The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar; the official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself; the Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was known as Germany. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm, became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.
Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never met its disarmament requirements and paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher; the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government.
The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation; these events brought the republic to an end – as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933. Between 1919 and 1933 there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, why the old name Deutsches Reich remained though hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and cringed to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. The Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellor's SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. By 1925, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar, a painful reminder of a government structure, imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation; the first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929—it was a few weeks that the term Weimarer Republik was first used in a newspaper article. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.
According to historian Richard J. Evans: The continued use of the term'German Empire', Deutsches Reich, by the Weimar Republic....conjured up an image among educated Germans that resonated far beyond the institutional structures Bismarck created: the successor to the Roman Empire. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were altered to reflect the political changes; the Weimar Republic without the symbols of the former Monarchy. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak and claws in red color. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charg
Princess Louise Auguste of Denmark
Princess Louise Auguste of Denmark and Norway was the daughter of the Queen of Denmark, Caroline Matilda of Great Britain. Though regarded as the daughter of King Christian VII, it is accepted that her biological father was Johann Friedrich Struensee, the king’s royal physician and de facto regent of the country at the time of her birth, she was referred to sometimes as "la petite Struensee". She was born at Hirschholm Palace in Denmark. After the arrest of Struensee and Queen Caroline Matilda on 17 January 1772, the subsequent execution of Struensee and the banishment and imprisonment of her mother, she was raised at the Danish court residing at Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen along with her four-year-old brother, Crown Prince Frederick, under the supervision of Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Louise Augusta and her brother had a close relationship their entire life, it was on his request that she agreed to marry, despite the fact that she had no enthusiasm for the match, she was her brother's closest friend, he developed a strong resentment toward Queen Juliana Maria when she tried to separate them.
In February 1779 the nation's foremost statesman, Chief Minister Andreas Peter Bernstorff, hatched an ingenious plan for the young princess. Since a son of hers could ascend the throne some day, it would be advantageous to arrange a marriage early, to marry the "half-royal" back into the family, to the Hereditary Prince of Augustenborg; this plan not only had the positive effect of more connecting the Danish royal house’s two lines, the ruling House of Oldenborg and the offshoot House of Augustenborg, thus discouraging the threat of a breakup of the kingdom, but the prevention of her marriage into the Swedish royal house. Her future spouse was a prince with an exceptionally high concentration of recent Danish ancestors, his maternal grandmother, paternal grandmother and paternal great-grandmother having been born Countess of Reventlow, Countess of Danneskiold-Samsøe and Countess of Ahlefeldt-Langeland, he was related to all important families of the high nobility of Denmark. The binding agreements were made a year and in spring 1785 the 20-year-old Duke Frederick Christian II came to Copenhagen.
The engagement was announced and a year on 27 May 1786 the 14-year-old Louise Augusta was married at Christiansborg Palace. The couple lived at the Danish court in Copenhagen for many years until the Christiansborg Palace fire of 1794 and the death of the elder Duke of Augustenborg, when her husband inherited the estate and the Duchy; the princess was the center of court activities, was proclaimed the “Venus of Denmark”. After 1794 they lived during the summer at Gråsten, they lived in Denmark in the winters and in Augustenburg during the summers, where she held a lively court, where artists, such as the poet Jens Baggesen, were among her admirers. The spouses were dissimilar: while Louise Augusta was extrovert, lively and pleasure-loving, her spouse was unattractive, interested in philosophy and politics, she was said to have many lovers, among them most notably the doctor Carl Ferdinand Suadacini, who treated her for infertility and was believed to have fathered her children, though this cannot be proven.
