Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Ernst Christian Carl, 4th Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. He was the son of Prince Charles Louis of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Countess Amalie Henriette of Solms-Baruth, he married Princess Feodora of Leiningen, the only daughter of Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld on 18 February 1828 at Kensington Palace in London. She was the elder half-sister of the future British queen, he succeeded to the title of 4th Prince zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg on 4 April 1825, attained the rank of Major-General
Ernst II, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Ernst Wilhelm Friedrich Carl Maximilian, 7th Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, was a German aristocrat and Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. He served as the Regent of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha during the minority of his wife’s cousin, Duke Charles Edward, from 1900 to 1905. Born in Langenburg, Kingdom of Württemberg on 13 September 1863, Ernst was the oldest of three children, the only son, of Hermann, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Princess Leopoldine of Baden, daughter of Prince William of Baden, he was the grand-nephew of Queen Victoria: i.e. his paternal great-grandmother was Victoria, the mother of Queen Victoria, his grandmother was Feodora of Leiningen, Queen Victoria's half-sister. He married the Queen's granddaughter, Princess Alexandra of Edinburgh, daughter of The Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Edinburgh and Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna, on 20 April 1896 at the Ehrenburg Palace in Coburg, Germany. After finishing high school in Karlsruhe, the young prince studied law in Paris, Bonn, Tübingen and Leipzig, where he graduated in 1885 with the first legal exam in Naumburg.
He gained membership in the Corps Suevia Tübingen in 1884, when he was at the University of Tübingen and Borussia Bonn in 1886, because he had gone to the University of Bonn. After his officer training in Berlin-Lichterfelde, he passed the diplomatic examination with the appointment as Secretary of the Imperial German Embassy in St. Petersburg and London. In the following years he worked in Strasbourg as an assistant for his father, Prince Hermann, the Imperial Governor of Alsace-Lorraine, prepared himself for his future as a Peer of the Kingdom of Württemberg; because his wife was the daughter of Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Ernst became the Regent of the Duchy after the death of the Duke. From 30 July 1900 to 18 July 1905, he governed Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on the behalf of the still immature successor, Charles Edward. In 1901, Ernst was awarded with the Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Württemberg. Afterwards, he made several unsuccessful attempts to gain a foothold in the politics of the German Empire.
He served as the Head of the Colonial Department of the Foreign Office and the Deputy and Vice President of the Reichstag. In 1913, on the death of his father, Ernst became the Prince of Hohelohe-Langeburg, entitling him to sit in the Kammer der Standesherren of Württemberg, where he had been serving as his father’s deputy since 1895, he would keep his seat until the November Revolution of 1918. During the First World War, the Prince was active as a volunteer in the military hospitals as well as the General Delegate to the Eastern Front and Imperial Commissioner and military inspector, he was sent in 1915 as a special envoy to Constantinople and the Balkans. After Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, Ernst joined his son in the Nazi Party with the membership number of 3726902. After the Second World War, Ernst retired to private life, his wife, who suffered from various illnesses died in 1942. Ernst was dedicated to church and nursing activities and was a member of the German Evangelical Church Assembly, Commander of the Württemberg-Badenschen Genossenschaft, Governor of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg Order of St. John, Honorary President of the Württemberg State Association of the Red Cross as well as of the Evangelical People’s League of Württemberg.
On 11 December 1950, Ernst died at the age 87 at Langenburg, Baden-Württemberg, in what was West Germany. The children of Prince Ernst and Princess Alexandra of Hohelohe-Langenburg were descended from both Queen Victoria and Victoria's half-sister Feodora of Leiningen, they were: Gottfried Hermann Alfred Paul Maximilian Viktor Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg + b. 24 Mar 1897, d. 11 May 1960, married 20 April 1931 Princess Margarita of Greece and Denmark, sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Princess Marie Melita of Hohenlohe-Langenburg + b. 18 Jan 1899, d. 8 Nov 1967.
Leiningen is the name of an old German noble family whose lands lay principally in Alsace and the Palatinate. Various branches of this family developed over the centuries and ruled counties with Imperial immediacy. Most of these counties were annexed by the First French Republic in 1793, after French troops conquered the Left Bank of the Rhine during the War of the First Coalition. Several family branches subsequently received secularized abbeys as compensation, but shortly afterwards, these new counties were mediatized and the family lost its immediacy. Today, the only existing branch is that of the Princes of Leiningen; the first count of Leiningen about whom anything definite is known was a certain Emich II. He built Leiningen Castle, now known as "Old Leiningen Castle", around 1100 to 1110. Nearby Höningen Abbey was built around 1120 as the family's burial place; this family became extinct in the male line when Count Frederick I died about 1220. Frederick I's sister, married Simon II, Count of Saarbrücken.
