Johann Friedrich Struensee
Johann Friedrich, Greve Struensee was a German doctor. He became royal physician to the mentally ill King Christian VII of Denmark and a minister in the Danish government, he rose in power to a position of "de facto" regent of the country, where he tried to carry out widespread reforms. His affair with Queen Caroline Matilda caused a scandal after the birth of a daughter, Princess Louise Augusta, was the catalyst for the intrigues and power play that caused his downfall and dramatic death. Born at Halle an der Saale and baptized at St. Moritz on 7 August 1737, Struensee was the third child of six born to Pietist theologian and minister Adam Struensee, Pfarrer in Halle an der Saale in 1732, "Dr. theol. von Halle" in 1757, pastor in Altona between 1757 and 1760, "Kgl. Generalsuperintendant von Schleswig und Holstein" between 1760 and 1791, his wife Maria Dorothea Carl, a respectable middle-class family that believed in religious tolerance. Three of the Struensee sons went to University. Johann Friedrich entered the University of Halle on 5 August 1752 at the age of fifteen where he studied Medicine, graduated as a Doctor in Medicine on 12 December 1757.
The university exposed him to Age of Enlightenment ideals, social and political critique and reform. He supported these new ideas, becoming a proponent of atheism, the writings of Claude Adrien Helvétius, other French materialists; when Adam and Maria Dorothea Struensee moved to Altona in 1758, where the elder Struensee became pastor of Trinitatiskirche, Johann Friedrich moved with them. He was soon employed as a public doctor in Altona, in the estate of Count Rantzau, in the Pinneberg District, his wages were meager, he expected to supplement them with private practice. His parents moved to Rendsburg in 1760 where Adam Struensee became first superintendent for the duchy, subsequently superintendent-general of Schleswig-Holstein. Johann Struensee, now 23 years old, had to set up his own household for the first time, his lifestyle expectations were not matched by his economics. His superior intelligence and elegant manners, soon made him fashionable in the better circles, he entertained his contemporaries with his controversial opinions.
He was ambitious, petitioned the Dano-Norwegian government in the person of Denmark-Norways’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count von Bernstorff for funds. He tried his hand at writing Enlightenment treatises, published many of them in his journal Zum Nutzen und Vergnügen. During Struensee's near ten-year residence in Altona he came into contact with a circle of aristocrats, sent away from the royal court in Copenhagen. Among them were Enevold Brandt and Count Schack Carl Rantzau, who were supporters of the Enlightenment. Rantzau recommended Struensee to the court as a physician to attend King Christian VII on his forthcoming tour to princely and royal courts in western Germany, the Netherlands and France. Struensee received the appointment in April 1768; the king and his entourage set forth on 6 May. While in England Struensee received the honorary degree of Doctor in Medicine from the University of Cambridge. During the eight-month tour he gained the king's affection; the king's ministers and Finance Minister H.
C. Schimmelmann, were pleased with Struensee's influence on the king, who began making fewer embarrassing "scenes". Upon the court's return to Copenhagen in January 1769, Struensee was appointed personal physician to the king. In May, he was given the honorary title of State Councillor, which advanced him to the class of the third rank at court. Struensee wrote an important report on the mental health of the King First he reconciled the king and queen. At first Caroline Matilda disliked Struensee, but she was unhappy in her marriage and spurned by the king, affected by his illness, but Struensee was one of the few people who paid attention to the lonely queen, he seemed to do his best to alleviate her troubles. Over time her affection for the young doctor grew and by spring 1770 he became her lover. Struensee was involved with the upbringing of the Crown Prince Frederick VI along the principles of Enlightenment, such as outlined by Jean-Jacques Rousseau's challenge to return to nature; however he had his own rather strict interpretation of Rousseau's ideas, by isolating the child, encouraging him to manage things on his own.
