Princess Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis
Princess Marie Auguste Anna of Thurn and Taxis was a Regent of Württemberg. She was a member of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis as a daughter of Anselm Franz, 2nd Prince of Thurn and Taxis and his wife Maria Ludovika Anna Franziska, Princess of Lobkowicz. Through her marriage to Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, she became Duchess consort of Württemberg. Marie Auguste was born on 11 August 1706, she grew up in the Austrian Netherlands and moved to Frankfurt, where her family's wealth and economic interests were based. Her only brother was Alexander Ferdinand, 3rd Prince of Thurn and Taxis, whose son Karl Anselm would marry Marie Auguste's only daughter in 1753. Marie Auguste was chosen as a bride for Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental because of her Roman Catholic religion, they were married on 1 May 1727 in Frankfurt am Main. Despite their Catholicism, the couple's children were all raised in the Lutheran faith, they had four surviving children: Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg, married Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Eugen Louis Louis Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, married Sophie Albertine of Beichlingen. Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, married Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt. Alexander Eugen Auguste Elisabeth, married Karl Anselm, 4th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, their ten-year marriage was turbulent, they were felt to be each other's match in every way. He used a trusted servant to spy on his wife to ensure that she would not interfere in government or criticize the Duke's ministers. After a serious dispute in 1736, her husband had her promise in writing to stay out of government affairs. Marie Auguste's husband died on 12 March 1737 on the eve of his departure on a military inspection tour; this meant. After experiencing initial trouble from the regency council in trying to hold power for her son, she was successful on 5 November 1737, she was granted a large allowance and was recognized as co-regent with control over her son's education. From 1739 to the following year, she had an affair with a captain in the army.
Rumors of a possible pregnancy became so widespread. Her exile removed her from direct power when crucial policy decisions and preparations for her son's education were being made. For instance, she was unable to prevent a disastrous alliance with Prussia that would leave Württemberg exposed at the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession. By 1744, Marie Auguste had again achieved a position of considerable influence, she arranged military careers for her two eldest sons, allowing them to receive commissions in the Prussian army. In 1748, she encouraged her eldest son, the reigning Duke Karl Eugen, to enter into a marriage with the Hohenzollern Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, a niece of Frederick the Great; as a Catholic, she prepared her youngest son Frederick Eugen for a life in the Imperial Church. Her dreams for a life of religion for him fell apart, when in 1753 he became engaged to another niece of Frederick the Great, Friederike Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt.
Marie Auguste's influence would decline as her son grew more independent by 1749. She died on 1 February 1756 in Württemberg. Marie Auguste was praised by contemporaries for her beauty. However, she was often criticized for her lack of judgment and resolve, she liked to demonstrate her rank as Duchess of Württemberg by spending lavishly, which set her at odds with her thrifty subjects. For instance, her wardrobe contained 228 dresses. Although portrayed as an intellectual lightweight, she owned a large library that contained the latest novels and philosophy, she maintained a correspondence with Voltaire, was a friend of the philosopher Marquis d'Argens. 11 August 1706 - 1 May 1727: HSH Princess Marie Auguste of Thurn and Taxis 1 May 1727: HSH The Duchess of Württemberg 1737 - 1746: HSH The Duchess Co-Regent of Württemberg 1746 - 1 February 1756: HSH The Dowager Duchess of Württemberg Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Saint John Lundy, Darryl. "The Peerage: Marie-Auguste Prinzessin von Thurn und Taxis".
Retrieved 15 December 2009. Wilson, Peter H.. "Women and Imperial Politics: The Württemberg Consorts 1674-1757" in Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. Clarissa Campbell Orr. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81422-7. Media related to Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis at Wikimedia Commons
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War. The Alsatian part lay in the Rhine Valley on the west bank of the Rhine River and east of the Vosges Mountains; the Lorraine section was in the upper Moselle valley to the north of the Vosges. The territory encompassed 93% of Alsace and 26% of Lorraine, while the rest of these regions remained part of France. For historical reasons, specific legal dispositions are still applied in the territory in the form of a "local law". In relation to its special legal status, since its reversion to France following World War I, the territory has been referred to administratively as Alsace-Moselle. Since 2016, the historical territory is now part of the French administrative region of Grand Est. Alsace-Lorraine had a land area of 14,496 km2, its capital was Straßburg. It was divided in three districts: Oberlelsaß, whose capital was Kolmar, had a land area of 3,525 km2 and corresponds to the current department of Haut-Rhin Unterelsaß, whose capital was Straßburg, had a land area of 4,755 km2 and corresponds to the current department of Bas-Rhin Lothringen, whose capital was Metz, had a land area of 6,216 km2 and corresponds to the current department of Moselle The largest urban areas in Alsace-Lorraine at the 1910 census were: Straßburg: 220,883 inhabitants Mülhausen: 128,190 inhabitants Metz: 102,787 inhabitants Diedenhofen: 69,693 inhabitants Colmar: 44,942 inhabitants The modern history of Alsace-Lorraine was influenced by the rivalry between French and German nationalism.
