Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange was the second child and eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his consort Caroline of Ansbach. She was the spouse of William IV, Prince of Orange, the first hereditary stadtholder of all seven provinces of the Northern Netherlands, she was Regent of the Netherlands from 1751 until her death in 1759, exercising extensive powers on behalf of her son William V. She was known as an Anglophile, due to her English upbringing and family connections, but was unable to convince the Dutch Republic to enter the Seven Years' War on the side of the British. Princess Anne was the second daughter of a British sovereign to hold the title Princess Royal. In the Netherlands she was sometimes known as Anna van Hannover. Anne was born at Herrenhausen Palace, five years before her paternal grandfather, Elector George Louis, succeeded to the thrones of Great Britain and Ireland as George I, she was christened shortly after her birth at Herrenhausen Palace.
She was named after her paternal grandfather's second cousin Queen of Great Britain. She learned German and English, was taught music by Georg Friedrich Händel. Händel did not like teaching, but said he would "make the only exception for Anne, flower of princesses", she remained a lifelong supporter, subscribing to his music. Anne contracted and survived smallpox in 1720, two years her mother helped to popularise the practice of variolation, witnessed by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Charles Maitland in Constantinople. At the direction of Caroline, six prisoners condemned to death were offered the chance to undergo variolation instead of execution: they all survived, as did six orphan children given the same treatment as a further test. Convinced of its medical value, the Queen had her two younger daughters and Caroline, inoculated successfully. Anne's face was scarred by the disease, she was not considered as pretty as her two younger sisters. On 30 August 1727, George II created his eldest daughter Princess Royal, a title which had fallen from use since its creation by Charles I for his daughter Mary, Princess of Orange in 1642.
A potential marriage contract between Anne and King Louis XV of France was discarded when the French insisted that Anne must convert to Roman Catholicism. On 25 March 1734 in the Chapel Royal at St. James's Palace, she married William IV, Prince of Orange, she ceased to use her British title in favour of the new one she gained by marriage. The music played at her wedding, This is the day was set by Handel to the princess's own words based on Psalms 45 and 118. Handel composed an operatic entertainment, Parnasso in Festa, in honour of her wedding, performed for the first time at the King's Theatre, London, on 13 March 1734, with great success. William suffered from a spinal deformity, which affected his appearance, but Anne said she would marry him "if he were a baboon", her reason for being so insistent upon this marriage was reported to be that she wished to be married, to avoid a life as a spinster at the court of her father and her brother, with whom she did not get along. She quarreled with the Prince of Wales, about her choice.
William and Anne sailed to Holland after a honeymoon at Kew. In the Netherlands, they resided at Leeuwarden. Anne soon felt homesick when William went on campaign in the Rhineland, she travelled back to England, believing herself to be pregnant, with the motivation that as her child would be in succession to the thrones of Britain and Ireland it should be born in Great Britain. However, this decision caused conflict with her husband and her father, who both commanded her to return to Holland after a brief stay. By April 1735, it was clear. In 1736, she did become pregnant. Anne was not well liked by the people of the Netherlands and did not get on well with her mother-in-law, she was perceived with a belief in British superiority over the Dutch. Her relationship with William, at first distant developed into harmony and intimacy, displayed in their correspondence. In 1747, William became Stadtholder of all the Seven United Provinces, this was followed by a constitutional reform which made his new wider authority hereditary.
