Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel. Known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the region is called Slesvig-Holsten in Danish; the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. The name can refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark; the term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land. It referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe: Tedmarsgoi and Sturmarii; the area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, after Christianization, their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811, the northern frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider.
The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet in Old Norse or settlement in Old Saxon, linguistically identical with the "-wick" or "-wich" element in place-names in Britain; the Duchy of Schleswig or Southern Jutland was an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg. Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or to either Denmark or Germany, or have been independent of both nations; the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein. Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago.
Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721, all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, Schleswig would always follow the same order of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the southern part of Schleswig and Danish in the northern part; this would prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, as well as after 1814 when mandatory school education was introduced. The administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen; the German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. This development was paralleled by an strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig.
This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would give rights to all Danes, i.e. not only to those in the Kingdom of Denmark, but to Danes living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not considered in Copenhagen, since it was well known that the political élite of Holstein were more conservative than Copenhagen's. Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein as a member of the German Confederation; these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled.
This began the First Schleswig War. In 1863, conflict broke out again. According to the order of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg, who became Christian IX; the transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg, was more controversial. The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in 1848, to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein; the promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig. British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864 failed, an
Hanau is a large town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main and is part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, its station is a major railway junction and it has a port on the river Main, making it an important transport centre. The town is known for being Wilhelm Grimm and Franciscus Sylvius. Since the 16th century it was a centre of precious metal working with many goldsmiths, it is home to Heraeus, one of the largest family-owned companies in Germany. In 1963, the town hosted the third Hessentag state festival; until 2005, Hanau was the administrative centre of the Main-Kinzig-Kreis. The historic core of Hanau is situated within a semicircle of the river Kinzig which flows into the river Main just west of the town. Today, after a substantial expansion during the 19th and 20th centuries it extends to the river Main and after a restructuring of municipal borders within Hesse in the 1970s a couple of nearby villages and towns were incorporated.
After this change, Hanau for the first time extended to the south bank of the Main river. On the 0 °C isotherm, Hanau has a humid continental climate as Eastern Germany with warm summer, classified by Köppen as Dfb. In the -3 °C isotherm has oceanic climate with some interior characteristics. Using the first definition used is the city most west of the continent below 200 m at sea level with this category. Innenstadt Nordwest incl. Wilhelmsbad Südost Lamboy Steinheim Klein-Auheim Großauheim Wolfgang Kesselstadt Mittelbuchen The name is derived of "Hagenowe", a composition out of "Haag" and "Aue"; as a place of settlement Hanau was first mentioned in 1143. It was the site of a castle which used the waters of the river Kinzig as a defense; the castle belonged to a noble family. Starting from this castle a village developed and became a town in 1303; as a result of this history, the main church of Hanau stood outside its walls in the village of Kinzdorf. The villagers moved into the town, Kinzdorf became an abandoned village leaving only the church.
Only in the 15th century was the status of the Hanau parish church transferred to the church of Mary Magdalene within the town walls. Shortly after the first town walls were built at the beginning of the 14th century, the town outgrew this limit. Outside the wall, along the road to Frankfurt am Main a settlement developed, properly included in the fortifications of Hanau only when Hanau received new fortifications in Renaissance-style during the first half of the 16th century; these new fortifications enclosed three elements: The medieval castle, the medieval town of Hanau and the Vorstadt. At the end of the 16th century, Count Philipp Ludwig II attracted Protestant refugees from the Netherlands and France to found their own settlement south of Hanau; this was of high economic interest for him because these Walloons brought high-class trade, their knowledge of jewellery and other production of luxury items and therefore taxes to his county. Out of this tradition, goldsmiths are still trained in Hanau.
