In game theory, a princess and monster game is a pursuit-evasion game played by two players in a region. The game was devised by Rufus Isaacs and published in his book Differential Games as follows: The monster searches for the princess, the time required being the payoff, they are both in a dark room, but they are each cognizant of its boundary. Capture means that the distance between the princess and the monster is within the capture radius, assumed to be small in comparison with the dimension of the room; the monster, supposed intelligent, moves at a known speed. We permit the princess full freedom of locomotion; this game remained a well-known open problem. His optimal strategy for the princess is to move to a random location in the room and stay still for a time interval, neither too short nor too long, before going to another random location and repeating the procedure; the proposed optimal search strategy, for the monster, is based on subdividing the room into many narrow rectangles, picking a rectangle at random and searching it in some specific way, after some time picking another rectangle randomly and independently, so on.
Princess and monster games can be played on a pre-selected graph. It can be demonstrated that for any finite graph an optimal mixed search strategy exists that results in a finite payoff; this game has been solved by Steve Alpern and independently by Mikhail Zelikin only for the simple graph consisting of a single loop. The value of the game on the unit interval has been estimated approximatively; the game is quite complicated. The obvious search strategy of starting at a random end and "sweeping" the whole interval as fast as possible guarantees a 0.75 expected capture time, is not optimal. By utilising a more sophisticated mixed searcher and hider strategy, one can reduce the expected capture time by about 8.6%. This number would be quite close to the value of the game if someone was able to prove the optimality of the related strategy of the princess. Search games List of games in game theory
Sarah Scott was an English novelist, social reformer, member of the Bluestockings. Her most famous work was her utopian novel A Description of Millenium Hall and the Country Adjacent, followed by the sequel The History of Sir George Ellison. Sarah's father, Matthew Robinson, her mother, Elizabeth Drake, were both from distinguished families, Sarah was the youngest of nine children. Although born in Yorkshire, she spent much time with her siblings in Cambridge, where her grandmother, Sarah Morris Drake, lived with her stepgrandfather, Dr. Conyers Middleton, a famous scholar at Cambridge University. All but one of her brothers would go on to a accomplished career, yet her elder sister, who would become the writer and social activist Elizabeth Montagu, became the most accomplished, earning fame in literary circles as a critic of Shakespeare and founder of the Bluestockings, of which Sarah became a member; the sisters were close in their early years. Although Elizabeth was much more acclaimed as an author, Elizabeth considered Sarah to be "superior in certain respects intellectual and literary interests, in which she encouraged her."
The two corresponded with each other in letters which have been preserved, along with other letters Sarah wrote throughout her life, discussing such matters as "French and English literature and histories, writing and politics." Sarah's letters revealed an early love of literature the works of Spenser, Milton and Voltaire. Sarah contracted smallpox in 1741, a disease that would leave its victims scarred and disfigured, "lowering value in the marriage market." Scholars have traced the impact that smallpox left on Scott literary output: "Scott's pronounced concern was motivated by her own experience of being left marked by a severe bout of smallpox, a trauma which had played a key role in redirecting her away from emulating the social success of her beautiful sister Elizabeth, towards a life dedicated to writing, domestic female friendship and Christian philanthropy." Sarah would create a fictional character in Millenium Hall who had the telltale marks of smallpox that diminished her complexion but not her character.
A year after Sarah's illness, her sister Elizabeth, after being befriended by Lady Margaret Harley and introduced to the highest circles of London life, married the wealthy 50-year-old Edward Montagu, grandson of the Earl of Sandwich. Sarah stayed home to tend to her mother, dying of cancer. After her mother died in 1746, Sarah visited Edward in Bath, she chose to stay and care for the invalid Lady Barbara Montagu, or Lady Bab, with whom she developed a close friendship. In 1748, the two women set up house together. In the late 1740s, Sarah contracted to marry George Lewis Scott, a friend of the family from Canterbury, twelve years older than she, he had no profession or private income and Sarah's dowry amounted to only £1500. Sarah and George Lewis Scott were married on 15 June 1751; the marriage, according to family letters, was never consummated. In April 1752, Sarah's father and brothers came to London to remove her from her husband's house for undisclosed reasons. Speculations persisted of incompatibility, abuse, an illicit affair, or nondisclosure of a prior marriage.