He took Rousseau's advice about cold being beneficial for children and the Crown Prince was thus only sparsely clothed during winter time. Struensee was named royal adviser and konferensråd on 5 May 1770; the royal court and government spent the summer of 1770 in Schleswig-Holstein. On 15 September the King dismissed Chancellor Bernstorff and on 18 December Struensee appointed himself maître des requêtes, consolidating his power and starting the 16-month period referred to as the "Time of Struensee"; when in the course of the year the king sank into a condition of mental torpor, Struensee's auth
Hørsholm is a rich city on the Øresund coast 25 km north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers most of Hørsholm Municipality and straddles the borders neighbouring Fredensborg Municipality and Rudersdal Municipality. Hørsholm proper is developed around Hirschholm Palace which were constructed in the 1730s but the town has absorbed several of the nearby communities that are of much older origins. Hørsholm was founded in connection with the construction of Hirschholm Palace. Niels Eigtved created a plan for a residence town in 1737 and to stimulate its growth, it was given status as market town in 1739. However, it never came to serve as a market town and was still only a small settlement when the palace was demolished between 1810 and 1816. Over the following decades it grew as a local centre for trade. A textile factory known as the Royal Military Textile Factory, had been established in Usserød in the 1790s, it was joined by other industrial enterprises in the second half of the 19th century, such as Hørsholm Textile Factory, Hørsholm Tobakspakkeri og Hørsholm Iron Foundry.
In the 20th, Hørsholm grew together with the neighbouring communities Usserød, Rungsted and Smidstrup. Most Hørsholm has grown together with Kokkedal in Fredensborg-Humlebæk Municipality and Trørød, Vedbæk and Gammel Holte in Rudersdal Municipality. Hørsholm Slotshave, the former gardens of Hirschholm Palace, is the largest public park in Hørsholm. A little to the east of it lies Hørsholm Arboretum, part of the University of Copenhagen Faculty of Science. Hørsholm Cemetery is Hørsholm's largest cemetery. Rungsted Beach is Hørsholm's most popular beach but bathing is possible at Mikkelborg and from several other localities along the coast. Hørsholm is surrounded by a number of small woodlands, they include Rungsted Hegn–Folehave Skov. Kokkedal Skov and Stasevang Skov; the larger Jægersborg Hegn, which separates Hørsholm from Skodsborg to the south, adjoins the extensive UNESCO-LISTED deer park Jægersborg Dyrehave. Trommen is Hørsholm's principal cultural centre and home to its main library. Hørsholm is home to several museums.
Rungstedlund is the former home of the author Karen Blixen and is now home to the Karen Blixen Museum. The Danish Museum of Hunting and Forestry was based in the few surviving buildings from Hirschholm Palace, but i now moved to Randers. Hørsholm is only about 17 km from Jægersborg Dyrehave and Store Dyrehave and some 30 km from Gribskov, all three included in the UNESCO-listed Par force hunting landscape in North Zealand developed by King Christian V in the late 17th century for hunting deer with hounds; the adjacent Hørsholm Local History Museum contains a Struense exhibition. Gammel Holtegård plays host to temporary art exhibitions as well as a permanent archeological exhibition; the small Fuglsangshus is used as a venue for changing art exhibitions. Hørsholm is linked to information technology. DTU science park, a science park now part of the Technical University of Denmark, is home to many technological start-ups. Hørsholm Hospital used to be a major employer but it has now closed; the Danish roof window and skylight manufacturer VELUX, has its company headquarters in Hørsholm.
Rungsted Kyst Station and Kokkedal Station on the coast are located on Kystbanen and served by the Oresundtrains which continue to Copenhagen Airport and across the Øresund bridge to Sweden. The Hørsholm Highway is Denmark's oldest highway and connects Hørsholm to Copenhagen to the south and Helsingør to the north. Which includes several notable people from Hørsholm Civic Alternative
House of Oldenburg
The House of Oldenburg is a European dynasty of North German origin. It is one of Europe's most influential royal houses, with branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Greece, Russia, Schleswig and Oldenburg; the current Queen of Denmark and King of Norway, the former King of Greece, the consort of the monarch of the United Kingdom, as well as the first thirteen persons in the line of succession to the British throne, are all patrilineal members of the Glücksburg branch of this house. The dynasty rose to prominence when Count Christian I of Oldenburg was elected as King of Denmark in 1448, of Norway in 1450 and of Sweden in 1457; the house has occupied the Danish throne since. Marriages of medieval counts of Oldenburg had paved the way for their heirs to become kings of various Scandinavian kingdoms. Through marriage with a descendant of King Valdemar I of Sweden and of King Eric IV of Denmark, a claim to Sweden and Denmark was staked, since 1350. At that time, its competitors were the successors of Margaret I of Denmark.