Hanau was the site of the first workshop to produce Faience within Germany. These new citizens were granted privileges and they formed their own community and administration for the "new town of Hanau" wholly separate from the existing community, it took more than 200 years to amalgamate both. The new town – larger than the old one – was protected by a very modern fortification in Baroque-style which proved a big asset only a few years in the Thirty Years' War; the town survived a siege in 1637 with only minor damage. The new citizens formed the major economic and political power within the County of Hanau and in 1642 played a leading role in the succession of Count Fredrik Casimir of Hanau Lichtenberg into the County of Hanau-Münzenberg of which the town of Hanau was the capital. In 1736 Johann Reinhard III of Hanau-Lichtenberg, the last of the Counts of Hanau, died; those parts of his county belonging to the County of Hanau-Münzenberg, which included Hanau, were inherited by the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel.
Due to dynastic troubles within this family the County of Hesse-Hanau was created a separate state from the Landgraviate until 1786. So Hanau stayed capital for another 50 years. After that it became – after Kassel – the town second in importance within Hesse-Kassel. During the Napoleonic Wars the Emperor himself ordered the fortifications of Hanau to be destroyed; this created a chance for both parts of the town to expand across their traditional limits. In 1813, the Battle of Hanau took place near the city between French troops and Austro-Bavarian forces. During the 1820s the administrations of both towns of Hanau were merged; the first common Mayor, who became Lord Mayor was Bernhard Eberhard to become prime minister and minister of the interior of the Electorate of Hesse after the Revolution of 1848. With its pre-industrial workshops Hanau became a nucleus of a heavy industrialisation during the 19th century: From within the city as well as from outside; this was supported by its development as an important railway interchange of six railway lines, most of them main lines: 1848: Frankfurt-Hanau Railway 1854: Main–Spessart Railway 1867: Frankfurt–Bebra Railway, eastern direction 1873: Frankfurt–Bebra Railway, western direction 1879/1881: Friedberg–Hanau Railway 1882: Odenwald RailwayIn the 19th century, Hanau was a centre of the German democratic movement and contributed both in 1830 and in the Revolution of 1848.
As part of this movement the German Gymnastic League (Deutsche
Marie of Hesse-Kassel
Marie Sophie Frederikke of Hesse-Kassel was queen consort of Denmark and Norway by marriage to Frederick VI. She served as regent of Denmark during the absence of her spouse in 1814–1815. Marie was the eldest child of Princess Louise of Denmark, her father was the second son of the ruler of Hesse-Kassel, as such, had no principality of his own. Thus he acted in such positions as were offered to cadet members of royal houses by their reigning relatives. Denmark offered better positions than the small Hesse-Kassel, her mother was the third and youngest daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark and his consort, Louise of Great Britain. As such, she was the niece of King Christian VII and the Prince Regent Frederick, as well as their first cousin, she was born in Hanau, but was raised in Slesvig in Denmark from 1769, when her father was appointed governor of the Danish duchies. Marie spent her early life at her mother's Danish country estate Louisenlund. Little is known of Marie's childhood, but the life of the little German court at Louisenlund, headed by Fraulein von Berlichingen, are described by her mother's lady-in-waiting Julie Stolberg as simple, without great ceremony, that the royal couple allowed their children to be raised naturally.
She was given a German education, German was her first language. She was affected by her father's interest in mysticism, was fascinated by dreams. Marie was to describe her childhood as happy, expressed that she missed the idyll of her childhood home and longed to visit it. After crown prince Frederick was declared of legal majority and resumed the regency in 1784, the Danish royal court started to make inquiries to arrange a marriage for him. Marie was among the candidates for the marriage, described as literary interested, reported to have composed poetry and have made a declamation of the Messiah. However, she was not the preferred candidate within the royal court, it was pointed out both that Frederick did not share Marie's literary interests, that she was further more given a much to free and unrestricted childhood; the influential sister of Frederick, Princess Louise Auguste of Denmark feared that she would be replaced in her brothers affections, her husband, the Duke of Augustenburg feared to have his influence diminished, they were supported by a party at court, opposed to Marie's father Prince Charles, unpopular.