It was rumored that Sarah's friendship with Lady Bab and her insistence upon her friend moving into their household may have instigated the rift, or that Sarah had a personal aversion to marriage and/or conjugal relations. Regardless of the reason, the scandal if made public would have damaged George Scott's career; when she was no longer with her husband, she became her father's charge, he gave her no money at all. Further, he forbade Sarah's brother Matthew from relieving Sarah's poverty. Sarah and Lady Barbara Montagu settled in Bath and Batheaston, where they lived frugally and became active in helping the poor through the creation of a "cottage industry" for poor and disgraced women and children, they organized programmes to educate poor children in such subjects as reading and needlework. Sarah wrote her first novel before her marriage, The History of Cornelia, a portrait of an ideal and pious young woman. To help with the household expenses and philanthropy, Sarah decided to write and pursue "professional literary translation."
In 1754, she translated Le Laideur aimable as An Agreeable Ugliness, an exaggeratedly moralistic French novel. That same year, she wrote A Journey through every Stage of Life, an Arabian Nights-styled series of tales told by a young servant girl to her mistress, a princess exiled by her brother. After publishing her first novels and completing a translation of another, Sarah began to write educational texts. In the late 1750s, Sarah and Lady Barbara followed their earlier endeavors to educate poor children by writing a series of cards that concentrated on teaching history and geography. In 1761, with the accession of George III, Sarah wrote a political history about Gustav I of Sweden, The History of Gustavus Ericson, King of Sweden, she succeeded this with The History of Mecklenburgh in 1762 to capitalize on the public's interest in George III's wife, Charlotte. A
Cornish mythology is the folk tradition and mythology of the Cornish people. It consists of folk traditions developed in Cornwall, of traditions developed by Britons elsewhere before the end of the first millennium shared with those of the Breton and Welsh peoples; some of this contains remnants of the mythology of pre-Christian Britain. There is much traditional folklore in Cornwall tales of giants, Bucca, piskies or the'pobel vean' These are still popular today, with many events hosting a'droll teller' to tell the stories: such myths and stories have found much publishing success in children's books; the fairy tale Jack. Many early British legends associate King Arthur with Cornwall, putting his birthplace at Tintagel, the court of King Mark of Cornwall, uncle of Tristan and husband of Iseult, the most famous Cornish lovers. Cornwall shares its ancient cultural heritage with its'Brythonic cousins' Brittany and Wales, as well as Ireland and parts of England such as neighbouring Devon. Many ancient tales of the Bards, whether the Arthurian Cycle and Iseult or the Mabinogion take place in the ancient kingdom of Cerniw between Greater and Lesser Britains with a foot on either side of the'British Sea' Mor Brettanek/Mor Breizh.
Part of Cornish mythology is derived from tales of seafaring pirates and smugglers who thrived in and around Cornwall from the early modern period through to the 19th century. Cornish pirates exploited both their knowledge of the Cornish coast as well as its sheltered creeks and hidden anchorages. For many fishing villages and contraband provided by pirates supported a strong and secretive underground economy in Cornwall. Legendary creatures that appear in Cornish folklore include buccas, knockers and piskies. Tales of these creatures are thought to have developed as supernatural explanations for the frequent and deadly cave-ins that occurred during 18th century Cornish tin mining, or else a creation of the oxygen-starved minds of exhausted miners who returned from the underground; the knocker or bucca is the Welsh and Cornish equivalent of Irish leprechauns and English and Scottish brownies. About two feet tall and grizzled, but not misshapen, they live beneath the ground. Here they wear tiny versions of standard miner's garb and commit random mischief, such as stealing a miner's unattended tools and food - they were cast a small offering of food – the crust of a pasty – to appease their malevolence.
Many landscape features, from the barren granite rock features on Bodmin Moor, to the dramatic cliff seascape, to the mystical form of St Michael's Mount are explained as the work of Giants and English tales such as the early eighteenth century Jack the Giant Killer may recall much older British folk traditions recorded elsewhere in medieval Welsh language manuscripts and related to the folk traditions of Dartmoor in neighbouring Devon. Old Michaelmas Day falls on 11 October. According to an old legend, blackberries should not be picked after this date; this is because, so British folklore goes, Satan was banished from Heaven on this day, fell into a blackberry bush and cursed the brambles as he fell into them. In Cornwall, a similar legend prevails, according to; the midnight washerwomenLes Lavandières or the Midnight Washerwomen are three old laundresses in Celtic mythology. In Wales and Cornwall a passerby must avoid being seen by the washerwomen. If they do get seen however, they are required to help wring out the sheets.
