Dorothea Jordan known interchangeably as Mrs Jordan, Miss Francis or Miss Bland, was an Anglo-Irish actress and the mistress and companion of the future King William IV of the United Kingdom, for 20 years while he was Duke of Clarence. Together they had ten illegitimate children. Dorothea Bland was born near Waterford, Ireland, on 22 November 1761, was baptised at St Martin in the Fields, Middlesex, on 5 December of that year, she was the third of six children born from his mistress, Grace Phillips. Her older siblings are George Bland and Hester Bland, her younger siblings are Lucy Bland, Francis Bland and Nathaniel Phillips Bland, her paternal grandparents were Nathaniel Bland, Vicar General of Ardfert and Aghada, Judge of the Prerogative Court of Dublin and his second wife Lucy. The reports about Dorothea's maternal ancestry are sketchy, although it is stated that Grace Phillips was the daughter of a Welsh clergyman but he has not been identified with certainty. Before April 1774, when she was 13, Dorothea's father, who worked as a stagehand, abandoned the family to marry an Irish actress.
However, he continued to support the family by sending them meagre sums of money. This situation forced Dorothea to work to help her siblings, her mother, an actress by profession, put her on the stage. Dora became a famous actress and was said to have the most beautiful legs seen on the stage; the historical record of Jordan's first stage appearance is not clear. Some sources claim that Jordan made her debut in 1777 in Dublin, as Phoebe in As You Like It, whilst others that suggest she premiered as Lucy in the Interlude The Virgin Unmask'd, on the 3rd November 1779; the knowledge of Jordans's time and other roles performed in Ireland is fragmentary, however documentation shows her her last appearance in Dublin came on the 16th May 1782 when she spoke the The Maid of Oaks' Prologue. At the time she was pregnant with the illegitimate son of the married theatre manager of the Smock Alley Theatre, Richard Daly. Rumours spread and they fled to England Leeds, where she was employed by Tate Wilkinson, manager of the York Company.
Her first performance in England was the tragic role of Calista in The Fair Penitent, for which she had been tutored for by the scholar Cornelious Swan. Swan wrote to Tate to express his amazement at Jordan's talents: ‘“For Wilkinson,” said he, “I have given the Jordan but three lessons, she is so adroit at receiving my instructions, that I declare she repeats the character as well as Mrs. Cibber did”’ Though no specific dates can be sourced, Dora is believed to have performed her prized role as Lady Teazle in Sheridan's The School for Scandal before she arrived in London. In 1785, she made her first London appearance at Drury Lane as Peggy in A Country Girl; the Morning post the next morning reported her performance as such:'Nature has endowed her with talents sufficient to combat and excel her competitors in the same walk. Her person and manner are adapted for representing the peculiarities of youthful innocence and frivolity, it came to be recognised that her talent lay in comedy, she was acclaimed for her "naturalness" on stage, called a'child of nature', a derogatory term for someone, of illegitimate birth.
Audiences enjoyed her performances in breeches roles such as Viola in Twelfth Night, Sir Harry Wildair in The Constant Couple and William in Rosina. " Despite her being'the most admired comic actress of her time', Jordan was a competent Shakespearean and tragic actress, playing the roles of Ophelia, Imogen in Cymbeline and Zara by Adam Hill. When she first auditioned for Wilkinson, when she was asked whether she preferred'tragedy, comedy or opera?' she answered "All"Her engagement at Drury Lane lasted until 1809, she played a large variety of parts. During the rebuilding of Drury Lane she played at the Haymarket. Here, in 1814, she made her last appearance on the London stage, the following year, at Margate, retired altogether. During her time on the stage she wrote the popular song The Bluebells of Scotland, published under her name around 1800. In 1815, the renowned theatre critic, William Hazlitt, wrote:'Mrs Jordan's excellences were all natural to her, it was not as an actress, but as herself.