Frederick arranged his marriage against the will of both his court, council and of his sister and brother-in-law, but he had the support of his future father-in-law, who attempted to gain influence in Danish state affairs through it. Crown Prince Regent Frederick disliked being affected in his choice by the court, was eager to show himself independent to it. Marie was selected by her cousin as his spouse as a way for him to demonstrate his independence from his court, who wanted a more political dynastic match. In the summer of 1787, Frederick made a visit to Prince Charles and his aunt Princess Louise at Gottorp Castle and met Marie as well. On 31 July 1790 in Gottorp, she married her first cousin Frederick crown prince and regent of Denmark; the marriage was greeted with great enthusiasm by the public, as she was regarded as Danish and not a foreigner, she was referred to as a daughter of the nation. Her official entrance into Copenhagen on 14 September 1790 was described as a triumph; the occasion was used by writers and the press to celebrate not only Marie, but Frederick's enlightened rule and popularity, for which his marriage was taken as another proof because of Marie's status as a Dane.
A known poem, Heibergs Indtogsvise, praised the marriage because "Frederick had chosen his bride among the daughters of the nation". Crown Princess Marie was described as shy and reserved as she did not master the Danish language, her shyness was interpreted as haughtiness, while her sister-in-law Louise Augusta continued to be the center of the royal court and the most popular female member of the royal family; this was illustrated by an incident at the Royal Danish Theatre in 1792, when Republican sentiments grew in Copenhagen during the victories of the revolutionary French army under Dumouriez, the crown princess, who entered her box with a deeper nod as greeting to the public than usual, was met by the comment "Look at that, if Dumoriez has not taught the princess to be civil!", while her sister-in-law was greeted by the public with the shouts "Welcome, Darling Augusta!" Within the circles of the royal court and nobility, Marie was not liked because she was viewed as a threat to the popular Louise Augusta, was compared unfavorably with her.
She was criticized at court for being too proud, of driving a wedge between the crown prince at the Augustenburg party and of not being accommodating enough toward her sister-in-law. Marie, however, is known to have been eager to come to terms with her sister-in-law, at least on one known occasion to have asked her to forgive her if she had caused her any offence, her father introduced her and the crown prince to circles invested in German religious mysticism, the princely couple, Prince Charles, A. P. Bernstorff and Augusta Bernstorff, are known to have invited Lavater to Denmark in 1793. Lavater did visit them in the summer of 1793, has described Marie as a lovable young child. Crown Princess Marie was put under immense pressure to produce a male heir to the throne, as the main line of the royal family was in danger of being extinguished, she gave birth to son who died in 1791, lost several children in the following years, with only two daughters alive, who were not
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death in 1760. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain: he was born and brought up in northern Germany, his grandmother, Sophia of Hanover, became second in line to the British throne after about 50 Catholics higher in line were excluded by the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Acts of Union 1707, which restricted the succession to Protestants. After the deaths of Sophia and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, his father George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne. In the first years of his father's reign as king, George was associated with opposition politicians, until they rejoined the governing party in 1720; as king from 1727, George exercised little control over British domestic policy, controlled by the Parliament of Great Britain. As elector, he spent twelve summers in Hanover, where he had more direct control over government policy.
He had a difficult relationship with his eldest son, who supported the parliamentary opposition. During the War of the Austrian Succession, George participated at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, thus became the last British monarch to lead an army in battle. In 1745, supporters of the Catholic claimant to the British throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, led by James's son Charles Edward Stuart and failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. Frederick died unexpectedly in 1751, nine years before his father, so George II was succeeded by his grandson, George III. For two centuries after George II's death, history tended to view him with disdain, concentrating on his mistresses, short temper, boorishness. Since most scholars have reassessed his legacy and conclude that he held and exercised influence in foreign policy and military appointments. George was born in the city of Hanover in Germany, was the son of George Louis, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Celle.
His sister, Sophia Dorothea, was born. Both of George's parents committed adultery, in 1694 their marriage was dissolved on the pretext that Sophia had abandoned her husband, she was confined to Ahlden House and denied access to her two children, who never saw their mother again. George spoke only French, the language of diplomacy and the court, until the age of four, after which he was taught German by one of his tutors, Johann Hilmar Holstein. In addition to French and German, he was schooled in English and Italian, studied genealogy, military history, battle tactics with particular diligence. George's second cousin once removed, Queen Anne, ascended the thrones of England and Ireland in 1702, she had no surviving children, by the Act of Settlement 1701, the English Parliament designated Anne's closest Protestant blood relations, George's grandmother Sophia and her descendants, as Anne's heirs in England and Ireland. After his grandmother and father, George was third in line to succeed Anne in two of her three realms.