William and Anne moved to the Hague, where Anne introduced Händel to the Netherlands: he accepted her invitation to her music life at the Hague in 1750. The composer Josina van Aerssen was one of her ladies-in-waiting. William IV died on 22 October 1751, at the age of forty, Anne was appointed as regent for her three-year-old son, William V, she gained all the prerogatives held by a hereditary Stadtholder of the Netherlands, with the exception of the military duties of the office, which were entrusted to Duke Louis Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg. She was hard-working, but imperious, which made her unpopular; the 1750s were years of increasing tension and commercial rivalry between Holland and Great Britain, which
Ernst Ludwig I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
Ernst Ludwig I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen was a German nobleman. He was born in Gotha, the eldest son of Bernhard I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, his first wife, Marie Hedwig of Hesse-Darmstadt. After the death of his father in 1706, Ernst Ludwig inherited the duchy of Saxe-Meiningen jointly with his brother, Frederick Wilhelm, his half-brother, Anton Ulrich, his father, in his will, had stipulated that the duchy never be divided and that it be governed jointly by his sons. The oldest brother, Ernst Ludwig, strove to establish autonomy for his descendants. After the death of his father, Ernst Ludwig signed a contract with his brothers; this introduction of primogeniture failed, however. Ernst Ludwig married Dorothea Marie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, his cousin in Gotha on 19 September 1704, they had five children: Josef Bernhard. Friedrich August. Ernst Ludwig II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. Luise Dorothea, married on 17 September 1729 to Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Karl Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
In Schloss Ehrenburg, Coburg on 3 June 1714, Ernst Ludwig married his second wife, Elisabeth Sophie of Brandenburg. They had no children, he died in Meiningen in 1724. Ludwig Bechstein: Mittheilungen aus dem Leben der Herzoge zu Sachsen Meiningen S. 36 ff. Hannelore Schneider: Das Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen unter seinen ersten Herzögen. In: 300 Jahre Schloss Elisabethenburg. Südthüringer Forschungen, Heft 27, Meiningen 1994. Alfred Erck, Hannelore Schneider: Musiker und Monarchen in Meiningen 1680 bis 1763, Bielsteinverlag, 2006 L. Hertel: Meiningische Geschichte von 1680 bis zur Gegenwart. Schriften des Vereins für Sachsen-Meiningische Geschichte und Landeskunde, 47. Heft, Hildburghausen 1904. David Voit: Das Herzogthum Sachsen-Meiningen, Storch & Klett, 1844
Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and British monarchs; the building itself was a Benedictine monastic church until the monastery was dissolved in 1539. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, the building is no longer an abbey or a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site in the seventh century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror in 1066, all coronations of English and British monarchs have been in Westminster Abbey.
There have been 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. As the burial site of more than 3,300 persons of predominant prominence in British history, Westminster Abbey is sometimes described as'Britain's Valhalla', after the iconic burial hall of Norse mythology. A late tradition claims that Aldrich, a young fisherman on the River Thames, had a vision of Saint Peter near the site; this seems to have been quoted as the origin of the salmon that Thames fishermen offered to the abbey in years – a custom still observed annually by the Fishmongers' Company. The recorded origins of the Abbey date to the 960s or early 970s, when Saint Dunstan and King Edgar installed a community of Benedictine monks on the site. Between 1042 and 1052, King Edward the Confessor began rebuilding St Peter's Abbey to provide himself with a royal burial church, it was the first church in England built in the Romanesque style. The building was completed around 1060 and was consecrated on 28 December 1065, only a week before Edward's death on 5 January 1066.
A week he was buried in the church. His successor, Harold II, was crowned in the abbey, although the first documented coronation is that of William the Conqueror the same year; the only extant depiction of Edward's abbey, together with the adjacent Palace of Westminster, is in the Bayeux Tapestry. Some of the lower parts of the monastic dormitory, an extension of the South Transept, survive in the Norman Undercroft of the Great School, including a door said to come from the previous Saxon abbey. Increased endowments supported a community increased from a dozen monks in Dunstan's original foundation, up to a maximum about eighty monks; the abbot and monks, in proximity to the royal Palace of Westminster, the seat of government from the 13th century, became a powerful force in the centuries after the Norman Conquest. The Abbot of Westminster was employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the House of Lords as of right. Released from the burdens of spiritual leadership, which passed to the reformed Cluniac movement after the mid-10th century, occupied with the administration of great landed properties, some of which lay far from Westminster, "the Benedictines achieved a remarkable degree of identification with the secular life of their times, with upper-class life", Barbara Harvey concludes, to the extent that her depiction of daily life provides a wider view of the concerns of the English gentry in the High and Late Middle Ages.