Nature had formed in her most prodigal humour. Mrs Jordan, the child of nature, whose voice was a cordial to the heart, because it came from it, full, like the luscious juice of the rich grape.' She had an affair with her first manager, Richard Daly, the manager of the Theatre Royal, married, had an illegitimate child with him: Frances Daly. In England, she had a short-lived affair with an army lieutenant, Charles Doyne, who proposed marriage, but she turned him do
Elizabeth Hay, Countess of Erroll
Elizabeth Hay, Countess of Erroll was an illegitimate daughter of King William IV of the United Kingdom and Dorothea Jordan. She married William Hay, 18th Earl of Erroll, became Countess of Erroll on 4 December 1820 at age 19. Due to Hay's parentage, William Hay became Lord Steward of the Household. Elizabeth and William Hay married at Hanover Square. Hay is pictured in a FitzClarence family portrait in House of Dun and kept a stone thrown at her father William IV and the gloves he wore on opening his first Parliament as mementos, she died in Scotland. Elizabeth and William Hay together had four children. Lady Ida Harriet Augusta Hay, one of the Queen's bridesmaids, was the Hays' firstborn child and daughter, she had five children. Her descendants include the Earls of Gainsborough, the Marquesses of Bute and the Baronets of Bellingham. William Hay, 19th Earl of Erroll, wed to Eliza Amelia Gore on 20 September 1848, was the second child and firstborn son. Lady Agnes Georgiana Elizabeth Hay, wed to James Duff on 16 March 1846, was the third child and second daughter.
Lady Agnes Hay's son, Alexander Duff, married Princess Louise, daughter of King Edward VII. Lady Alice Mary Emily Hay, wed to Charles Edward Louis Casimir Stuart nephew of fraud John Sobieski Stuart, was the final child and daughter of the Hays. British ex-Prime Minister David Cameron is a fourth great-grandson of Lady Erroll, thus making him the fifth cousin twice removed to Queen Elizabeth II according to Debrett's. Walford, Edward, "Hardwicke's Annual biography" p. 209 de Vere Beauclerk-Dewar, Roger S. Powell, "Right Royal Bastards: The Fruits of Passion" ISBN 0-9711966-8-0
Royal Highness is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families princes or princesses. Monarchs and their consorts are styled Majesty; when used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses. By the 17th century, all local rulers in Italy adopted the style Highness, once used by kings and emperors only. According to Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie, the style of Royal Highness was created on the insistence of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Cardinal-Infante of Spain, a younger son of King Philip III of Spain; the Archduke was travelling through Italy on his way to the Low Countries and, upon meeting Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, refused to address him as Highness unless the Duke addressed him as Royal Highness. Thus, the first use of the style Royal Highness was recorded in 1633. Gaston, Duke of Orléans, younger son of King Henry IV of France, encountered the style in Brussels and assumed it himself.
His children used the style, considering it their prerogative as grandchildren of France. By the 18th century, Royal Highness had become the prevalent style for members of a continental reigning dynasty whose head bore the hereditary title of king or queen; the titles of family members of non-hereditary rulers were less clear, varying until rendered moot in the 19th century. After dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, several of Germany's prince-electors and other now sovereign rulers assumed the title of grand duke and with it, for themselves, their eldest sons and consorts, the style of Royal Highness; the vast majority of African royalty that make use of titles such as prince and sheikh, eschew the attendant styles that one would ordinarily be accustomed to seeing or hearing in accompaniment. In the cases of the aforesaid titles, they only exist as courtesies and may or may not have been recognised by a reigning fons honorum. However, some traditional leaders and their family members use royal styles when acting in their official roles as representatives of sovereign or constituent states, distinguishing their status from others who may use or claim traditional titles.
For example, the Nigerian traditional rulers of the Yoruba are styled using the HRH The X of Y method though they are confusingly known as kings in English and not the princes that the HRH style suggests. The chiefly appellation Kabiyesi is used as the equivalent of the HRH and other such styles by this class of royalty when rendering their full titles in the Yoruba language. Furthermore, the wives of the king of the Zulu peoples, although all entitled to the title of queen, do not share their husband's style of Majesty but instead are each addressed as Royal Highness, with the possible exception of the great wife; the title of Archduke or Archduchess of Austria was known to be complemented with the style of Royal Highness to all non-reigning of the members of the House of Habsburg and the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Though the Habsburgs held the Imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire, it was nominally an elective office that could not be hereditarily transmitted, so the non-reigning family members took their style from them being members of the hereditary Royal family of Hungary and Bohemia, etc.