In the 15th century, the Oldenburg heir of that claim married Hedwig of Schauenburg, a descendant of Euphemia of Sweden and Norway and a descendant of Eric V of Denmark and Abel of Denmark. Since descendants better situated in genealogical charts died out, their son Christian became the king of all three kingdoms of the whole Kalmar Union; the House of Mecklenburg was its chief competitor regarding the Northern thrones, other aspirants included the Duke of Lauenburg. Different Oldenburgine branches have reigned in several countries; the House of Oldenburg was poised to claim the British thrones through the marriage of Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark and Norway. Kings of Denmark Kings of Norway Kings of Sweden Counts of Oldenburg Dukes of Schleswig and Counts of Holstein Dukes of Schleswig and Holstein, ruling only part of the Duchies Dukes of Schleswig Dukes of Holstein Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, extinct in male line in 1931 Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein Kings of Denmark King of Iceland Kings of the Hellenes Mountbatten-Windsor line: although Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his children and his sons' children are patrilineally descended from this branch, his male-line descendants bearing the style of "Royal Highness" are de jure members of the House of Windsor, by declaration of the British monarch.
Kings of Norway Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp Emperors of Russia Holstein-Gottorp, extinct Kings of Sweden King of Norway Holstein-Gottorp Dukes of Oldenburg Media related to House of Oldenburg at Wikimedia Commons Marek, The House of Oldenburg, Genealogy. EU
Christian August II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
Christian August II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg known as Christian, Duke of Augustenborg, was a German prince. During the 1850s and 1860s, he was a claimant to the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein, a candidate to become king of Denmark following the death of king Frederick VII, he was the father-in-law of Princess Helena and the paternal grandfather of Augusta Victoria, Empress of Germany and wife of Kaiser Wilhelm II. He was related to kings Christian VII, Frederick VI and Christian VIII of Denmark through his mother and was a claimant for the Danish throne in the 1860s. Born a prince of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg and scion of a cadet-line descendant of the Danish royal House of Oldenburg, Christian August was the fiefholder of Augustenborg and Sønderborg, he was a claimant to the rulership of the provinces of Slesvig and Holstein, he was a candidate to become king of Denmark during the succession crisis caused by the childlessness of king Frederick VII of Denmark.
He lost the chance to ascend the throne to his distant kinsman, prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. Christian August was the eldest son and heir of Frederik Christian II, Duke of Augustenborg and his wife Princess Louise Auguste of Denmark, his father was the head of the senior cadet branch of the ruling house of Denmark, this the nearest agnatic kin of the kings of Denmark. Furthermore, his mother Louisa Auguste was the daughter of king Christian VII of Denmark, the sister of king Frederick VI and the first cousin of King Christian VIII. Due to all this, Christian August was high in the line of succession to the Danish throne, he enjoyed additional influence in the Danish court because his sister, Caroline Amalie, was the beloved second wife of king King Christian VIII. Christian August's family lost out in the competition for the throne of Denmark because he married a woman deemed unsuitable; as early as 1820, when there was no inkling of any succession crisis, Christian August had married for love a woman of unequal rank and thereby undermined any chance of his being invited to the throne of Denmark.