He was naturalized as an English subject in 1705 by the Sophia Naturalization Act, in 1706, he was made a Knight of the Garter and created Duke and Marquess of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton, Baron Tewkesbury in the Peerage of England. England and Scotland united in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, jointly accepted the succession as laid down by the English Act of Settlement. George's father did not want his son to enter into a loveless arranged marriage as he had, wanted him to have the opportunity of meeting his bride before any formal arrangements were made. Negotiations from 1702 for the hand of Princess Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, Dowager Duchess and regent of Holstein-Gottorp, came to nothing. In June 1705, under the false name of "Monsieur de Busch", George visited the Ansbach court at their summer residence in Triesdorf to investigate incognito a marriage prospect: Caroline of Ansbach, the former ward of his aunt Queen Sophia Charlotte of Prussia; the English envoy to Hanover, Edmund Poley, reported that George was so taken by "the good character he had of her that he would not think of anybody else".
A marriage contract was concluded by the end of July. On 22 August / 2 September 1705O. S./N. S. Caroline arrived in Hanover for her wedding, held the same evening in the chapel at Herrenhausen. George was keen to participate in the war against France in Flanders, but his father refused permission for him to join the army in an active role until he had a son and heir. In early 1707, George's hopes were fulfilled. In July, Caroline fell ill with smallpox, George caught the infection after staying by her side devotedly during her illness, they both recovered. In 1708, George participated in the Battle of Oudenarde in the vanguard of the Hanoverian cavalry; the British commander, wrote that George "distinguished himself charging at the head of and animating by his example troops, who played a good part in this happy victory". Between 1709 and 1713, George and Caroline had three more children, all girls: Anne and Caroline. By 1714, Queen Anne's health had declined, British Whigs, politicians who supported the Hanoverian succession, thought it prudent for one of the Hanoverians to live in England, to safeguard
Jean-Baptiste Perronneau was a French painter who specialized in portraits executed in pastels. Perronneau was born in Paris, he began his career as an engraver studying with Laurent Cars, whose portrait he drew, working for the entrepreneurial printseller Gabriel Huquier, rue Saint-Jacques, making his first portraits in oils, in pastels, in the 1740s. His career was much in the shadow of the master of the French pastel portrait, Maurice Quentin de La Tour. In the Salon of 1750, Perronneau exhibited his pastel portrait of Maurice Quentin de la Tour, but found to his dismay that La Tour was exhibiting his own self-portrait a malicious confrontation to demonstrate his superiority in the technique, he made his Salon debut with a pastel portrait in 1746 and received full membership in the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in 1753, with portraits of fellow artist Jean-Baptiste Oudry and the sculptor Lambert-Sigisbert Adam, both now at the Louvre Museum. After 1779 he no longer exhibited in the Paris Salons, but the clientele in his portraits reveal how he travelled in the provinces of France, with a group of sitters connected with Orléans, but in Toulouse, Lyon.
Farther afield he may have been in Turin and Rome, in Spain, Poland and England. He died in Amsterdam unknown, according to his biographers. Getty Museum: Jean-Baptiste Perronneau National Gallery of Art, Washington: Jean-Baptiste Perronneau National Gallery, London: Jean-Baptiste Perronneau The National Gallery has Perronneau's masterful portrait of Jacques Cazotte Musée Cognaq-Jay, Paris: Jean-Baptiste Perronneau: Portrait of the connoisseur Charles Lenormant du Coudray, shown at the Salon of 1769. Attribution of a portrait of Crozat to Perronneau Jeffares, Dictionary of pastellists before 1800, online edition Perronneau's Cat Portraits
Johann Friedrich Struensee
Johann Friedrich, Greve Struensee was a German doctor. He became royal physician to the mentally ill King Christian VII of Denmark and a minister in the Danish government, he rose in power to a position of "de facto" regent of the country, where he tried to carry out widespread reforms. His affair with Queen Caroline Matilda caused a scandal after the birth of a daughter, Princess Louise Augusta, was the catalyst for the intrigues and power play that caused his downfall and dramatic death. Born at Halle an der Saale and baptized at St. Moritz on 7 August 1737, Struensee was the third child of six born to Pietist theologian and minister Adam Struensee, Pfarrer in Halle an der Saale in 1732, "Dr. theol. von Halle" in 1757, pastor in Altona between 1757 and 1760, "Kgl. Generalsuperintendant von Schleswig und Holstein" between 1760 and 1791, his wife Maria Dorothea Carl, a respectable middle-class family that believed in religious tolerance. Three of the Struensee sons went to University. Johann Friedrich entered the University of Halle on 5 August 1752 at the age of fifteen where he studied Medicine, graduated as a Doctor in Medicine on 12 December 1757.