France long sought to attain and preserve its "natural boundaries", which were the Pyrenees to the southwest, the Alps to the southeast, the Rhine River to the northeast. These strategic claims led to the annexation of territories located west of the Rhine river in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. What is now known as Alsace was progressively conquered by Louis XIV in the 17th century, while Lorraine was incorporated in the 18th century under Louis XV. German nationalism, which resurfaced following the French occupation of Germany under Napoleon, sought to unify all the German-speaking populations of the former Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation into a single nation-state; as various German dialects were spoken by most of the population of Alsace and Moselle, these regions were viewed by German nationalists to be rightfully part of hoped-for united Germany in the future. We Germans who know Germany and France know better what is good for the Alsatians than the unfortunates themselves.
In the perversion of their French life they have no exact idea of. In 1871, the newly created German Empire's demand for Alsace from France after its victory in the Franco-Prussian War was not a punitive measure; the transfer was controversial among the Germans: The German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, was opposed to it, as he thought it would engender permanent French enmity toward Germany. Some German industrialists did not want the competition from Alsatian industries, such as the cloth makers who would be exposed to competition from the sizeable industry in Mulhouse. Karl Marx warned his fellow Germans: "If Alsace and Lorraine are taken France will make war on Germany in conjunction with Russia, it is unnecessary to go into the unholy consequences." However, the German Emperor, Wilhelm I sided with army commander Helmuth von Moltke, other Prussian generals and other officials who argued that a westward shift in the French border was necessary for strategic military and ethnographic reasons.
From an ethnic perspective, the transfer involved people who for the most part spoke Alemannic German dialects. From a military perspective, by early 1870s standards, shifting the frontier away from the Rhine would give the Germans a strategic buffer against feared future French attacks. Due to the annexation, the Germans gained control of the fortifications of French-speaking Metz, as well as Strasbourg on the left bank of the Rhine and most of the iron resources of Lorraine. However, domestic politics in the new Reich may have been decisive. Although it was led by Prussia, the new German Empire was a decentralized federal state; the new arrangement left many senior Prussian generals with serious misgivings about leading diverse military forces to guard a prewar frontier that, except for the northernmost section, was part of two other states of the new Empire – Baden and Bavaria. As as the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, these states had been Prussia's enemies. In the new Empire's constitution, both states, but Bavaria, had been given concessions with regard to local autonomy, including partial control of their military forces.
For this reason, the Prussian General Staff argued that it was necessary for the Reich's frontier with France to be under direct Prussian control. Creating a new Imperial Territory out of French territory would achieve this goal: although a Reichsland would not be part of the Kingdom of Prussia, being governed directly from Berlin it would be under Prusso-German control. Thus, by annexing Alsace-Lorraine, Berlin was able to avoid complications with Baden and Bavaria on such matters as new fortifications. Memories of the Napoleonic Wars were still quite fresh in the 1870s. Right up until the Franco-Prussian War, the French had maintained a long-standing desire to establish their entire eastern frontier on the Rhine, th
Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden
Charles Frederick was Margrave and Grand Duke of Baden from 1738 until his death. Born at Karlsruhe, he was the son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Baden-Durlach and Amalia of Nassau-Dietz, the daughter of Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz, he succeeded his grandfather as Margrave of Baden-Durlach in 1738 and ruled from 1746 until 1771, when he inherited Baden-Baden from the Bernhard Line. Upon inheriting the latter margraviate, the original land of Baden was reunited, he was regarded as a good example of an enlightened despot, supporting schools, jurisprudence, civil service, economy and urban development. He outlawed torture in 1767, serfdom in 1783, he was elected a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society in 1747 In 1803, Charles Frederick became Elector of Baden, in 1806 the first Grand Duke of Baden. Through the politics of minister Sigismund Freiherr von Reitzenstein, Baden acquired the Bishopric of Constance, the territories of the Bishopric of Basel, the Bishopric of Strassburg, the Bishopric of Speyer that lay on the right bank of the Rhine, in addition to Breisgau and Ortenau.
