in 1856, he was the second son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Anhalt-Dessau and his wife Princess Antoinette of Saxe-Altenburg, his father succeeded as Duke of Anhalt on 22 May 1871 and Frederick became heir apparent and Hereditary Prince following the death of his elder brother Leopold on 2 February 1886. Frederick was married on 2 July 1889 at Karlsruhe to Princess Marie of Baden, she was a daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Baden and his wife Princess Maria of Leuchtenberg, as well as an elder sister of Prince Maximilian of Baden, 8th Chancellor of Germany. The marriage produced no issue. On 24 January 1904, Frederick succeeded his father as Duke of Anhalt. During his reign he was known for his love of music and maintained a Court Theatre which became celebrated throughout Europe, he was Grand Master of the Order of a Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. In 1914, during World War I, he instituted the Friedrich Cross as a decoration for merit in time of war.
He died at Ballenstedt Castle on 22 April 1918. As his marriage to Marie of Baden was without issue, he was succeeded as Duke by his younger brother Eduard
Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1786–1859)
Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia was the third daughter of Paul I of Russia and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. She was the Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach by her marriage to Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Born on 16 February 1786 in St. Petersburg to Paul I of Russia and his wife Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg, she was named after her mother and their third daughter and fifth child. Maria Pavlovna was raised at her father's palaces at the nearby Gatchina, she was the sister of: Alexander I, Tsar of Russia, m. Luise Auguste, Princess of Baden, had two daughters. Konstantin Pavlovich, Grand Duke of Russia, married Juliane, Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. No children. Alexandra Pavlovna m. Joseph, Archduke of Austria, Count Palatine of Hungary, had one daughter. Elena Pavlovna m. Friedrich Ludwig, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, had two children. Catherine Pavlovna married Georg, Duke of Oldenburg, had two sons. Olga Pavlovna. Anna Pavlovna m. Willem II, King of the Netherlands, had five children.
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia, m. Charlotte, Princess of Prussia, had ten children. Michael Pavlovich, Grand Duke of Russia, m. Charlotte, Princess of Württemberg, had five children; as a child, she was not considered pretty: her features were disfigured as a result of a pioneering application of the Smallpox vaccine. Her grandmother, Catherine II of Russia, admired her precocious talent as a pianist but declared that she would have been better to have been born a boy, her music instructor was an Italian composer and Kapellmeister at the Russian court. From 1798, she was taught music by Ludwig-Wilhelm Tepper de Ferguson. In 1796 her grandmother died, making her father the new Emperor of Russia as Paul I. On 3 August 1804, she married Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach; the couple stayed in St. Petersburg before departing for Weimar. There Maria was greeted with a bout of festivities, as described by Christoph Martin Wieland: "The most festive part of all the magnificence of balls, promenades, illuminations was the widespread and genuine joy at the arrival of our new princess".
Maria and Carl had four children: Paul Alexander Karl Constantin Frederick August of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Marie Luise Alexandrine of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, married Karl of Prussia Augusta Louisa Katherine of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, married Wilhelm I and became German Empress. Karl Alexander August Johann of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach After the death of the Grand Duke Charles Frederick in 1853 she retired from public life, her last trip to Russia was to the coronation of her nephew as Alexander II of Russia in 1855. Maria Pavlovna was interested in arts as well as in sciences, she was a patroness of art and social welfare in the poor Grand-Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. She maintained a lifelong correspondence with Vasily Zhukovsky and it was to her that Schiller dedicated one of his last poems, she attended ten courses at the University of Jena, some delivered by Alexander von Humboldt, was instrumental in establishing the Falk Institute in Weimar. She selected, as tutor to her son Charles Alexander, the Genevan Frédéric Soret, who became well acquainted with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
In her years, Maria Pavlovna invited Franz Liszt to her court, restoring a measure of artistic excellence associated with Weimar. He was appointed Kapellmeister Extraordinaire in 1842, settled there from 1848 until after her death. However, the Duchess's growing deafness prevented her from enjoying the premiere of Wagner's opera Lohengrin under Liszt's direction in Weimar on 28 August 1850. Most famous were the "Literary Evenings" where scholars from the neighboring Jena University and others from outside the Grand-Dukedom were invited to give lectures on various topics; this circle was a focus in post-classical Weimar. Several collections of the Jena University benefitted by her patronage, among them the Grandducal Oriental Coin Cabinet founded in 1840 by Johann Gustav Stickel, orientalist at the University. Schiller praised her "talents in music and painting and genuine love of reading", while Goethe hailed her as one of the worthiest women of his time, she owned a small chalet close to Jena, owned by the Protestant theologist of Enlightenment Griesbach, where she used to spend the summer with her children.