If they twist the sheets in the same direction as the washerwomen, the individual's arms will be wrenched from their sockets and they will get pulled into the wet sheets and killed instantly. If, they twist in the opposite direction, the washerwomen are required to grant the person three wishes. Weather lore"Mist from the hill / Brings water for the mill. "Lundy plain, Sign of rain". Nellie Sloggett of Padstow devoted much of her attention to Cornish legend, she recorded many stories about the Piskey folk, fairies of Cornish myth and legend. She published most of her works in this category under her better-known pen-name of Enys Tregarthen. BooksThe Doll Who Came Alive ISBN 0-381-99683-2 Pixie Folklore & Legends ISBN 0-517-14903-6 Padstow's Faery Folk North Cornwall Fairies and Legends. London: Wells Gardner, Darton & Co. 1906 – via Internet Archive. The House of the Sleeping Winds and Other Stories The White Ring Dozmary Pool is identified by some people with the lake in which, according to Arthurian legend, Sir Bedivere threw Excalibur to The Lady of the Lake.
Another legend relating to the pool concerns Jan Tregeagle. The Beast of Bodmin has been never identified with certainty. Doom BarAccording to legend, the Mermaid of Padstow created the Doom Bar as a dying curse, after being shot by a sailor. However, there are many different versions of the story and the precise details are unclear; some versions start by stating that she used to guide ships up the estuary and others that she would visit and spy upon ships in harbour, yet more tell of how she used to sit upon a rock at Hawkers Cove. She met a man, one fell in love with the other. One version explains that she was love sick, tried to lure him beneath the waves, however he escaped by shooting her. Another version suggested the man, Tristram Bird, fell in love with her and asked her to marry him, though she refused. In his rage he shot her. Another suggestion is that a fisherman, Tom Yeo, shot her because h
Spiking is a mobile social trading platform which provides financial information about 10 stock exchange markets in Asia and Australia. By processing the latest disclosures published on the markets, the mobile app allows investors to track stocks for moves made by company directors and substantial shareholders, it provides other relevant information, like the main shareholders of companies or the portfolios of sophisticated investors. Spiking tracks the sophisticated investors from 10 stock markets in eight countries and sends users real-time notifications whenever these investors transact and made public their filings; the platform consolidates the latest disclosures published on these markets and sends them to mobile devices instantaneously. All information by public companies and bona fide investors are verified using machine-reading algorithms to scan stock exchange filings; the scan is done every minute, the information is posted instantly on the app. Spiking users can see who the top 20 shareholders of a company are, the price and quantity of their latest transactions, the other stocks these investors have in their portfolios.
The mobile app allows users to'follow' their favourite counters or celebrity investors, keep tabs on their movements. The users can form private chat groups; the app provides sophisticated investors with resources to conduct due diligence, influence board decisions and access to more intimate knowledge than most other investors. Spiking Finance aggregates recent news headlines, announcements and buy/sell activity of the companies and investors selected by the user. Spiking Forum organizes discussion threads by company for member discussions. Spiking is available on Android mobile operating systems. Clemen Chiang Ph. D. mentioned that he developed the idea of this mobile app from his personal observations as a private investor of 15 years. Many times the decision making process had to rely too much on speculations and rumors. In order to make better sense of unexplained spikes in market activity, he thought of a platform to consolidate big data and relevant information and he spent 20 months and $250,000 developing the app.
An early investor was Quest Ventures, China's leading venture fund for technology companies that have scalability and replicability in large internet communities. Spiking was supported by a grant from the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister's Office, under its i. JAM Reload Programme, it was elected to participate in the Startupbootcamp FinTech Pitch Day 2015 in Hong Kong, Startupbootcamp Selection Days 2015, in Singapore. It was one of the finalists of the Benzinga Fintech Awards 2015 in New York, for Research Platforms & Tools - Best in Class. On 1 April 2016, Spiking was released for free download on the iOS App Store, providing financial information about 8,000 sophisticated investors operating on the Singapore Exchange. An Android version was launched on Google Play and other stock markets from Asia and Australia were included in the platform. At the moment of the launch in April 2016, the company expressed its intention to expand through seed funding into regional markets with high smart phone penetration.