In 1806, Baden joined the Confederation of the Rhine. Together with his architect, Friedrich Weinbrenner, Charles Frederick was responsible for the construction of the handsome suite of classical buildings that distinguish Karlsruhe, he died there in 1811, was one of the few German rulers to die during the Napoleonic era. Charles Frederick married Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt on 28 January 1751, she was the daughter of Louis VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt, was born on 11 July 1723 and died on 8 April 1783. Charles Frederick and Caroline Louise had the following children: Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden. Prince Frederick of Baden. Prince Louis of Baden. Louis succeeded his nephew Charles as Louis I, 3rd Grand Duke in 1818. Son. Princess Louise Auguste of Baden. Charles Frederick married Louise Caroline, Baroness Geyer of Geyersberg as his second wife on 24 November 1787, she was the daughter of Lt. Col. Louis Henry Philipp, Baron Geyer of Geyersberg and his wife Maximiliana Christiane, Countess of Sponeck.
She was born on 26 May 1768 and died on 23 July 1820. This was a morganatic marriage, the children born of it were not eligible to succeed. Louise was created Baroness of Hochberg at the time of her marriage and Countess of Hochberg in 1796, they had the following children: Prince Leopold of Baden. Married on 25 July 1819 in Karlsruhe his half-grand-niece, HRH Princess Sophie of Sweden, eldest daughter of the former King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden and Frederica of Baden. Prince William of Baden. Prince Frederick Alexander of Baden. Princess Amalie of Baden. By 1817, the descendants of Charles Frederick by his first wife were dying out. To prevent Baden from being inherited by the next heir, the reigning Grand Duke, changed the succession law to give the Hochberg family full dynastic rights in Baden, they thus became Princes and Princesses of Baden with the style Grand Ducal Highness, like their elder half-siblings. Their succession rights were reinforced when Baden was granted a constitution in 1818, recognised by Bavaria and the Great Powers in the Treaty of Frankfurt, 1819.
Leopold's descendants ruled the Grand Duchy of Baden until 1918. The current pretenders to the throne of Baden are descendants of Leopold. Leopold, the eldest son from the second marriage, succeeded as Grand Duke in 1830. Helen P. Liebel, "Enlightened bureaucracy versus enlightened despotism in Baden, 1750-1792." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 55.5: 1-132
Duchess Elisabeth Alexandrine of Württemberg
Duchess Elisabeth Alexandrine Constance of Württemberg was a daughter of Duke Louis of Württemberg and Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg. Elisabeth was one of five children born to Duke Louis of Württemberg and his second wife Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg, her siblings included Queen Pauline of Württemberg and Duke Alexander of Württemberg, the founder of the Teck branch of the family. Elisabeth married Prince William of Baden on 16 October 1830. Ten years older than she was, he was the second son of Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden and his second wife Luise Karoline Geyer von Geyersberg. Due to the low birth rank of his mother, William had no succession rights for a time to the Grand Duchy of Baden. Elisabeth and William had issue: Princess Wilhelmine Pauline Henriette Amalie Louise. Princess Sophie Pauline Henriette Amalie Louise, married Woldemar, Prince of Lippe on November 9, 1858. Princess Pauline Sophie Elisabeth Marie. Priness Leopoldine Wilhelmine Pauline Amalie Maximiliane, married Hermann VI, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg on September 24, 1862.
William died on 11 October 1859. Elisabeth would die five years on 5 December 1864
House of Zähringen
The House of Zähringen was a dynasty of Swabian nobility. Their name is derived from Zähringen castle near Freiburg im Breisgau; the Zähringer in the 12th century used the title of Duke of Zähringen, in compensation for having conceded the title of Duke of Swabia to the Staufer in 1098. The "Duchy of Zähringen" by definition consisted of the territories and fiefs held by the Zähringer, it was not seen as a duchy in equal standing with the old stem duchies; the Zähringer attempted to expand their territories in Swabia and Burgundy into a recognized duchy, but their expansion was halted in the 1130s due to their feud with the Welfs. They were granted the special title of Rector of Burgundy in 1127, they continued to use both titles until their extinction in 1218. Pursuing their territorial ambitions, they founded numerous cities and monasteries, on either side of the Black Forest as well as in the western Swiss plateau. After their extinction, parts of their territories reverted to the crown, other parts were divided between the houses of Kyburg, Urach and Fürstenberg.