Maria Pavlovna is buried in a Russian-style chapel next to the Weimarer Fürstengruft. Jena, Maria Pawlowna. Großherzogin an Weimars Musenhof, Regensburg 1999. Ihre Kaiserliche Hoheit. Maria Pawlowna. Zarentochter am Weimarer Hof, ed. Stiftung Weimarer Klassik und Kunstsammlungen, Weimar 2004. Jeanne Huc-Mazelet, ils sont eux. Lettres et journal d'une gouvernante à la cour de Russie, 1790-1804, fr:Ethno-Doc, 2018, 256 p
Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern was queen of Denmark and Norway between 1752 and 1766, second consort of king Frederick V of Denmark and Norway, mother of the prince-regent Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and herself de facto regent 1772–1784. King Christian VIII of Denmark descends from her. Born as daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, she held the rank of a Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel with the style Princess. Juliana Maria was given the simple but strict upbringing usual at many of the smaller princely German courts; as a child, she appears to have stuttered. The marriage between Juliana Maria and Frederick was arranged by Count Moltke, who thought it best that the king remarried as soon as possible, in an attempt of stabilizing his behavior. In 1751-52 the king had a wish to marry Moltke's own daughter, maid-of-honor Catharine Sophie Wilhelmine Moltke, a match Moltke did not wish and prevented by having her married.
The king was unwilling to remarry a foreign princess, unless it was with an English princess, none of whom were available at the time. However, after having seen the portrait of Juliana Maria, after having made some additional investigations and met with satisfying answers, he expressed himself willing to marry her. On 8 July 1752 at Frederiksborg Palace, Juliana Maria married King Frederick V of Denmark, just over six months after the death of his first wife Louise of Great Britain, was crowned the same day, she was given a household headed by queen Louise's old chamberlain Carl Juel and head lady-in-waiting Christiane Henriette Louise Juel. The wedding was celebrated by a number of court festivities on the royal palaces around North Zealand during the following summer months, but "among the common men the mood was more still, as this seems to them to be so sudden after the mourning of queen Louise". Queen Juliana Maria was described as shy and somewhat stuttering when first introduced to the Danish royal court as its new queen.
Juliana Maria was described as good-looking and sensible, but the marriage was not popular in Denmark, where it was considered to have taken place too soon after the death of her predecessor, the popular queen Louise, it was a difficult task for her to replace her popular predecessor. Despite the constant infidelity of King Frederick V, she was regarded to have illustrated an ideal of a spousal duty, accepting his infidelity without complaint and nursing him during his illnesses, such as during his illness in 1760 and his final illness in 1765-66, which ended in his death, she nursed him in parallel with his long-term-mistress Charlotte Amalie Winge. She noted each day of his progressing illness in her diary, upon his death, she referred to him as "le meilleur des rois", she had several stepchildren by marriage. She did exchange visits with them, referred to her stepchildren as "My daughters", "My son", "My children" and "The Good Children", her diaries are full with notations of how she spent time with them.
On 4 August 1760, for example, she noted "The dear crown prince visited Hirschholm for the first time after his illness", on 8 October 1766, she accompanied her stepdaughter Sophia Magdalena of Denmark when she departed for Sweden for her wedding to the Swedish crown prince: "The queen and I left for Kronborg, to which Sophie Magdalene and the rest of the family had arrived the previous day, eleven o'clock, the good child embarked and sailed across the water, the king, the queen and the family returned to Fredensborg". Her relationship with her mother-in-law Queen Dowager Sophie Magdalene, was a close one, the two queens visited each other and spent time together. While she had no influence upon the upbringing of her stepchildren, she was given much freedom in the education of her own son, had two Danes in succession, J. Schielderup Sneedorff and Guldberg, appointed governors responsible for the tutelage of her son, Hereditary Prince Frederick, who thereby became the first Danish prince in generations to speak the Danish language as his mother tongue.
Her selection of Tyge Rothe, J. S. Sneedorff and O. H. Guldberg were to have great significance on: her son's tutors were all members of the Danish patriotic movement, Guldberg is known to have influenced her to a point where she became the leader of this court fraction during her time as queen dowager. While she lacked all influence in politics, as her own son progressed in age, she came to the conclusion that he would be more suitable as ruler than her stepson, the crown prince. Juliana Maria was not mentioned much during her years as queen consort, it was noted that she lived a quiet life devoting herself to domestic duties and family life and considered honorable and virtuous but insignificant. While Frederick V was notorious for his drunken parties and debauched life style, these parties did not take place at court, the court life of Juliana Maria was by contrast described as correct, her diary as queen describe a number of days dominated by a quiet family life exchanging visits with members of the royal family, illustrated by one line: "Everything was as yesterday."
