Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Meghan, Duchess of Sussex
Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, is a retired American actress who became a member of the British royal family upon her marriage to Prince Harry. Markle was born and raised in Los Angeles and has a mixed ethnic heritage. During her studies at Northwestern University, she began playing small roles in American television series and films. From 2011 to 2017, she played Rachel Zane on the American legal drama series Suits. An outspoken feminist, Markle has addressed issues of gender inequality, her lifestyle website The Tig featured a column profiling influential women, she represented international charity organizations in the 2010s and received recognition for her fashion and style, releasing a line of clothing in 2016. From 2011 until their divorce in 2013, Markle was married to producer Trevor Engelson. In 2017, she announced her engagement to Prince Harry, grandson of Queen Elizabeth II, moved to London, she retired from acting, closed her social media accounts, started undertaking public engagements as part of the British royal family.
She became the Duchess of Sussex upon her marriage to Prince Harry in May 2018. Rachel Meghan Markle was born on August 1981, in Los Angeles, California, her mother, Doria Ragland, is a former social worker and yoga instructor living in View Park–Windsor Hills, California. Markle has described having a close friendship with her mother, her father, Thomas Markle Sr. who lives in Rosarito, Mexico, is a retired television director of photography and lighting director, whose profession resulted in his young daughter visiting the set of Married...with Children. Markle's parents divorced, she has two older paternal half-siblings, Samantha Markle and Thomas Markle Jr. from whom she is estranged. Describing her heritage in a 2015 essay for Elle, Markle stated: "My dad is Caucasian and my mom is African American. I'm half black and half white... While my mixed heritage may have created a grey area surrounding my self-identification, keeping me with a foot on both sides of the fence, I have come to embrace that.
To say who I am, to share where I'm from, to voice my pride in being a strong, confident mixed-race woman."Markle grew up in Hollywood. She was educated beginning at age two at the Hollywood Little Red Schoolhouse. At age 11, her successful campaign to get Procter & Gamble to change a national television commercial she viewed as sexist was profiled by Linda Ellerbee on Nick News. Though she was raised as a Protestant, Markle attended Immaculate Heart High School, an all-girl Catholic private school in Los Angeles, she attended Northwestern University, where she joined Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority and participated in community service and charity projects. She served an internship at the American embassy in Buenos Aires and studied for a semester in Madrid, Spain. Markle received a bachelor's degree from Northwestern's School of Communication in 2003, with a double major in theater and international studies. Early in her career, Markle worked as a freelance calligrapher to support herself between acting jobs.
Her first on-screen appearance was a small role as a nurse in an episode of the daytime soap opera General Hospital. Markle had small guest roles on the television shows Century City, The War at Home, CSI: NY, she took on several contract acting and modeling jobs, including a stint as a "briefcase girl" on the US game show Deal or No Deal. She appeared in Fox's series Fringe as Junior Agent Amy Jessup in the first two episodes of its second season. Markle had some difficulty getting roles early in her career. In 2015, she wrote: "Being'ethnically ambiguous', as I was pegged in the industry, meant I could audition for any role... Sadly, it didn't matter: I wasn't black enough for the black roles and I wasn't white enough for the white ones, leaving me somewhere in the middle as the ethnic chameleon who couldn't book a job."Markle appeared in two 2010 films, Get Him to the Greek and Remember Me, one 2011 film, Horrible Bosses. She was paid $187,000 for her role in Remember Me and $171,429 for her role in the short film The Candidate.
She appeared in episodes of Cuts. In July 2011, Markle joined the cast of the USA Network show Suits, her character, Rachel Zane, began as a paralegal and became an attorney. She completed work on the seventh season in late 2017. According to a critique in The Irish Times, Markle "actively re-positioned" her character from ingénue to "the show's moral conscience" and gave viewers the unique portrayal of a daughter, whose African-American father is in a position to help her career and advance her "desire to crack both racial and gender glass ceilings". While working on Suits, Markle lived for nine months each year in a rented house in the Seaton Village neighborhood of Toronto. Fortune magazine estimated that Markle was paid $50,000 per episode, amounting to an annual salary of about $450,000. In 2014, Markle founded the lifestyle website The Tig, where she wrote about food, fashion and travel, profiled inspirational women; as the website grew, Markle brought in experts such as dieticians, make-up artists, fitness and yoga instructors.