In September 2016, it exceed its seed funding target of S$1 million. The main investors are: Andrew Chen, Managing Director of Raffles Asia Capital Pte Ltd Douglas Foo, Chairman of Sakae Holdings Ltd and President of Singapore Manufacturing Federation Koh Boon Hwee, an angel investor Lim Ah Hock, Executive Chairman of Pestech International Bhd Loo Cheng Guan, Independent Director of Valuetronics Holdings Limited Ong Chu Poh, Group Executive Chairman & Group CEO of Econ Healthcare Group James Tan, Managing Partner of Quest Ventures and Co-founder of 55tuan Toh Soon Huat, Chairman of Novena Foundation Pte Ltd Kazumasa Tomita, CEO & Founder of ZUU Co LtdIn October 2016, Spiking was the Gold Winner of Singapore infocomm Technology Federation Awards 2016 at the category Best Innovative Start-up; the motivations for the award were the innovative approach to solving the asymmetrical information problem for retail investors of the stock market and the display of a international outlook, having the potential to grow big on the international stage.
On 13 March 2017, Spiking released the new version 3.0 iOS app, with new features as well as expansion into Bursa Malaysia. As a result of the release, it became No.1 on the Top Gross iPhone Apps in Singapore on 23 March 2017. A new Android version is released on 7 April 2017. Spiking is one of Singapore's Hottest Startups 2017. In April 2017, Clemen Chiang Ph. D. was invited as a speaker at the International Mobile Conference for Business. As of 7 May 2017, Spiking is ranked 15 under iPhone - Free - Finance and ranked 57 under iPhone - Grossing - Finance, while in Google Play Ranking is ranked 25 under Top Free - Finance. Australian Securities Exchange Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing India – Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange Bursa Malaysia Philippine Stock Exchange Singapore Exchange Stock Exchange of Thailand Vietnam – Hanoi Stock Exchange and HoChiMinh Stock Exchange Official website
Fork-marked lemurs or fork-crowned lemurs are strepsirrhine primates. Like all lemurs, they are native to Madagascar, where they are found only in the west and east sides of the island, they are named for the two black stripes which run up from the eyes, converge on the top of the head, run down the back as a single black stripe. They were placed in the genus Lemur in 1839 moved between the genera Cheirogaleus and Microcebus, given their own genus in 1870 by John Edward Gray. Only one species was recognized, until three subspecies described in 1991 were promoted to species status in 2001. New species may yet be identified in northeast Madagascar. Fork-marked lemurs are among the least studied of all lemurs and are some of the largest members of the family Cheirogaleidae, weighing around 350 grams or more, they are the most phylogenetically distinct of the cheirogaleids, considered a sister group to the rest of the family. Aside from their dorsal forked stripe, they have dark rings around their eyes, large membranous ears.
Males have a scent gland on their throat, but only use it during social grooming, not for marking territory. Instead, they are vocal, making repeated calls at the beginning and end of the night. Like the other members of their family, they are nocturnal, sleep in tree holes and nests during the day. Monogamous pairing is typical for fork-marked lemurs, females are dominant. Females are thought to have only one offspring every two years or more; these species live in a wide variety of habitats, ranging from dry deciduous forests to rainforests, run quadrupedally across branches. Their diet consists of tree gum and other exudates, though they may obtain some of their protein and nitrogen by hunting small arthropods at night. Three of the four species are endangered and the other is listed as vulnerable, their populations are in decline due to habitat destruction. Like all lemurs, they are protected against commercial trade under CITES Appendix I. Fork-marked lemurs were first documented in 1839 by Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville when he described the Masoala fork-marked lemur as Lemur furcifer.