She did her best to accustom herself to Denmark and make herself popular as queen, although she never mastered the Danish language, s
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. Its female form is crown princess, which may refer either to an heir apparent or in earlier times, the wife of the person styled crown prince. Crown prince as a descriptive term has been used throughout history for the prince being first in line to a throne and is expected to succeed barring any unforeseen future event preventing this. In certain monarchies, a more specific substantive title may be accorded and become associated with the position of heir apparent. In these monarchies, the term crown prince may be used less than the substantive title; until the late twentieth century, no modern monarchy adopted a system whereby females would be guaranteed to succeed to the throne. A crown princess would therefore more refer to the spouse of a crown prince and would be styled crown princess not in her own right but by courtesy; the term crown prince is not used in monarchies wherein the hereditary sovereign holds a title below that of king/queen, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for heir apparent.
In Europe, where primogeniture governed succession to all monarchies except those of the Papacy and Andorra, the eldest son or eldest child of the current monarch fills the role of crown prince or princess, depending upon whether females of the dynasty enjoy personal succession rights. Primogeniture has been abolished in Belgium, Luxembourg, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; the eldest living child of a monarch is sometimes not the heir apparent or crown prince, because that position can be held by a descendant of a deceased older child who, by "right of representation", inherits the same place in the line of succession that would be held by the ancestor if he or she were still living. In some monarchies, those of the Middle East for example, in which primogeniture is not the decisive factor in dynastic succession, a person may not possess the title or status of crown prince by right of birth, but may obtain it as a result of an official designation made on some other legal or traditional basis, such as former crown prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan.
Compare heir apparent and heir presumptive. In Scandinavian kingdoms, the heir presumptive to the crown may hold a different title than the heir apparent: hereditary prince, it is the title borne by the heir apparent of Liechtenstein, as well as the heir apparent or presumptive of Monaco. In Luxembourg, the heir apparent bears the title of hereditary grand duke. Many monarchies use or did use substantive titles for their heirs apparent of historical origin: Dauphin Duke of Brabant Duke of Braganza Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay used by the Prince of Wales in place of his Welsh title when in Scotland Grand Prince Margrave of Moravia Prince of Asturias Prince of Girona Prince Imperial Prince of Orange, whether or not the equivalent title is held by the spouse of the titleholder is decided by the Dutch parliament Prince of Piedmont a title conferred by King Joseph Bonaparte to be hereditary on his children and grandchildren in the male and female line. Prince Royal Prince of Turnovo Prince of Viana Rex iunior, lit.
Junior king as he was crowned during the life of the incumbent king Tsesarevich Some monarchies have used a territorial title for heirs apparent which, though perceived as a crown princely title, is not automatically hereditary. It requires a specific conferral by the sovereign, which may be withheld. Current and past titles in this category include: Caesar or Kaisar in honor of Gaius Julius Caesar, distinguished from the senior Augustus Symbasileus, lit. co-emperor but still distinguished from the senior, addressed as Autocrator Aetheling and edling, lit. of the royal family Duke of Estonia and Lolland Prince of Norway.
East Germany the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line; the Soviet zone did not include it. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War; until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The SED made the teaching of Marxism -- the Russian language compulsory in schools. The economy was centrally planned and state-owned. Prices of housing, basic goods and services were set by central government planners rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Emigration to the West was a significant problem – as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically; the government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines. Several others were imprisoned for many years. In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the establishment of a government committed to liberalisation; the following year, open elections were held, international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
The GDR dissolved itself, Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990, becoming a sovereign state again. Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz, were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War. Geographically, the German Democratic Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the north. Internally, the GDR bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, known as East Berlin, administered as the state's de facto capital, it bordered the three sectors occupied by the United States, United Kingdom and France known collectively as West Berlin. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in 1961 until it was brought down in 1989; the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik abbreviated to DDR. Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in 1968.
West Germans, the western media and statesmen avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone, sogenannte DDR. The centre of political power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was increasingly used colloquially by West Germans and West German media; the term Westdeutschland, when used by West Germans, was always a reference to the geographic region of Western Germany and not to the area within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this use was not always consistent. Before World War II, Ostdeutschland was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe, as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt. Explaining the internal impact of the DDR regime from the perspective of German history in the long term, historian Gerhard A. Ritter has argued that the East German state was defined by two dominant forces – Soviet Communism on the one hand, German traditions filtered through the interwar experiences of German Communists on the other.
It always was constrained by the powerful example of the prosperous West, to which East Germans compared their nation. The changes wrought by the Communists were most apparent in ending capitalism and transforming industry and agriculture, in the militarization of society, in the political thrust of the educational system and the media. On the other hand, there was little change made in the independent domains of the sciences, the engineering professions, the Protestant churches, in many bourgeois lifestyles. Social policy, says Ritter, became a critical legitimization tool in the last decades and mixed socialist and traditional elements about equally. At the Yalta Conference during World War II, the Allies (the U. S. the UK and
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J