In 1848, German-nationalist sympathies prompted a rebellion in Schleswig-Holstein against Danish rule. A provisional government was established at Kiel under the Duke of Augustenborg, who travelled to Berlin to secure the assistance of Prussia in asserting his rights; the First War of Schleswig ensued. However, European powers were united in opposing any dismemberment of Denmark. Among others, Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, speaking with authority as Head of the elder Holstein-Gottorp line, regarded the Duke of Augustenborg a rebel. Russia had guaranteed Schleswig to the Danish crown by the treaties of 1767 and 1773. A treaty of peace between Prussia and Denmark was signed at Berlin on 2 July 1850. Both parties reserved their antecedent rights. Denmark was satisfied that the treaty empowered the king-duke to restore his authority in Holstein with or without the consent of the German Confederation. Augustenborg was ousted from power; the question of the Augustenburg succession made an agreement between the major powers impossible, on March 31, 1852 the duke of Augustenburg resigned his claim in return for a money payment.
Duke Christian sold his rights to the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein to Denmark in aftermath of Treaty of London, but renounced his rights to the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein in favor of his son Frederik August. In 1864, his son Frederick of Augustenborg proclaimed himself rightful Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. Duke Christian August died 1869. Christian married in 1820 his second cousin, Countess Lovisa-Sophie af Danneskjold-Samsøe, a Danish noblewoman who belonged to an illegitimate branch of the Danish royal House of Oldenburg, they had seven children: Prince Alexander Frederick William Christian Charles Augustus, died young Princess Louise Auguste Princess Caroline Amelie Princess Wilhelmine, died young Prince Frederick Christian August Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg. He married Princess Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and had issue one surviving son and four daughters including Augusta Viktoria "Dona", Empress of Germany as wife of Kaiser Wilhelm II. Frederick Christian Charles Augustus married his third cousin Princess Helena of the United Kingdom and settled in England.
They were the parents of Duke of Schleswig-Holstein. Princess Caroline Christiane Auguste Emilie Henriette Elisabeth, married morganatically in 1872 Johann Friedrich von Esmarch. Johannes Heinrich Gebauer: Christian August, Herzog von Schleswig Holstein. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Befreiung Schleswig-Holsteins. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart u. a. 1910. Karl Lorentzen: Christian Karl Friedrich August, Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Band 4, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1876, S. 205–211. Hans Harald Hennings: Christian Karl Friedrich August. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie. Band 3, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1957, ISBN 3-428-00184-2, S. 237 f. Mikkel Venborg Pedersen: Die Herzöge von Augustenburg. Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg, im Auftrag der Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte herausgegeben, S. 310–341
Jens Juel (painter)
Jens Juel was a Danish painter known for his many portraits, of which the largest collection is on display at Frederiksborg Castle. He is regarded as the leading Danish portrait painting of the 18th century, he was born in the house of his mother's brother Johan Jørgensen, a school teacher in Balslev on the island of Funen. Jens Juel was the illegitimate son of Vilhelmine Elisabeth Juel, who served at Wedellsborg, a fine gentleman a Wedell or Lord Jens Juel; when Juel was one year old, his mother married Jørgen Jørgensen, a schoolmaster in Gamborg, not far from Balslev, he grew up in Gamborg. Juel showed an interest in painting from an early age, his parents sent him to be an apprentice of painter Johann Michael Gehrman in Hamburg, where he worked hard for five or six years and improved so much that he acquired a reputation as a painter of portraits, etc. During the time of his studies, he could live off painting landscapes and genre pictures. At just over twenty years old, he moved to Copenhagen to attend the Royal Danish Academy of Art.
In 1767 he was awarded its small gold medal and in 1771 the great gold medal, both for Biblical themes. In 1772 Juel left Copenhagen, moving to Rome where he stayed for four years together with other Danish artists, including Nicolai Abildgaard. From Rome, he moved to Paris, at the time a center of portrait painting. In 1777 he moved on to Geneva, where he stayed for two years at the home of his friend Charles Bonnet in the company of other Danish artists, including etcher Johann Friderich Clemens. In Geneva, Juel soon earned a reputation as an excellent artist, he painted many portraits. Through Bonnet, who had become an honorary member of the Danish Academy, his reputation reached Denmark. After a brief stay in Hamburg, where he met and painted a portrait of the poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, author of The Messiah, he returned to Copenhagen in 1780. Here he painted portraits for the royal house and the well-to-do, as well as landscapes and genre paintings and was designated as the court painter.