The university exposed him to Age of Enlightenment ideals, social and political critique and reform. He supported these new ideas, becoming a proponent of atheism, the writings of Claude Adrien Helvétius, other French materialists; when Adam and Maria Dorothea Struensee moved to Altona in 1758, where the elder Struensee became pastor of Trinitatiskirche, Johann Friedrich moved with them. He was soon employed as a public doctor in Altona, in the estate of Count Rantzau, in the Pinneberg District, his wages were meager, he expected to supplement them with private practice. His parents moved to Rendsburg in 1760 where Adam Struensee became first superintendent for the duchy, subsequently superintendent-general of Schleswig-Holstein. Johann Struensee, now 23 years old, had to set up his own household for the first time, his lifestyle expectations were not matched by his economics. His superior intelligence and elegant manners, soon made him fashionable in the better circles, he entertained his contemporaries with his controversial opinions.
He was ambitious, petitioned the Dano-Norwegian government in the person of Denmark-Norways’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count von Bernstorff for funds. He tried his hand at writing Enlightenment treatises, published many of them in his journal Zum Nutzen und Vergnügen. During Struensee's near ten-year residence in Altona he came into contact with a circle of aristocrats, sent away from the royal court in Copenhagen. Among them were Enevold Brandt and Count Schack Carl Rantzau, who were supporters of the Enlightenment. Rantzau recommended Struensee to the court as a physician to attend King Christian VII on his forthcoming tour to princely and royal courts in western Germany, the Netherlands and France. Struensee received the appointment in April 1768; the king and his entourage set forth on 6 May. While in England Struensee received the honorary degree of Doctor in Medicine from the University of Cambridge. During the eight-month tour he gained the king's affection; the king's ministers and Finance Minister H.
C. Schimmelmann, were pleased with Struensee's influence on the king, who began making fewer embarrassing "scenes". Upon the court's return to Copenhagen in January 1769, Struensee was appointed personal physician to the king. In May, he was given the honorary title of State Councillor, which advanced him to the class of the third rank at court. Struensee wrote an important report on the mental health of the King First he reconciled the king and queen. At first Caroline Matilda disliked Struensee, but she was unhappy in her marriage and spurned by the king, affected by his illness, but Struensee was one of the few people who paid attention to the lonely queen, he seemed to do his best to alleviate her troubles. Over time her affection for the young doctor grew and by spring 1770 he became her lover. Struensee was involved with the upbringing of the Crown Prince Frederick VI along the principles of Enlightenment, such as outlined by Jean-Jacques Rousseau's challenge to return to nature; however he had his own rather strict interpretation of Rousseau's ideas, by isolating the child, encouraging him to manage things on his own.
He took Rousseau's advice about cold being beneficial for children and the Crown Prince was thus only sparsely clothed during winter time. Struensee was named royal adviser and konferensråd on 5 May 1770; the royal court and government spent the summer of 1770 in Schleswig-Holstein. On 15 September the King dismissed Chancellor Bernstorff and on 18 December Struensee appointed himself maître des requêtes, consolidating his power and starting the 16-month period referred to as the "Time of Struensee"; when in the course of the year the king sank into a condition of mental torpor, Struensee's auth