The proximity of the Palace of Westminster did not extend to providing monks or abbots with high royal connections. The abbot remained Lord of the Manor of Westminster as a town of two to three thousand persons grew around it: as a consumer and employer on a grand scale the monastery helped fuel the town economy, relations with the town remained unusually cordial, but no enfranchising charter was issued during the Middle Ages; the abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings. None were buried there until Henry III, intensely devoted to the cult of the Confessor, rebuilt the abbey in Anglo-French Gothic style as a shrine to venerate King Edward the Confessor and as a suitably regal setting for Henry's own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England; the Confessor's shrine subsequently played a great part in his canonization. Construction of the present church began in 1245 by Henry III; the first building stage included the entire eastern end, the transepts, the easternmost bay of the nave.
The Lady Chapel built from around 1220 at the extreme eastern end was incorporated into the chevet of the new building, but was replaced. This work must have been completed by 1258-60, when the second stage was begun; this carried the nave on an additional five bays. Here construction stopped in about 1269, a consecration ceremony being held on 13 October of that year, because of Henry's death did not resume; the old Romanesque nave remained attached to the new building for over a century, until it was pulled down in the late 14th century and rebuilt from 1376 following the original design. Construction was finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of Richard II. Henry III commissioned the unique Cosmati pavement in front of the High Altar (the pavement has undergone a major cleani
British royal family
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of, or is not a member of the British royal family; those who at the time are entitled to the style His or Her Royal Highness, any styled His or Her Majesty, are considered members, including those so styled before the beginning of the current monarch's reign. By this criterion, a list of the current royal family will include the monarch, the children and male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, the children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, all their current or widowed spouses; some members of the royal family have official residences named as the places from which announcements are made in the Court Circular about official engagements they have carried out. The state duties and staff of some members of the royal family are funded from a parliamentary annuity, the amount of, refunded by the Queen to the Treasury. Since 1917, when King George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, members of the royal family have belonged, either by birth or by marriage, to the House of Windsor.
Senior titled members of the royal family do not use a surname, although since 1960 Mountbatten-Windsor, incorporating Prince Philip's adopted surname of Mountbatten, has been prescribed as a surname for Elizabeth II's direct descendants who do not have royal styles and titles, it has sometimes been used when required for those who do have such titles. The royal family are regarded as British cultural icons, with young adults from abroad naming the family among a group of people that they most associated with UK culture. On 30 November 1917, King George V issued letters patent defining the styles and titles of members of the royal family; the KING has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, bearing date the 30th ultimo, to define the styles and titles to be borne henceforth by members of the royal family. It is declared by the Letters Patent that the children of any Sovereign of the United Kingdom and the children of the sons of any such Sovereign and the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales shall have and at all times hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour.
In 1996, Queen Elizabeth II modified these letters patent, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 21st August 1996, to declare that a former wife of a son of a Sovereign of these Realms, of a son of a son of a Sovereign and of the eldest living son of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales shall not be entitled to hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness. On 31 December 2012, letters patent were issued to extend a title and a style borne by members of the royal family to additional persons to be born, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 31 December 2012 to declare that all the children of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales should have and enjoy the style and attribute of Royal Highness with the titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their Christian names or with such other titles of honour.
Members and relatives of the British royal family represented the monarch in various places throughout the British Empire, sometimes for extended periods as viceroys, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom. Aside from the monarch, their only constitutional role in the affairs of government is to serve, if eligible and when appointed by letters patent, as a Counsellor of State, two or more of whom exercise the authority of the Crown if the monarch is indisposed or abroad. In the other countries of the Commonwealth royalty do not serve as Counsellors of State, although they may perform ceremonial and social duties on behalf of individual states or the organisation; the Queen, her consort, her children and grandchildren, as well as all former sovereigns' children and grandchildren, hold places in the first sections of the official orders of precedence in England and Wales and Northern Ireland.