This changed when Francis I of Austria dissolved the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, as the Archduchy of Austria was elevated to an Empire in 1804, the members of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine abandoned the style of Royal Highness in favour of the style of Imperial and Royal Highness to reflect the creation of the Empire of Austria. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Former Empress Marie Louise of France was restored to her Imperial and Royal Style and granted the title of Duchess of Parma and Guastalla, as well as being restored to her premarital title of Archduchess and Imperial Princess of Austria, Royal Princess of Hungary and Bohemia; the title of "Prince/Princess of the Netherlands" with the accompanying style of H. R. H. is or may be granted by law to the following classes of persons: A former monarch upon abdication. The heir apparent to the throne; the husband of the monarch. The spouse of the heir apparent; the legitimate children of the monarch and the wife of any legitimate son of the monarch.
The legitimate children of the heir apparent. A separate title of "Prince/Princess of Orange-Nassau" may be granted by law to members of the Dutch royal house or, as a personal and non-hereditary title to former members of the royal house within three months of loss of membership. A Prince/Princess of Orange-Nassau, not a Prince/Princess of the Netherlands is addressed as "His/Her Highness" without the predicate "royal"; that is the case for example of the children of Princess Margriet, younger daughter of the late Queen Juliana. Members of the royal house or former members of the royal house within 3 months of loss of their membership may be inducted by royal decree into the Dutch nobility with a rank lower than prince/princess and the accompanying style of "His/Her Highborn Lord/Lady"; that is the case for example of the children of the younger brother of King Willem-Alexander, Prince Constantijn, who were given the titles of "Count/Countess of Orange-Nassau" and the
Counsellor of State
In the United Kingdom, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British Royal Family to whom the monarch Elizabeth II, delegates certain state functions and powers when not in the United Kingdom or unavailable for other reasons. Any two Counsellors of State may preside over Privy Council meetings, sign state documents, or receive the credentials of new ambassadors to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. While the establishment of a regency carries with it the suspension of the monarch from the personal discharge of the royal functions, when Counsellors of State are appointed, both the sovereign and the counsellors can—the Counsellors within the limits of their delegation of authority—discharge the royal functions. Thus, the monarch can give instructions to the Counsellors of State or personally discharge a certain royal prerogative when the counsellors are in place; the Counsellors of State and regents always act on behalf of the sovereign. The Counsellors of State do not assume the discharge of the royal functions automatically when the sovereign is unavailable.
Instead, when an instance of travel abroad or temporary unavailability occurs, the monarch must sign specific letters patent delegating the royal functions to the Counsellors of State and fixing the duration of the delegation. The monarch may at any time revoke the said letters patent; the first Counsellors of State were created in 1911 by an Order in Council of George V, this process was repeated on each occasion of the King's absence or incapacity. The Regency Act 1937 established in law those individuals; the Counsellors of State are the consort of the monarch and the first four people in the line of succession who meet the qualifications. These qualifications are the same as those for a regent: they must be at least 21 years old, they must be domiciled in Britain, they must be a British subject. One exception was made for Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. Since the passage of the Regency Act 1937, the only persons to have been Counsellors of State while not a queen consort, prince, or princess were George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood.
Prior to that, the Lord Chancellor, the Lord President of the Council, the Prime Minister, the Archbishop of Canterbury had been appointed to the position by George V. As of April 2019, the Counsellors of State are: The following is a list of all the people eligible to have served as a Counsellor of State, since the passage of the Regency Act 1937, in chronological order. Note that this list contains the dates not of when they served, but when they were eligible to serve. List of state visits made by Queen Elizabeth II List of Commonwealth visits made by Queen Elizabeth II Regency Acts Monarchy of the United Kingdom Regent Velde, François R.. Regency Acts 1937 to 1953. Retrieved 2005
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Elsick House is an historic house in Kincardineshire, northeast Scotland. The house is situated in an agricultural area about two miles from the North Sea near the town of Cammachmore; the house is located on the Elsick Estate, is the present family seat of the Duke of Fife. Elsick House is located near the ancient Causey Mounth trackway, which road was constructed in medieval times to make passable this only available route across the coastal region of the Grampian Mounth connecting points south of Stonehaven to Aberdeen; this ancient drovers' road connected the River Dee crossing via Portlethen Moss, Muchalls Castle and Stonehaven to the south. The route was that taken by William Keith, 7th Earl Marischal and the Marquess of Montrose when they led a Covenanter army of 9000 men in the first battle of the Civil War in 1639. Cookney Church Gillybrands Bannerman baronets Chapelton of Elsick
This is a list of those who have held the title Princess of the United Kingdom from the accession of George I in 1714. This article deals with both princesses of the blood royal and women who become princesses upon marriage; the use of the title of Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is at the will of the sovereign. Individuals holding the title of princess are styled "Her Royal Highness". Since George V's Letters Patent of 30 November 1917, the title "Princess" and the use of the style "Royal Highness" has been restricted to the following persons: the legitimate daughters of a British sovereign, the legitimate male line granddaughters of a British sovereign, the wife of a British prince. On 31 December 2012, Elizabeth II issued letters patent enabling all children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales to enjoy the princely title and style of Royal Highness, as opposed to only the eldest son. Under the current practice, princesses of the blood royal are the legitimate daughters and the legitimate male line granddaughters of a British Sovereign.