The title of "Duke of Zähringen" was revived in the 19th century by the House of Baden, which shares descent from Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia with the House of Zähringen. The earliest known ancestor of the family was one Berthold, Count in the Breisgau, first mentioned in 962. In view of his name, he may have been related to the Alemannic Ahalolfing dynasty. Berthold's great-grandson, the Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia, held several lordships in the Breisgau, in Thurgau and Baar. By his mother, he was related to the rising Hohenstaufen family. Emperor Henry III had promised his liensman Berthold the Duchy of Swabia, but this was not fulfilled, as upon Henry's death, his widow Agnes of Poitou appointed Count Rudolf of Rheinfelden to the position of Duke of Swabia in 1057. In compensation, Berthold was made Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona in 1061. However, this dignity was only a titular one, Berthold subsequently lost it when, in the course of the Investiture Controversy, he joined the rising of his former rival Rudolf of Rheinfelden against German king Henry IV in 1073.
Berthold's son Berthold II, who like his father fought against Henry IV, inherited a lot of the lands of Rudolf's son Count Berthold of Rheinfelden in 1090. Berthold II is so named both as head of the House of Zähringen. Berthold II did use the "Zähringen" name, although he moved his main residence from Zähringen Castle to the newly-built Freiburg Castle in 1091. In 1092, Berthold II was elected Duke of Swabia against Frederick I of Hohenstaufen. In 1098, he reconciled with Frederick, renounced all claims to Swabia and instead concentrated on his possessions in the Breisgau region, assuming the title of Duke of Zähringen, he was succeeded in turn by Berthold III and Conrad. In 1127, upon the assassination of his nephew Count William III, Conrad claimed the inheritance of the County of Burgundy against Count Renaud III of Mâcon. Renaud prevailed, though he had to cede large parts of the eastern Transjuranian lands to Conrad, who thereupon was appointed by Emperor Lothair III as a "rector" of the Imperial Kingdom of Arles or Burgundy.
This office was confirmed in 1152 and held by the Zähringen dukes until 1218, hence they are sometimes called "Dukes of Burgundy", although the existing Duchy of Burgundy was not an Imperial but a French fief. Duke Berthold IV, who followed his father Conrad and founded the Swiss city of Fryburg in 1157, spent much of his time in Italy in the train of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, his son and successor, Berthold V, showed his prowess by reducing the Burgundian nobles to order. This latter duke was the founder of the city of Bern, when he died in February 1218, the ducal line of the Zähringen family became extinct. Among other titles, the Zähringen family acted as Reichsvogt of the Zürichgau area. After the extinction of the ducal line in 1218, much of their extensive territory in the Breisgau and modern-day Switzerland returned to the crown, except for their allodial titles, which were divided between the counts of Urach and the counts of Kyburg, both descended from the sisters of Berthold V.
Less than fifty years the Kyburgs died out and large portions of their domains were inherited by the House of Habsburg. Bern achieved the status of a free imperial city, whereas other cities such as Fribourg-Freiburg only obtained the same status in history. Berthold I held the comital titles of Breisgau, Thurgau, as well as being reeve in Stein am Rhein; the county of Thurgau was lost in c. 1077. Berthold II, founder of the House of Zähringen proper, in 1098 received Zähringen castle and the jurisdiction over Zürich. Ownership of the county of Rheinfelden and of Burgdorf dates to c. 1198. The "rectorate" of the county of Burgundy was granted in 1127. Ownership of Burgundy was contested, Zähringer de facto rule was limited to the parts of Upper Burgundy east of the Jura and north of Lake Geneva; the territories south of Lake Geneva were conceded to the Savoy an
Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
Charles III William was Margrave of Baden-Durlach between 1709 and 1738. He was the son of Margrave Frederick Magnus of Baden-Durlach and Augusta Maria of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. In 1715, he established Karlsruhe. Karlsruhe has since grown to a large city. With the consolidation of public finances and the creation of a reliable administration, he laid the foundations for the reform policies of his grandson, Charles Frederick. Charles William was born in Durlach as the son of Margrave Frederick Magnus of Baden-Durlach and Augusta Maria of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, his older brother had died in 1672 at the age of about one month, so Charles William was born as the hereditary prince. He had eight sisters and one brother, five years younger and died in 1723. Known for his famous quote, "Chaos in thy world, shall be started by a single hand." After studies in Utrecht and Lausanne, he traveled to England and Italy. He entered the military service, he was employed by his uncle Margrave Louis William, achieved the rank of a colonel under him and participated in several wars.