Wives of the said enjoy their husbands' precedence, husbands of princesses are unofficially but habitually placed with their wives as well. However, the Queen changed the private order of precedence in the royal family in favour of Princesses Anne and Alexandra, who henceforth take private precedence over the Duchess of Cornwall, otherwise the realm's highest ranking woman after the Queen herself, she did not alter the relative precedence of other born-princesses, such as the daughters of her younger sons. As of 2019, members of the royal family are: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (the Queen's gra
Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Sophia Dorothea of Celle was the repudiated wife of future King George I of Great Britain, mother of George II. The union with her first cousin was an arranged marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of his mother, Sophia of Hanover, she is best remembered for her alleged affair with Philip Christoph von Königsmarck that led to her being imprisoned in the Castle of Ahlden for the last thirty years of her life. Sophia Dorothea was born on 15 September 1666, the only child of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg by his long-term mistress, Eleonore d'Esmier d'Olbreuse, Countess of Williamsburg, a Huguenot lady, the daughter of Alexander II d'Esmiers, Marquess of Olbreuse. George William married Eleonore in 1676. There was some talk of marriage between Sophia Dorothea and the future king of Denmark, but the reigning queen was talked out of it by Sophia of Hanover. Another engagement, to the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was broken off after Duchess Sophia convinced her brother-in-law of the advantage of having Sophia Dorothea marry her cousin.
This occurred on the day the engagement between Sophia Dorothea and the Duke was to be announced. When told of the change in plans and her new future husband, Sophia Dorothea shouted that "I will not marry the pig snout!", threw against the wall a miniature of George Louis brought for her by Duchess Sophia. Forced by her father, she fainted into her mother's arms on her first meeting with her future mother-in-law, she fainted again. On 22 November 1682, in Celle, Sophia Dorothea married George Louis. In 1705 he would inherit the Principality of Lüneburg after the death of his father-in-law and uncle, George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, in 1714 the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland and became King George I of Great Britain through his mother, Duchess Sophia, a granddaughter of James VI and I; the marriage of George Louis and Sophia Dorothea was an unhappy one. His immediate family his mother Duchess Sophia and despised Sophia Dorothea; the desire for the marriage was purely financial, as Duchess Sophia wrote to her niece Elizabeth Charlotte, "One hundred thousand thalers a year is a goodly sum to pocket, without speaking of a pretty wife, who will find a match in my son George Louis, the most pigheaded, stubborn boy who lived, who has round his brains such a thick crust that I defy any man or woman to discover what is in them.
He does not care much for the match itself, but one hundred thousand thalers a year have tempted him as they would have tempted anybody else". These feelings of contempt were shared by George Louis himself, oddly formal to his wife. Sophia Dorothea was scolded for her lack of etiquette, the two had loud and bitter arguments. Things seemed better after the birth of their first two children: George Augustus, born 1683 King George II of Great Britain Sophia Dorothea, born 1686 wife of King Frederick William I of Prussia, mother of Frederick the GreatBut George Louis acquired a mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, started pointedly neglecting his wife, his parents asked him to be more circumspect with his mistress, fearful that a disruption in the marriage would disrupt the payment of the 100,000 thalers. George Louis and Sophia Dorothea became estranged—George preferred the company of his mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, Sophia Dorothea, had her own romance with the Swedish Count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck.
Threatened with the scandal of an elopement, the Hanoverian court, including George's brothers and mother, urged the lovers to desist, but to no avail. According to diplomatic sources from Hanover's enemies, in July 1694 the Swedish count was killed with the connivance of George, his body thrown into the river Leine weighted with stones; the murder was claimed to have been committed by four of Ernest Augustus's courtiers, one of whom was paid the enormous sum of 150,000 thalers, about one hundred times the annual salary of the highest paid minister. Rumours supposed that Königsmarck was hacked to pieces and buried beneath the Hanover palace floorboards. However, sources in Hanover itself, including Sophia, denied any knowledge of Königsmarck's whereabouts. George's marriage to Sophia Dorothea was dissolved, not on the grounds that either of them had committed adultery, but on the grounds that Sophia Dorothea had abandoned her husband. With the agreement of her father, George had Sophia Dorothea imprisoned in Ahlden House in her native Celle, where she stayed until she died more than thirty years later.