They are dynasts, potential successors to the throne. For these individuals, the title "Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" and the style "Her Royal Highness" is an entitlement for life; the title Princess and the style Royal Highness is prefixed to the Christian name, before another title of honour. From 1714 until 1917, the male-line great granddaughters of the Sovereign were titled "Princess of Great Britain and Ireland" with the style "Highness". Since 1917, the male-line great granddaughters of the Sovereign have held "the style and title enjoyed by the children of dukes". For example, the daughters of the current Duke of Gloucester, a male line grandson of George V, are styled The Lady Davina Lewis and The Lady Rose Gilman. Princesses by marriage are the recognised wives of the Sovereign's sons and male-line grandsons; these women are entitled to the style "Royal Highness" by virtue of marriage, retain the style if widowed. However, Queen Elizabeth II issued Letters Patent dated 21 August 1996 stating that any woman divorced from a Prince of the United Kingdom would no longer be entitled to the style "Royal Highness".
This has so far applied to Diana, Princess of Wales, Sarah, Duchess of York. Since the passage of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, there have been several instances in which princes of the blood contracted marriages in contravention of that act and several instances in which the Sovereign withheld the style "Her Royal Highness" from a prince's wife deemed to be unsuitable. For example, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, a male-line grandson of George III, married Sarah Louisa Fairbrother, in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act. Although morganatic marriage did not exist in British law, the duke's wife was never titled the Duchess of Cambridge or accorded the style "Her Royal Highness". Instead, she was known as "Mrs FitzGeorge". Most famously, George VI issued Letters Patent dated 27 May 1937 that entitled The Duke of Windsor "to hold and enjoy for himself only the title style or attribute of Royal Highness so however that his wife and descendants if any shall not hold the said title style or attribute".
The wife of a prince of the blood takes her husband's Christian name in her title as do all married royal women. For example, upon her marriage to Prince Michael of Kent in 1978, Baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz assumed the title and style of "Her Royal Highness Princess Michael of Kent". Upon her marriage to Prince Richard of Gloucester, the former Birgitte van Deurs assumed the title and style of "Her Royal Highness Princess Richard of Gloucester"; the situation is different when a woman is married to a prince who happens to be a peer or the Prince of Wales. Upon marriage, the wife of the Prince of Wales becomes "Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales". Upon marriage, the wife of a royal duke becomes "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of X"; when Prince Richard of Gloucester succeeded to his father's dukedom in 1974, his wife became "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Gloucester". It has been traditional, is still technically the case, that a princess by marriage cannot be called Princess followed by her first name.
Diana, Princess of Wales, was referred to as "Princess Diana" by fans and the media but the use of this title is erroneous as she was not the child of a monarch nor the child of a son of a monarch. However, this tradition was broken once in the past century with Queen Elizabeth's aunt, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester being referred to in official sources as such following the death of her husband; the use of the titles prince and princess and the styles of Highness and Royal Highness for members of the Royal Family is of recent usage in the British Isles. Before 1714, there was no settled practice regarding the use of the titles prince and princess other than the heir apparent and his wife. From 1301 onward, the eldest sons of the Kings of England have been created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, their wives were titled Princess of Wales. The title Princess Royal came into being in 1642 when Queen Henrietta Maria, the French-born wife of Charles I, wished to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the French King was styled.
However, there was no settled practice on the use of the title princess for the Sovereign's younger daughters or male-line granddaughters. For example, as late as the time of Charles II, the daughters of his brother James, Duke of York, both of whom became Queens regnant, were called "The Lady Mary" and "The Lady Anne"; the future Queen Anne was styled