Louise Augusta felt sympathy for the French revolution and had therefore anti-British views from 1789 onward. Over the years conflict developed between her husband and her brother over the relationship of the double-duchies of Schleswig-Holstein and his small appanage around Sonderborg on one hand and the Danish monarchy on the other, she remained loyal to the Danish Royal House or rather, to her brother, throughout the differences, acted as his agent with her spouse. In 1810 she worked to stop the Duke's attempts to be chosen as successor to the Swedish throne, which were linked with the duke's younger brother Charles August of Augustenburg becoming chosen by Swedes and dying, after which Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France and Prince of Ponte Corvo, was elected, their relationship fell apart, Frederik Christian tried to limit her influence over their children’s future. He died on 14 June 1814, Louise Augusta took control of the Augustenborg estates and the children’s upbringing; the estate was turned over to the eldest son, Christian August, on his return from an extended foreign tour in 1820.
From on she resided in the Augustenborg Castle, where she established an eccentric court. In 1832 in order to give her youngest son, Frederik Emil August, better income possibilities she purchased the estate Nør and Grønwald in Dänischwold near Ekernførde Fjord in South Schleswig, she had a close and warm relationship with her daughter and her son-in-law, but her relationship to her sons was tense. She died at Augustenborg in 1843, when her brother's reign in Denmark had ended and Christian VIII, her son-in-law, ascended - she thus died as the mother of the Queen of Denmark. Two portraits of her were painted by Danish artist Jens Juel; the first from 1784 is in Royal Collection and the second from 1787 is in the Frederiksborg Palace Museum. Another portrait of her by Anton Graff is in Sønderborg Castle. Danish author Maria Helleberg has written a best-selling historical novel based on the life of Louise Augusta called "Kærlighedsbarn", which inspired a special biographical exhibition on the life of the princess at Rosenborg Castle.
Caroline Amalie (28 September 1796 – 9 Mar
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was the third Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Friedrich was the second-eldest son of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel and an elder brother of Christian IX of Denmark. Friedrich inherited the title of Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg upon his childless brother Karl's death on 14 October 1878. Friedrich married Princess Adelheid of Schaumburg-Lippe, second-eldest daughter of George William, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe and his wife Princess Ida of Waldeck and Pyrmont, on 16 October 1841 in Bückeburg, Schaumburg-Lippe. Friedrich and Adelheid had five children: Princess Marie Karoline Auguste Ida Luise of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, married Prince William of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld. Friedrich Ferdinand Georg Christian Karl Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein. Princess Luise Karoline Juliane of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, married George Victor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont.
Princess Marie Wilhelmine Luise Ida Friederike Mathilde Hermine of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Albrecht Christian Adolf Karl Eugen of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. 23 October 1814 – 6 July 1825: His Serene Highness Prince Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck 6 July 1825 – 19 December 1863: His Serene Highness Prince Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 19 December 1863 – 24 October 1878: His Highness Prince Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 24 October 1878 – 27 November 1885: His Highness The Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Wilhelm Horst: Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der Freimaurerlogen in Schleswig-Holstein. Ludwig 2004, p. 138. John C. G. Röhl: Wilhelm II. Der Aufbau der Persönlichen Monarchie 1888-1900. C. H. Beck 2012, ISBN 978-3-406-48229-8. Media related to Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg at Wikimedia Commons
Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Ernst Christian Carl, 4th Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. He was the son of Prince Charles Louis of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Countess Amalie Henriette of Solms-Baruth, he married Princess Feodora of Leiningen, the only daughter of Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld on 18 February 1828 at Kensington Palace in London. She was the elder half-sister of the future British queen, he succeeded to the title of 4th Prince zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg on 4 April 1825, attained the rank of Major-General
Princess Helena Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Princess Helena Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was the third eldest daughter of Friedrich Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein and his wife Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg. She was a princess of Denmark through her marriage within the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg to Prince Harald of Denmark. Princess Helena was a Nazi sympathiser during World War II and was after the war exiled from Denmark, but allowed to return, where she died. Princess Helena was born 1 June 1888 at Grünholz Manor in Schleswig-Holstein, the third eldest daughter of Frederick Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and his wife Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, her father was the eldest son of Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and a nephew of Christian IX of Denmark. Three years before the birth of Princess Helena, he had succeeded to the headship of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and the title of duke upon the death of his father in 1885.