She was denied access to her children and father, forbidden to remarry and only allowed to walk unaccompanied within the mansion courtyard. She was, endowed with an income and servants, was allowed to ride in a carriage outside her castle, albeit under supervision, she remained under house arrest until her death more than thirty years later. Sophia Dorothea is sometimes referred to as the "princess of Ahlden". Sophia Dorothea fell ill in August 1726, she died aged 60 on 13 November 1726 of liver gall bladder occlusion. George placed an announcement in The London Gazette to the effect that the "Duchess of Ahlden" had died, but would not allow the wearing of mourning in London or Hanover, he was furious. Sophia Dorothea's body deposited in the castle's cellar, it was moved to Celle in May 1727 to be buried beside her parents in the Stadtkirche. Geor
Sir Horatio Mann, 2nd Baronet
Sir Horatio Mann, 2nd Baronet was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1774 and 1807. He is remembered as a member of a patron of Kent cricket, he was an occasional player but in first-class matches. Mann was the only surviving son of Galfridus Mann, an army clothier, of Boughton Place in Boughton Malherbe and his wife Sarah Gregory, daughter of John Gregory of London, he was educated at Charterhouse School and entered Peterhouse, Cambridge in 1760. His father died on 21 December 1756 and he succeeded to his estates at Boughton and Linton, he inherited over £100,000 from his father. Mann married Lady Lucy Noel, daughter of Baptist Noel, 4th Earl of Gainsborough, on 13 April 1765. Mann had a number of influential friends including John Frederick Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset, with whom he shared a keen cricketing rivalry, he owned Boughton Place in Boughton Malherbe and Linton Park in Linton, both near Maidstone, had his family seat at Bourne Park House, near Canterbury. Within its grounds he had his own cricket ground Bourne Paddock which staged many first-class matches in the 1770s and 1780s.
He moved to Dandelion, near Margate, established another ground there, used for some first-class games towards the end of the 18th century. Mann was a member of the Committee of Noblemen and Gentlemen of Kent, Surrey, Sussex and London, he was a member of the committee at The Star and Garter in Pall Mall, which drew up a new revision of the Laws of Cricket on 25 February 1774. Mann was nephew of Sir Horace Mann, 1st Baronet, a British diplomat in Tuscany from 1738 to 1786, he was knighted on 10 June 1772. Mann's ownership of Linton gave him electoral interest at Maidstone. At the 1774 general election he contested Maidstone, having deferred a planned journey abroad for his wife's health, he was returned as Member of Parliament for the seat. In 1775 his uncle made over to him the family estate in return for an annuity, he did go abroad and after visiting France and Austria, returned to England in November 1778. From on he travelled to his uncle in Florence nearly every summer. At the 1780 general election he was again returned for Maidstone at the head of the poll.
He joined Brooks in 1780, was a member of the St. Alban's Tavern group of country gentlemen who tried to reconcile Fox and Pitt, he did not stand in the 1784 general election. Mann was in Florence when his uncle died on 6 November 1786 and succeeded to the baronetcy as second baronet, he acted as chargé d’affaires in Florence for six months. He was angered by the poor recompense he received for his services and returned to Italy in 1788 ostensibly to sort out the financial problems which resulted from running his uncle's establishment. Mann joined the Whig Club in January 1790 and at the following 1790 general election was elected in a contest as MP for Sandwich, he was returned unopposed in 1796 and 1802. By this time he was becoming absent in parliament through ill-health when gout struck him, he avoided a contest and was returned in the 1806 general election, but was defeated in 1807. Mann was described by Samuel Egerton Brydges as a wild, rattling man, who made no impression. In 1811 it was said that his estate would have been the largest in Kent but by his extravagance he reduced his income to not more than £4,000 a year.
He died on 2 April 1814. He had three daughters, his property went to his nephew James Cornwallis. Cornwallis's father wrote soon after "My son has had a great deal of trouble in consequence of succeeding a person ruined; the sums Sir Horace expended are beyond all belief, or rather squandered." Mann is variously called Sir Horace in the sources. Horace was used as a diminutive of Horatio, he was always called Horace in Scores and Biographies, the main source for his cricketing activities. G B Buckley, Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket, Cotterell, 1935 Ashley Mote, The Glory Days of Cricket, Robson, 1997 John Nyren, The Cricketers of my Time, Robson, 1998 H T Waghorn, The Dawn of Cricket, Electric Press, 1906 A Dictionary of British and Irish Travellers in Italy, 1701–1800, Compiled from the Brinsley Ford Archive by John Ingamells, Yale, 1997