The holotype is thought to be MNHN 1834-136, a female specimen taken from Madagascar by French naturalist Justin Goudot. The source of this specimen thought to be Antongil Bay. In 1850, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire moved the fork-marked lemurs to the genus Cheirogaleus, but they were commonly listed in the genus Microcebus. In 1870, John Edward Gray assigned fork-marked lemurs to their own genus, after including them and the mouse lemurs in the genus Lepilemur. Although French naturalist Alfred Grandidier accepted Gray's new genus in 1897, the genus Phaner was not accepted. In the early 1930s, Ernst Schwarz, Guillaume Grandidier, others resurrected the name, citing characteristics that were intermediate between Cheirogaleus and Microcebus; until the late 20th century, there was only one recognized species of fork-marked lemur, although size and coloration differences had been noted previously. After comparing museum specimens, paleoanthropologist Ian Tattersall and physical anthropologist Colin Groves recognized three new subspecies in 1991: the Pale fork-marked lemur, Pariente's fork-marked lemur, the Amber Mountain fork-marked lemur.
In 2001, Groves elevated all four subspecies to species status based on noticeable color and body proportion differences between the fragmented populations. Although Tattersall disagreed with this promotion, citing inadequate information for the decision, the arrangement is accepted. In December 2010, Russell Mittermeier of Conservation International and conservation geneticist Edward E. Louis, Jr. announced the possibility of a new species of fork-marked lemur in the protected area of Daraina in northeast Madagascar. In October, a specimen was observed and released, although genetic tests have yet to determine if it is a new species; the specimen demonstrated a different color pattern from other fork-marked lemur species. If shown to be a new species, they plan to name it after Fanamby, a key conservation organization working in that protected forest; the etymology of the genus Phaner puzzled researchers for many years. Gray created mysterious and unexplained taxonomic names. In 1904, Theodore Sherman Palmer attempted to document the etymologies of all mammalian taxa, but could not definitively explain the origins of the generic name Phaner, noting only that it derived from the Greek φανερός meaning "visible, evident".
In 2012, Alex Dunkel, Jelle Zijlstra, Groves attempted to solve the mystery. Following some initial speculation, a search of the general literature published around 1870 revealed the source: the British comedy The Palace of Truth by W. S. Gilbert, which premiered in London on 19 November 1870, nearly one and a half weeks prior to the date written on the preface of Gray's manuscript; the comedy featured characters bearing three names: King Phanor and Azema. Since the genera Mirza and Azema were both described in the same publication and enigmatic, the authors concluded that Gray had seen the comedy and based the names of three lemur genera on its characters. Fork-marked lemurs were called "fork-marked dwarf lemurs" by Henry Ogg Forbes in 1894 and "fork-crowned mouse lemur" by English missionary
Santa Bárbara is a Chilean city and commune in Bío Bío Province, Bío Bío Region. In 2004 a great portion of its territory was taken off to form the new commune of Alto Bío Bío; the city of Santa Bárbara lies on the north bank of the Biobío River, was established by Manuel de Amat y Juniet first as the fort of Santa Bárbara in 1756. The governor populated and erected the town of Santa Bárbara there on July 4, 1758; the town and fort was improved during the government of Ambrosio O' Higgins and became an important post for containing the malones of the Pehuenches. In January 1819 it was depopulated and in 1821 it was burned by the royalist Juan Manuel Picó, it remained in ruins until 1833 when it began to be repopulated under the direction of the commander Domingo Salvo. It developed to the point it was again recognized as a town January 2, 1871. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Santa Bárbara spans an area of 3,379.5 km2 and has 19,970 inhabitants. Of these, 7,932 lived in 12,038 in rural areas.
The population grew by 67.8 % between the 2002 censuses. As a commune, Santa Bárbara is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years; the 2008-2012 alcalde is Daniel Enrique Iraira Sagredo. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Santa Bárbara is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Juan Lobos and José Pérez as part of the 47th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Victor Pérez Varela and Mariano Ruiz -Esquide Jara as part of the 13th senatorial constituency. Francisco Solano Asta Buruaga y Cienfuegos, Diccionario geográfico de la República de Chile, SEGUNDA EDICIÓN CORREGIDA Y AUMENTADA, NUEVA YORK, D. APPLETON Y COMPAÑÍA. 1899. Pg.737 Santa Bárbara. — Villa Municipality of Santa Bárbara SubDere de Santa Bárbara Liceo Cardenal Antonio Samoré de Santa Bárbara Directorio de recursos de Santa Bárbara