Thereafter, he became Margrave of Baden-Durlach in 1709. Inspired by the example of his relative, Margrave Louis William of Baden-Baden, Charles William developed a keen interest in the military. Charles William began his military career in the summer of 1694 in the Imperial Army. In years he participated in the siege of Casale Monferrato as a colonel; the Bavarian diversion during the War of the Spanish Succession involved southern Germany into this war and the two Baden margraviates attained a difficult position between the allies Bavaria and France and suffered a lot. In order to prevent the unification of the Bavarian and French armies, the German Empire provided an army under Margrave Louis William on the upper Rhine, he faced a French army under Marshal Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars. Charles William gained his military achievements in this war, in which he was involved as a senior officer from 1702 till 1709. At the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, Charles William was appointed Major General of the Swabian Circle troops, who belonged to the army of Türkenlouis.
In 1702, Charles William was wounded during the Siege of Landau. On 14 October 1702, he fought in the Battle of Friedlingen. On 20 September 1703 he fought in the Battle of Höchstädt, where he worked with Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau to cover the retreat of the defeated troops of Field Marshal Hermann Otto II of Limburg Stirum. For his services he was promoted to imperial Generalfeldmarschalllieutenant, a rank he had received from the Swabian Circle after the battle of Friedlingen. In the further course of the war he fought in 1704 under Prince Eugene of Savoy in the Battle of Blenheim, where he narrowly escaped death, he excelled at the siege of Landau and the defense of the line of Bühl-Stollhofen line and was promoted to Generalfeldzeugmeister in 1705. He fought with Field Marshal von Thüngen in Alsace. In 1707 he was again active in defending the Stollhofen line, his active military career ended when his father took up government. Yet, in 1715, he was promoted to the imperial Generalfeldmarschall.
The war hero Charles William showed a different face as a flower collector. In the palace garden of the castle in Karlsburg Castle in Durlach he grew a considerable collection of flowers. A 1713 catalog lists 2121 varieties of flowers, he obtained his flowers from Holland. He undertook trips there in 1711, 1723 and 1729. Besides flowers, Charles William planted many exotic trees. In the gardens in Karlsruhe and Durlach 7,000 orange trees were counted. In the Karlsruhe Castle Garden in 1733 5,000 tulips were recorded. Most species were represented by only 10-100 bulbs - some species, had enjoyed explosive growth and four species spanned 10,000 - 84,000 pieces; the gardens burdened the finances of the small country - rare tulip bulbs cost half the annual salary of a servant. Charles William sometimes worked in the gardens himself and had his gardeners report on the growth and prosperity of the plants regularly, he died in 1738, when he suffered a stroke while was hoeing his tulip bed. The Margrave ordered the plant variety of his "Botanical Garden" documented by realistic painters.
He left at least 6,000 watercolors of his plants. The best known watercolor were those grouped in the so-called tulip books. Only two volumes survived a fire in the Baden State Library in September 1942 caused by the phosphorus bombs of a World War II air raid; the ownership of the two remaining tulip books was resolved in 2009 in an agreement between the State of Baden-Württemberg and the House of Baden: the state bought the two books. After the Margraviate of Baden was split in 1535, the capital of the northern part was Pforzheim. In 1565, Margrave Charles II moved the capital to Durlach for reasons unknown, he expanded the medieval Karlsburg Castle into a palace. This palace was burned down by French troops in 1689, during the Nine Years' War, the plundering was repeated in 1691. On his return from exile in Basel in 1698, Friedrich VII Magnus began to rebuild the palace. However, the economy of Baden-Durlach had suffered from the war and was unable to sustain his grand plan. In 1703, construction was suspend
Langenburg is a town in the district of Schwäbisch Hall, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on a hill above the river Jagst, 18 km northeast of Schwäbisch Hall, it is the place where the Wibele - small, biscuit-like pastries - were invented and are still baked today. The history of Langenburg begins with the building of a castle on the western hill crag. Prehistoric settling is but not proven. Langenburg is first documented in 1226; the free Lords of Langenburg, which stepped into history in 1201, were related to the Lords of Hohenlohe. Maybe they held family bonds. After the Langenburgs had died out, the Hohenlohe family inherited the possessions. Langenburg thus came under the rule of Hohenlohe and remained part of the Principality for the next centuries. Since 1568 Langenburg was the residency of latter principality Hohenlohe-Langenburg. In the 17th Century, Langenburg was the site of witch trials; the last victims, Anna Schmieg and Barbara Schleicher, were executed in 1672. Langenburg has a vintage car museum and the large Langenburg Castle, the seat of the family of Hohenlohe-Langenburg.
Robisheaux, Thomas. The Last Witch of Langenburg: Murder in a German Village. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-06551-0