The website's audience consisted of the fans of Markle and Suits. Markle reinforced The Tig's messages of self-love and spirituality on social media, reaching 3 million followers on Instagram, 800,000 on Facebook, 350,000 on Twitter, she closed The Tig in April 2017, taking all of its articles offline, deleted her social media accounts in January 2018. It was estimated that, as a lifestyle blogger, Markle earned about $80,000 annually from endor
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, is a member of the British royal family. Alexandra was born during the reign of King George VI to his brother and sister-in-law, Prince George, Duke of Kent, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, she is a first cousin of the current British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, since her mother was a first cousin of the queen’s husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, she is his first cousin once removed. Alexandra is the widow of businessman Sir Angus Ogilvy, to whom she was married from 1963 until his death in 2004; as of 14 December 2018, she is 52nd in the line of succession to the British throne. Princess Alexandra was born on 25 December 1936 at London, her parents were Prince George, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George V and Queen Mary, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, a daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark and Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. She was named after Queen Alexandra, she received the name Christabel because she was born on Christmas Day, like her aunt by marriage, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester.
Her birth was the last to have the tradition of having the Home Secretary present to verify the birth of potential heirs to the throne. Secretary Sir John Simon was the last to do this; as a male-line granddaughter of the British monarch, she was styled as a British princess with the prefix Her Royal Highness. At the time of her birth, she was sixth in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her cousins Elizabeth and Margaret, her uncle the Duke of Gloucester, her father the Duke of Kent, her elder brother Prince Edward, she was born two weeks after the abdication of her uncle King Edward VIII. The Princess was baptised in the Private Chapel of Buckingham Palace, on 9 February 1937, her godparents were: King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Of her godparents, only the King and Queen and Lord Athlone were present. Princess Alexandra spent most of her childhood at her family's country house, Coppins, in Buckinghamshire, she lived with Queen Mary, the widow of George V, during World War II at Badminton.
Her father was killed in an aeroplane crash near Caithness, Scotland on 25 August 1942 while serving in the Royal Air Force. Princess Alexandra has the distinction of being the first British princess to have attended a boarding school, Heathfield School near Ascot, she studied in Paris. She was trained at Great Ormond Street Hospital, she was a bridesmaid at the 1946 wedding of Captain Lord Brabourne and The Hon. Patricia Mountbatten; the following year, she served as bridesmaid at the wedding of her cousins, the then-Princess Elizabeth and The Duke of Edinburgh, on 20 November 1947. The Queen is Princess Alexandra's paternal first cousin, she was a bridesmaid at the 1962 wedding of Prince Juan Carlos of Spain and her second cousin, Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark. On 24 April 1963, she married the Hon. Angus James Bruce Ogilvy, the second son of the 12th Earl of Airlie and Lady Alexandra Coke, at Westminster Abbey. Ogilvy presented Alexandra with an engagement ring made of a cabochon sapphire set in gold and surrounded by diamonds on both sides.
The wedding ceremony was attended by the royal family and was broadcast worldwide on television, watched by an estimated 200 million people. The bride wore a wedding gown of Valenciennes lace, with matching veil and train, designed by John Cavanagh with the City of London diamond fringe tiara, she made her way with the Duke of Kent, from Kensington Palace to the church. The bridesmaids included Princess Anne and Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria, the best man was Peregrine Fairfax; the Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey conducted the service. Angus Ogilvy declined the Queen's offer to be created an earl upon marriage, so their children carry no titles. Angus Ogilvy was knighted in 1988 being sworn of the Privy Council in 1997. Princess Alexandra and Sir Angus had two children and Marina, four grandchildren: James Robert Bruce Ogilvy and has issue:Flora Alexandra Ogilvy Alexander Charles Ogilvy Marina Victoria Alexandra Ogilvy, married on 2 February 1990 at Richmond Park and divorced on 15 October 1997 Paul Julian Mowatt, a photographer.