On 4 April 1782, he was unanimously elected to be a member of the Danish Academy by Mandelberg and Abildgaard. He continued in the position until his death. Juel is buried at Assistens Cemetery in Copenhagen. Art of Denmark KID Kunst Index Danmark Danish Biographical Encyclopedia
House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
The House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg was a branch of the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg of the House of Oldenburg. The line descended from Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg. Like all of the secondary lines from the Sonderburg branch, the heads of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg were first known as Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein and Dukes of Sonderburg; the family took its name from Augustenborg Palace in Augustenborg, Denmark. The branch originated from Ernest Günther, a member of the ducal house of Schleswig-Holstein and a cadet of the royal house of Denmark, he was the third son of Alexander, 2nd Duke of Sonderborg, thus a grandson of John the Younger, the first duke, a son of King Christian III of Denmark. Ernest Günther had a castle built in the years after 1651, which received the name of Augustenborg in honor of his wife, Auguste, she was from a branch of the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein as a daughter of Philip, Duke of Glücksburg. As that castle became the chief seat of their line, the family used the name of Augustenborg as its branch name.
As they were agnates of the ducal house, the title of duke belonged to every one of them. The Dukes of Augustenborg were not sovereign rulers—they held their lands in fief to their dynastically-senior kinsmen, the sovereign Dukes of Schleswig and Holstein—who were the Oldenburg Kings of Denmark. A Danish king made the head of that line Duke of Augustenborg. In the late 18th century, since 1764, the branch of Schleswig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg was genealogically the next senior branch after the main line of Danish kings. King Frederick VI of Denmark, made his only sister Louise Auguste of Denmark marry the Hereditary Prince Christian of Augustenborg. In 1764, Sønderborg castle, the seat of that elder Schleswig-Holstein branch, passed upon its owners' extinction into the hands of the Duke of Augustenborg, but against expectations it did not became a residence. Instead it was rented out as a warehouse; the penultimate Duke of Augustenborg named Ernst Günther, allowed Sønderborg County Museum to move into a part of the castle in 1920.
The next year the Danish state bought the castle from the Duke. In 1810, a younger scion of the family, Prince Christian August, was chosen as the Crown Prince of Sweden, adopted by king Charles XIII of Sweden. An Augustenborg dynasty on a royal throne was however not to be, as Prince Christian August died a couple of months after his arrival in Sweden. In the early 19th century, the Danish royal line started to go extinct; the Duke of Augustenborg was the next male-line heir to the royal house, though not descended in male line from Frederick III of Denmark and Norway. This made the duke a player in the convoluted Schleswig-Holstein Question, as well as a candidate in the Danish succession. Frederik August of Augustenborg attempted to proclaim himself reigning Duke Frederick VIII of Schleswig-Holstein in 1864, upon the final extinction of the senior branch of the Danish kings, his daughter, Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, became German Empress as consort of Wilhelm II. The ducal line died out in 1931.
In November 1920, its penultimate head had adopted Prince Johann Georg of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and his sister Princess Marie Luise, children of Prince Albrecht of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. After Augustenborg's extinction in 1931, seniority fell to the line of the Dukes of Glücksburg, heads of the second line of Holstein, known in German as Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and in Danish as Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Lyksborg. Dukes of AugustenborgErnest Günther, 1647–1689 Frederick, son Ernest August, brother Christian August, nephew Frederik Christian I, son Frederik Christian II, son Christian August II, sonDukes of Schleswig-HolsteinFrederik VIII August, sonFrederick proclaimed himself Duke of Schleswig-Holstein in 1863, but did not obtain sovereign possession. Ernest Günther, son Albert, cousinLike the kings of the earlier Oldenburg line, of which the House of Glücksburg is a cadet branch, monarchs of the Glücksburg dynasty in Denmark bore the titles of Dukes of Schleswig and Holstein.
Margrethe II of Denmark abandoned this tradition upon ascending the Danish throne in 1972
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus