Lady Charlotte Finch
Lady Charlotte Finch served as royal governess to the children of King George III and Queen Charlotte for over thirty years, holding the position from 1762 to 1793. She was born to Thomas Fermor, 1st Earl of Pomfret, his wife Henrietta Louisa Jeffreys, both of whom held court appointments; the couple were educated and travelled with their growing brood of children to the continent. Charlotte, like her sisters, was well-educated. An accomplished woman, Finch gained her appointment as royal governess in August 1762 upon the birth of George, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King George and Queen Charlotte. Finch's duties included oversight of the royal nursery and all the staff employed therein, as well as organising lessons for the children. Finch oversaw the princes' education until they became old enough to live in their own households under the watch of governors, while the six princesses remained under her supervision until they turned 21. Finch retired from her role in 1793, though she continued to correspond with members of the royal family and receive gifts from them.
Lady Charlotte Fermor was born on 14 February 1725, the second eldest daughter of Thomas Fermor, 1st Earl of Pomfret and his wife Henrietta Louisa Jeffreys. The growing family would come to include ten children: six daughters. Lord and Lady Pomfret held various court appointments during their lifetimes. Charlotte and her family were well travelled and sojourned to cultural and historical landmarks on the continent. While details on Fermor and her sisters' education are minimal, mention of them in contemporary diaries implies they were well-educated, she and Lady Pomfret were interested in theology. Charlotte was fluent enough in Italian for Horace Walpole to remark in 1740, she "speaks the purest Tuscan, like any Florentine" and "the Florentines look on her as the brightest foreigner that has honoured their." According to Walpole, Lord Granville, married to Charlotte's sister Sophia, was "extremely fond" of Charlotte. On 9 August 1746, Charlotte married the Hon. William Finch, heir to his brother Daniel Finch, 8th Earl of Winchilsea.
Shortly after the wedding, Walpole reported that Charlotte had five thousand pounds from her father, a sum that would increase when "Mr Finch settles fifteen thousand pounds more upon her". William Finch had been married to Lady Anne Douglas but had no issue, he was a diplomat who served as envoy to Sweden and the Netherlands in the 1720s before becoming an MP for Cockermouth and Bewdley. Another of his roles, held from 1742, was to serve as vice-chamberlain of the royal household, he and Lady Charlotte had four daughters together. One of their daughters died in 1765, their only son, inherited the earldoms of Nottingham and Winchilsea from his paternal uncle in 1769. Lady Charlotte Finch's career as royal governess began in August 1762, when she was appointed a day after the birth of George, Prince of Wales, the eldest son and heir of King George III and Queen Charlotte. Walpole called the decision "a choice so universally approved that I do not think she will be abused in the North Briton". Finch's biographer, Jill Shefrin, writes that the governess was noted for the skill she devoted to the raising of her own children, while Christopher Hibbert suggests that her educated background made her "well-suited" to the position.
Lady Charlotte held the role of royal governess for over 30 years, oversaw 14 of the king and queen's 15 children. She presided over the royal nursery, she oversaw the princes until they became old enough to live in their own households, while the six princesses remained under her supervision until they turned 21. In the mid-1760s, shortly after her appointment, troubling developments began occurring in Lady Charlotte's home. One of her daughters died in 1765. Furthermore, William Finch, 34 years older than his wife, had by 1765 become senile and mentally unstable. Rumours circulated. Fearing for her safety, she obtained a formal separation from her husband, taking their children to live with her in an apartment at St James's Palace and a house in Kew, he died in late 1766. Despite these stresses on her personal life, Finch continued to fulfil her position with zeal. However, when another of her daughters became ill in early 1767, Finch took leave of her job and brought the young girl to various locales in the unsuccessful hope she would survive.
Finch left the sub-governess Mrs Cotesworth in charge and returned grieving in November 1767, in time to care for the fifth addition to the nursery, Prince Edward. Lady Charlotte has been variously described by biographers as warm and kindly; as was typical for the period, the children were infrequently seen by the queen. While the royal princes endured disciplined lessons in an austere educational environment, Finch was loved by her female charges, they affectionately referred to her as "Lady Cha", upon returning from a trip to the continent in 1771, Queen Charlotte wrote her, "They can never be in better hands than yours". Shefrin says that Finch "supervised a progressive nursery focused on child
William I of the Netherlands
William I was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg. He was the ruler of the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda from 1803 until 1806 and of the Principality of Orange-Nassau in the year 1806 and from 1813 until 1815. In 1813 he proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the United Netherlands, he proclaimed himself King of the Netherlands and Duke of Luxembourg on 16 March 1815. In the same year on 9 June William I became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and after 1839 he was furthermore the Duke of Limburg. After his abdication in 1840 he styled himself Count of Nassau. King William I's parents were the last stadtholder William V, Prince of Orange of the Dutch Republic, his wife Wilhelmina of Prussia; until 1806, William was formally known as William VI, Prince of Orange-Nassau, between 1806 and 1813 as Prince of Orange. In Berlin on 1 October 1791, William married his first cousin Wilhelmina of Prussia, born in Potsdam, she was the daughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia.
After Wilhelmina died in 1837, William married Countess Henriette d'Oultremont de Wégimont, created Countess of Nassau, on 17 February 1841 in Berlin. As eldest son of the Prince of Orange William was informally referred to as Erfprins by contemporaries in the period between his majority in 1790 and the death of his father in 1806 to distinguish him from William V. Like his younger brother Prince Frederick of Orange-Nassau he was tutored by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler and the Dutch historian Herman Tollius, they were both tutored in the military arts by general Prince Frederick Stamford. After the Patriot revolt had been suppressed in 1787, he in 1788-89 attended the military academy in Brunswick, considered an excellent military school, together with his brother. In 1790 he visited a number of foreign courts like the one in Nassau and the Prussian capital Berlin, where he first met his future wife. William subsequently studied at the University of Leiden. In 1790 he was appointed a general of infantry in the States Army of which his father was Captain general, he was made a member of the Council of State of the Netherlands.
In November 1791 he took his new bride to The Hague. After the National Convention of the French First Republic had declared war on the stadtholder of the Dutch Republic in February 1793, William was appointed commander-in-chief of the veldleger of the States Army; as such he commanded the troops that took part in the Flanders Campaign of 1793-95. He took part in the battles of Veurne and Wervik in 1793, the siege of Landrecies, which fortress surrendered to him, the Battle of Fleurus, to name the most important. In May 1794 he had replaced general Kaunitz as commander of the combined Austro-Dutch forces on the instigation of Emperor Francis II who had a high opinion of him, but the French armies proved too strong, the allied leadership too inept, the allies were defeated. The French first entered Dutch Brabant; when in the winter of 1794-95 the rivers in the Rhine delta froze over, the French breached the southern Hollandic Water Line and the situation became militarily untenable. In many places Dutch revolutionaries took over the local government.
After the Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam on 18 January 1795 the stadtholder decided to flee to Britain, his sons accompanied him.. The next day the Batavian Republic was proclaimed. Soon after his departure to Britain the Hereditary Prince went back to the Continent, where his brother was assembling former members of the States Army in Osnabrück for a planned foray into the Batavian Republic in the Summer of 1795. However, the neutral Prussian government forbade this. In 1799, William landed in the current North Holland as part of an Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland; the Hereditary Prince was instrumental in fomenting a mutiny on the Batavian naval squadron in the Vlieter, resulting in the surrender of the ships without a fight to the Royal Navy, which accepted the surrender in the name of the stadtholder. The local Dutch population, was not pleased with the arrival of the prince. One local Orangist was executed; the hoped-for popular uprising failed to materialise. After several minor battles the Hereditary Prince was forced to leave the country again after the Convention of Alkmaar.
The mutineers of the Batavian fleet, with their ships,and a number of deserters from the Batavian army accompanied the retreating British troops to Britain. There William formed the King's Dutch Brigade with these troops, a military unit in British service, that swore oaths of allegiance to the British King, but to the States General, defunct since 1795, "whenever those would be reconstituted." This brigade trained on the Isle of Wight in 1800 and was used by the British in Ireland. When peace was concluded between Great Britain and the French Republic under First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte the Orange exiles were at their nadir; the Dutch Brigade was dissolved on 12 July 1802. Many members of the brigade went home to the Batavian Republic, thanks to an amnesty; the surrendered ships of the Batavian navy were not returned, due to an agreement between the stadtholder and the British government of 11 March 1800. Instead the stadtholder was allowed to sell them to the Royal Navy for an appreciabl
Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford
Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford, KG, PC, PC was a British courtier and politician. Hertford was born in Chelsea, the son of Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Baron Conway, Charlotte Shorter, daughter of John Shorter of Bybrook, he was a descendant of 1st Duke of Somerset. He succeeded to the barony on the death of his father in 1732; the first few years after his father's death were spent in Paris. On his return to England he took his seat, as 2nd Baron Conway, among the Peers in November 1739. Henry Seymour Conway and soldier, was his younger brother. In August 1750 he was created Viscount Beauchamp and Earl of Hertford, both of which titles had earlier been created for and forfeited by his ancestor Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector of England, following his attainder and execution in 1552; the Seymour family had inherited a moiety of the feudal barony of Hatch Beauchamp, in Somerset, by marriage to the heiress Cicely Beauchamp. In 1755, according to Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, "The Earl of Hertford, a man of unblemished morals, but rather too gentle and cautious to combat so presumptuous a court, was named Ambassador to Paris."
He appointed David Hume as his Secretary, who wrote of him, "I do not believe there is in the World a man of more probity & Humanity, endowd with a good Understanding, adornd with elegant Manners & Behaviour". However, due to the demands of the French, the journey to Paris was suspended. From 1751 to 1766 he was Lord of the Bedchamber to George II and George III. In 1756 he was made a Knight of the Garter and, in 1757, Lord-Lieutenant and Guardian of the Rolls of the County of Warwick and City of Coventry. In 1763 he became Privy Councillor and, from October 1763 to June 1765, was a successful ambassador in Paris, he witnessed the sad last months of Madame de Pompadour, whom he admired, wrote a kindly epitaph for her. In the autumn of 1765 he became Viceroy of Ireland where, as an honest and religious man, he was well liked. An anonymous satirist in 1777 described him as "the worst man in His Majesty's dominions", emphasised Hertford's greed and selfishness, adding "I cannot find any term for him but avaricious."
However, this anonymous attack does not seem to be justified. In 1782, when she was only fifty-six, his wife died after having nursed their grandson at Forde's Farm, Thames Ditton, where she caught a violent cold. According to Walpole, "Lord Hertford's loss is beyond measure, she was not only the most affectionate wife, but the most useful one, the only person I saw that never neglected or put off or forgot anything, to be done. She was always proper, either in the highest life or in the most domestic." Within two years of the tragedy, Lord Hertford had sold Forde's Farm to Mrs Charlotte Boyle Walsingham, a further two years she had re-developed the estate, building a new mansion which she called Boyle Farm, a name still in use today. In July 1793 he was created Marquess of Hertford, with the subsidiary title of Earl of Yarmouth, he enjoyed this elevation for a year until his death at the age of seventy-six, on 14 June 1794, at the house of his daughter, the Countess of Lincoln. He died as the result of an infection following a minor injury.
He was buried in Warwickshire. Lord Hertford married Lady Isabella Fitzroy, daughter of Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, on 29 May 1741, her grandfather was Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, an illegitimate son of King Charles II. By his wife he had thirteen children: Francis Seymour-Conway, 2nd Marquess of Hertford Lady Anne Seymour-Conway, married Charles Moore, 1st Marquess of Drogheda. Lord Henry Seymour-Conway Lady Sarah Frances Seymour-Conway, married Robert Stewart, 1st Marquess of Londonderry. Lord Robert Seymour-Conway Lady Gertrude Seymour-Conway, married George Mason-Villiers, 2nd Earl Grandison. Lady Frances Seymour-Conway, married Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, a son of Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle. Rev. Hon. Edward Seymour-Conway, canon of Christ Church, unmarried Lady Elizabeth Seymour-Conway died unmarried Lady Isabella Rachel Seymour-Conway, married George Hatton, a member of parliament. Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour, married Lady Anne Horatia Waldegrave, a daughter of James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave Lord William Seymour-Conway Lord George Seymour-Conway.
He married Isabella Hamilton, granddaughter of James Hamilton, 7th Earl of Abercorn, was the father of Sir George Hamilton Seymour, a British diplomatist. He is not known to have suffered himself from any mental abnormality, but a noted strain of eccentricity madness, appeared among his descendants: the debauched behaviour of his grandson, the 3rd Marquess, the suicide of another grandson, Viscount Castlereagh, were both attributed to a strain of madness supposed to be hereditary in the Seymour Conway family. Lord Hertford died in Surrey, England
Archbishop of Canterbury
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams. From the time of Augustine until the 16th century, the archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the See of Rome and received the pallium from the Pope. During the English Reformation, the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope. Thomas Cranmer became the first holder of the office following the English Reformation in 1533, while Reginald Pole was the last Roman Catholic in the position, serving from 1556 to 1558 during the Counter-Reformation. In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops.
At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the Pope, or the King of England. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has been more explicitly a state church and the choice is that of the Crown. Today the archbishop fills four main roles: He is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury, which covers the eastern parts of the County of Kent. Founded in 597, it is the oldest, he is the metropolitan archbishop of the Province of Canterbury, which covers the southern two-thirds of England. He is the senior primate and chief religious figure of the Church of England. Along with his colleague the Archbishop of York he chairs the General Synod and sits on or chairs many of the church's important boards and committees; the Archbishop of Canterbury plays a central part in national ceremonies such as coronations. As spiritual leader of the Anglican Communion, the archbishop, although without legal authority outside England, is recognised by convention as primus inter pares of all Anglican primates worldwide.
Since 1867 he has convened more or less decennial meetings of worldwide Anglican bishops, the Lambeth Conferences. In the last two of these functions, he has an important ecumenical and interfaith role, speaking on behalf of Anglicans in England and worldwide; the archbishop's main residence is Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth. He has lodgings in the Old Palace, located beside Canterbury Cathedral, where the Chair of St Augustine sits; as holder of one of the "five great sees", the Archbishop of Canterbury is ex officio one of the Lords Spiritual of the House of Lords. He is one of the highest-ranking men in England and the highest ranking non-royal in the United Kingdom's order of precedence. Since Henry VIII broke with Rome, the archbishops of Canterbury have been selected by the English monarch. Since the 20th century, the appointment of archbishops of Canterbury conventionally alternates between Anglo-Catholics and Evangelicals; the current archbishop, Justin Welby, the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 4 February 2013.
As archbishop he signs himself as + Justin Cantuar. His predecessor, Rowan Williams, 104th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 27 February 2003. Prior to his appointment to Canterbury, Williams was the Bishop of Monmouth and Archbishop of Wales. On 18 March 2012, Williams announced he would be stepping down as Archbishop of Canterbury at the end of 2012 to become Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge. In addition to his office, the archbishop holds a number of other positions; some positions he formally holds ex officio and others so. Amongst these are: Chancellor of Canterbury Christ Church UniversityVisitor for the following academic institutions: All Souls College, Oxford Selwyn College, Cambridge Merton College, Oxford Keble College, Oxford Ridley Hall, Cambridge The University of Kent King's College London University of King's College Sutton Valence School Benenden School Cranbrook School Haileybury and Imperial Service College Harrow School King's College School, Wimbledon The King's School, Canterbury St John's School, Leatherhead Marlborough College Dauntsey's School Wycliffe Hall, Oxford Governor of Charterhouse School Governor of Wellington College Visitor, The Dulwich Charities Visitor, Whitgift Foundation Visitor, Hospital of the Blessed Trinity, Guildford Trustee, Bromley College Trustee, Allchurches Trust President, Corporation of Church House, Westminster Director, Canterbury Diocesan Board of Finance Patron, St Edmund's School Canterbury Patron, The Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks Patron, Prisoners Abroad Patron, The Kent Savers Credit Union The Archbishop of Canterbury is a president of Churches Together in England.
Geoffrey Fisher, 99th Archbishop of Canterbury, was the first since 1397 to visit Ro
Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom
Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom was the twelfth child and fifth daughter of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Sophia is best known for the rumours surrounding a supposed illegitimate child to which she gave birth as a young woman. In her youth, Sophia was closest to her father; the princesses were well-educated but raised in a rigidly strict household. Though he disliked the idea of matrimony for his daughters, King George had intended to find them suitable husbands when they came of age. However, the King's recurring bouts of madness, as well as the Queen's desire to have her daughters live their lives as her companions, stopped would-be suitors from offering for most of the princesses; as a result and all but one of her sisters grew up in their mother's cloistered household, which they referred to as a "Nunnery". Though she never wed, rumours spread that Sophia became pregnant by Thomas Garth, an equerry of her father's, gave birth to an illegitimate son in the summer of 1800.
Other gossip declared the child was the product of rape by her elder brother the Duke of Cumberland, unpopular. Historians are divided on the validity of these stories, as some believe she gave birth to Garth's child while others call them tales spread by the Royal Family's political enemies; the efforts of the Prince Regent to gain his sisters increased independence were further hastened along with Queen Charlotte's death in 1818. In her last years, Sophia resided in the household of her niece Princess Victoria of Kent, at Kensington Palace. There, she fell under the sway of Victoria's comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who took advantage of her senility and blindness. Sophia served as his spy on the Kensington household as well as on her two elder brothers, while Conroy squandered most of her money; the princess died on 27 May 1848 at her residence in Kensington Palace. The Princess Sophia was born at Buckingham House, London on 3 November 1777, the twelfth child and fifth daughter of King George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
The young princess was christened on 1 December 1777 in the Great Council Chamber at St James's Palace by Frederick Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbury. Her godparents were Prince August of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and the Duchess of Mecklenburg, all of whom were represented by proxies. Upon Sophia's birth, King George ensured younger sons would have allowances; the royal household was rigid and formal when only the royal family were together in private. For instance, when the King entered a room, his daughters were expected to stand up, remain silent until addressed, not leave until given permission. Queen Charlotte made attempts to be economical. Sophia's early life was focused on education. Lady Charlotte Finch served as a role she performed for all the royal children; as with the strict education and discipline received by her brothers, Lady Charlotte through the sub-governesses chosen by Queen Charlotte arranged expert tutors to give the princesses lessons in English, music and geography.
The queen sought to combine her daughters' entertainments with educational benefits. Sophia and her siblings were brought up with an exposure to theatre and were entertained with special performances. Princess Sophia's first appearance in public occurred when she accompanied her parents and elder siblings to a commemoration for George Frideric Handel, held at Westminster Abbey on 26 May 1784. Uncommon for men of the period, Sophia's father was involved in her early upbringing and preferred his daughters to his sons; when possible he attended the princesses' birthday parties and other special events, was kept informed on their progress in the schoolroom. A family friend once remarked, "I never saw more lovely children, nor a more pleasing sight than the King's fondness for them." On the other hand, Queen Charlotte invoked fear in her daughters and, according to royal historian A. W. Purdue, she was not "benignly maternal". By 1792 Sophia and her sister Mary were being included in more family activities, at age fourteen, Sophia debuted at court on her father's birthday, 4 June 1792.
According to biographer Christopher Hibbert, in her young adulthood Sophia was a "delightful though moody girl, pretty and passionate." As within her childhood, Sophia was devoted to her father, though she found him exasperating. She wrote that "the dear King is all kindness to me, I cannot say how grateful I feel for it." Prior to 1788, King George had told his daughters that he would take them to Hanover and find them suitable husbands despite misgivings he had, which stemmed from his sisters' own unhappy marriages. He remarked, "I cannot deny that I have never wished to see any of them marry: I am happy in their company, do not in the least want a separation." However, the King suffered his first bout of madness that year. Sophia remarked of