Marina's first pregnancy, announced in late 1989, caused a controversy as the couple were not married. This resulted in a feud with her parents who suggested she either marry her companion or abort the child, they had two children: Zenouska May Mowatt Christian Alexander Mowatt Since the late 1950s, Princess Alexandra carried out an extensive programme of engagements in support of the Queen, both in
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line to succeed his grandmother Elizabeth II, queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms. William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and studied for a degree at the University of St. Andrews. During a gap year, he spent time in Chile and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, William completed pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell underwent helicopter flight training and became a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009, his service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013. He trained for a civil pilot's licence and spent over two years working as a pilot for the East Anglian Air Ambulance. In 2011, Prince William was married Catherine Middleton.
The couple have three children: Prince George, Princess Charlotte, Prince Louis. Prince William was born at Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital, London, at 9:03 pm on 21 June 1982 as the first child of Charles, Prince of Wales—heir apparent to Queen Elizabeth II—and Diana, Princess of Wales, his names, William Arthur Philip Louis, were announced by Buckingham Palace on 28 June. He was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 4 August, the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, he was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905. William's parents affectionately called him "Wombat" or "Wills"—a name coined by the press. Since his birth, William has been second in the line of succession to the British throne. At age seven, he told his mother he wanted to be a police officer when he was older so that he might be able to protect her. You've got to be King."William began accompanying his parents on official visits at an early age.
In 1983, he accompanied them on a tour to Australia and New Zealand, a decision made by Diana. The decision was considered to be unconventional because the first- and second-in-line to the throne would be travelling together, because of William's young age, his first public appearance was on 1 March 1991—Saint David's Day—during an official visit of his parents to Cardiff. After arriving by aeroplane, William was taken to Llandaff Cathedral where he signed the visitors' book, showing he is left-handed. On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the forehead by a fellow student wielding a golf club, he suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar. In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter scar" and said, "I call it that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they don't notice it at all". William's mother wanted him and his younger brother Harry to have wider experiences than are usual for royal children.
She took them to Walt Disney World and McDonald's, as well as AIDS clinics and shelters for the homeless, bought them items owned by teenagers, such as video games. Diana, by divorced from Charles, died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William aged 15, together with his 12-year-old brother and their father, were staying at Balmoral Castle at the time; the Prince of Wales waited until his sons awoke the following morning to tell them about their mother's death. William accompanied his father, paternal grandfather Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his maternal uncle Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, at his mother's funeral. William was educated at independent schools, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School, both in London. Following this, he attended Ludgrove School near Wokingham and was tutored during summers by Rory Stewart. At Ludgrove, he participated in football, basketball, clay pigeon shooting, cross country running, he was admitted.
There, he studied Geography and History of Art at A-Level, obtaining an'A' in Geography, a'C' in Biology, a'B' in History of Art. At Eton, he continued to play football, captaining his house team; the decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun, which William's grandfather, two uncles, two cousins all attended. Diana's father and brother both attended Eton; the royal family and the tabloid press agreed William would be allowed to study free from intrusion in exchange for regular updates about his life. John Wakeham, chairman of the Press Complaints Commission, said of the arrangement, "Prince William is not an institution, he is a boy: in the next few years the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man."After completing his studies at Eton, William took a gap year, during which he took part in British Army training exercises in Belize, worked on English dairy farms, visited Africa, for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile.
As part of the Raleigh International programme in the town of Tortel, William lived with other young volunteers, sharing in the common household chores—including cleaning the toilet—and als
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York, is a member of the British royal family. He is the third child and second son of Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to the British throne, he holds the rank of commander and the honorary rank of Vice Admiral in the Royal Navy, in which he served as an active-duty helicopter pilot and instructor and as the captain of a warship. He saw active service during the Falklands War, flying on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation. In 1986, Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson; as well as carrying out various official engagements, he served as Britain's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment until July 2011. Prince Andrew was born in the Belgian Suite of Buckingham Palace on 19 February 1960, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, he was baptised in the Palace's Music Room on 8 April 1960 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.