Princess Helena was engaged in 1908, married Prince Harald of Denmark, fourth child and third son of Frederick VIII of Denmark and his wife Princess Louise of Sweden and Norway on 28 April 1909 at Glücksburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. After their marriage, Prince Harald and Princess Helena lived at the Jægersborghus country house north of Copenhagen which Prince Harald had purchased in 1907. Here their five children were born between 1910 and 1923; the only activity deemed acceptable for a female member of the royal house except representation was charity, in 1913, Princess Helena started a campaign to found an orphanage in Gentofte. The orphanage, Spædbørnshjemmet Danmark, was founded in 1923. After this, she acted as the protector of the orphanage and its funds, taken over by princess Caroline-Mathilde after her- the money was in 1977 to create the Danmarksfonden, a fund for social and cultural matters. Princess Helena became unpopular during World War II because of her sympathy for the German occupation and the Nazi party after the German occupation of Denmark in 1940.
The Danish resistance movement stated that Princess Helena was the only member of the Danish royal house to have betrayed Denmark: she received and entertained Germans in her home, attended parties hosted by the Germans at Gesandtskab and had been introduced to Danish collaborationists by the Danish noblewoman Ebba Lerche. Her actions were so unpopular that, on some occasions, enraged Danes had broken the windows of her limousine; because of her professed support for the Germans, she was not on speaking terms with her sons, who were embarrassed by her behaviour. Her husband had taken to avoiding the dining room when she was hosting him. One of her own servants, Paul Dall, responsible for setting her table, was a contact of the German Abwehr in Copenhagen, was after the war judged guilty as a spy. On 18 January 1942 she participated in the memorial service for an SS officer, C. E. von Schalburg, who had died on the Russian front, a service which the monarch refused to attend. In 1942, Helena made efforts to convince Prince Knud of Denmark to persuade the monarch to allow Nazi members in to the Danish government.
Princess Helena is not considered to have been a regular German agent, but rather an informer and a contact on informal basis. After the war, owing to Princess Helena being a member of the Royal house, she was not brought to trial, as any punishment was at the discretion of the King, he instead exiled her from Denmark on 30 May 1945 and placed under house arrest at the Glücksburg Castle in Germany. She was allowed to return to Denmark in 1947, she stayed with her spouse until his death two years later. Prince Harald died on 30 March 1949 in Copenhagen. Princess Helena died on 30 June 1962 in Hellerup, Denmark, she was buried at Roskilde Cathedral. Helena and Harald had five children: 1 June 1888 – 28 April 1909: Her Highness Princess Helena Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 28 April 1909 – 30 June 1962: Her Royal Highness Princess Helena Adelaide of Denmark Bo Bramsen: Huset Glücksborg I–II, 1975
Countess Amalie Henriette of Solms-Baruth
Countess Amalie Henriette Charlotte of Solms-Baruth was a countess by birth of Solms-Baruth. She was the only child of John Christian II, Count of Solms-Baruth and his wife, Friederike Louise of Reuss-Köstritz, she married on 30 January 1789 with Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. They had the following children: Princess Louise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Elisabeth of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. King Philippe of Belgium is a descendant of Adelaide through her daughter Maria Josepha. Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg is a descendant of Adelaide through her daughters Marie Anne and Maria Antonia. King Charles XVI Gustav of Sweden is a son of Sibylla, the great-great-granddaughter of Amalie Henriette's son Ernest Christiaan. Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands is a daughter of Bernhard, a great-grandson of Amalie Henriette's daughter Emilie. Queen Sophia of Spain and Constantine II of Greece are children of Frederica of Hanover, whose grandmother Empress Augusta Victoria was a granddaughter of Amalie Henriette's son Ernest Christian