He is the namesake of his paternal grandfather, Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, who died 16 years before he was born. Prince Andrew was the first child born to a reigning monarch since the birth in 1857 of Queen Victoria's youngest child, Princess Beatrice; as with his older siblings, Andrew was looked after by a governess, responsible for his early education at Buckingham Palace. He was sent to Heatherdown School near Ascot in Berkshire. In September 1973, he entered Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, which his father and elder brother had attended before him. While there, he spent six months—from January to June 1977—participating in an exchange programme to Lakefield College School in Canada, he left Gordonstoun in July two years with A-Levels in English, history and political science. He instead entered the Britannia Royal Naval College at Dartmouth; the Royal Household announced in November 1978 that Prince Andrew would join the Royal Navy the following year. In December he underwent various sporting tests and examinations at the Aircrew Selection Centre, at RAF Biggin Hill, along with further tests and interviews at HMS Daedalus, interviews at the Admiralty Interview Board, HMS Sultan.
During March and April 1979, the prince was enrolled at the Royal Naval College Flight, undergoing pilot training, until he was accepted as a trainee helicopter pilot and signed on for 12 years from 11 May 1979. On 1 September of the same year, Prince Andrew was appointed as a midshipman, entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. During 1980 he took the Royal Marines All Arms Commando Course. After passing out from Dartmouth, the prince went on to elementary flying training with the Royal Air Force at RAF Leeming, basic flying training with the navy at HMS Seahawk, where he learned to fly the Gazelle helicopter. After being awarded his wings, he moved onto more advanced training on the Sea King helicopter, conducted operational flying training until 1982, he joined carrier-based squadron, 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Invincible. The Falkland Islands, which are a British overseas territory claimed by Argentina, were invaded by Argentina on 2 April 1982, an event that instigated the Falklands War.
Invincible was one of the two operational aircraft carriers available at the time, and, as such, was to play a major role in the Royal Navy task force assembled to sail south to retake the islands. Prince Andrew's place on board and the possibility of the Queen's son being killed in action made the British Government apprehensive, the Cabinet desired that Prince Andrew be moved to a desk job for the duration of the conflict; the Queen, insisted that her son be allowed to remain with his ship. Prince Andrew remained on board Invincible to serve as a Sea King helicopter co-pilot, flying on missions that included anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation and search and air rescue, he witnessed the Argentinian attack on the SS Atlantic Conveyor. At the cessation of the war, Invincible returned to Portsmouth, where the Queen and Prince Philip joined other families of the crew in welcoming the vessel home; the Argentine military government planned, but did not attempt, to assassinate the prince on Mustique in July 1982.
Though he had brief assignments to HMS Illustrious, RNAS Culdrose, the Joint Services School of Intelligence, Prince Andrew remained with Invincible until 1983. Commander Nigel Ward's memoir, Sea Harrier Over the Falklands, described Prince Andrew as "an excellent pilot and a promising officer."Following his return from the Falklands War and until his marriage to Sarah Ferguson, Prince Andrew dated actress Koo Stark. In late 1983, Prince Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, was trained to fly the Lynx helicopter, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on 1 February 1984, whereupon the Queen appointed him as her personal aide-de-Camp. Prince Andrew served aboard HMS Brazen as a flight pilot until 1986, including deployment to the Mediterranean Sea as part of Standing NRF Maritime Group 2, he undertook the Lieutenants' Greenwich Staff course. On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York transferred to the General List, enrolled in a four-month helicopter warfare instructor's course at RNAS Yeovilton, upon graduation, served from February 1987 to April 1988 as a helicopter warfare officer in 702 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Portland.
He served on HMS Edinburgh as an Office