One of Liutgarde's sons named Frederick, inherited the lands of the counts of Leiningen, he took their arms and their name as Frederick II. He became known as a Minnesinger, one of his songs was included in the Codex Manesse. Before 1212, he built himself a new castle called Hardenburg, about 10 kilometers south of Altleiningen; this was outside the county of Leiningen on the territory of Limburg Abbey, of which his uncle was the overlord, which caused some trouble. His eldest son, married Gertrude, heiress of the County of Dagsburg, bringing that property into the family, they had no children and Simon's two brothers inherited the county of Leiningen together: Frederick III inherited Dagsburg and Emich IV Landeck Castle. Frederick III, who disliked sharing Leiningen castle with his brother, had a new castle built in 1238–41 about 5 kilometres northeast of Leiningen, called Neuleiningen Castle. Frederick III's son, Frederick IV, had two sons, who divided the county into Leiningen-Dagsburg and Leiningen-Hardenburg.
Having increased its possessions, the Leiningen family was divided around 1317 into two branches. The elder of these, whose head was a landgrave, died out in 1467. Upon this event, its lands fell to a female, the last landgrave's sister Margaret, wife of Reinhard, Lord of Westerburg, their descendants were known as the family of Leiningen-Westerburg; this family was divided into two branches, those of Leiningen-Westerburg-Alt-Leiningen and Leiningen-Westerburg-Neu-Leiningen, both of which are extinct today. After the French Revolution, the Left Bank of the Rhine was conquered during the War of the First Coalition and annexed by France in 1793; the two counts of Alt - and Neu - Leiningen were jailed in Paris. They lost their territories. In 1803 they were compensated with secularized Ilbenstadt Engelthal Abbey; the German mediatization brought an end to these short-lived counties in 1806, when their territories were divided between the Grand Duchy of Berg, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Usingen.
Ilbenstadt Abbey was sold by the House of Leiningen-Westerburg-Altleiningen in 1921, Engelthal Abbey by the heirs of the House of Leiningen-Westerburg-Neuleiningen in 1952. Meanwhile, the younger branch of the Leiningens, known as the family of Leiningen-Hardenburg, was flourishing. On 27 June 1560, this branch was divided into the lines of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg, founded by Count Johann Philip, Leiningen-Dagsburg-Heidesheim or Falkenburg, founded by Count Emicho. In 1658 Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg divided into Leiningen-Dagsburg Leiningen-Heidesheim Leiningen-Guntersblum The county of Leiningen-Dagsburg was inherited by Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg in 1774. Leiningen-Guntersblum was divided between two further side branches: Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg-Guntersblum, deprived of its lands on the left bank of the Rhine by France, but in 1803 received Billigheim as a compensation called Leiningen-Billigheim. In 1845 they acquired Neuburg Castle at Obrigheim; the branch became extinct in 1925.
Leiningen-Heidesheim, which in 1803 received Neudenau and became known as Leiningen-Neudenau. In 1779, the head of the Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg line was raised to the rank of a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire with the title of Prince of Leiningen. In 1801, this line was deprived of its lands on the left bank of the Rhine by France, but in 1803 it received Amorbach Abbey as an ample compensation for these losses. A few years the Principality of Leiningen at Amorbach was mediatized, its territory is now included in Baden, but in Bavaria and in Hesse. Amorbach Abbey is still today the family seat of the Prince of Leiningen; the second prince of the Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg line, Prince Emich Charles, married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After his death in 1814, the princess married Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, a younger son of George III of the United Kingdom, by whom she became the mother of the reigning British Queen Victoria. Since 1991, the head of the princely line has been Prince Andreas.
His eldest brother, Prince Karl Emich was excluded from succession. Note that different sources use different sequence numbers for some of the Counts. For consistency across sources, dates of birth and death are useful. Emicho of Leiningen helped lead the German Crusade, 1096, his relationship to the o
Hermann, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Hermann Ernst Franz Bernhard, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg was the 6th Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and the second son of Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Princess Feodora of Leiningen. He succeeded to the title of Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg on 21 April 1860, when his elder brother signed over his rights to the throne, he died on 9 March 1913 in Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire. He was a general in the Prussian Cavalry. On 19 September 1899, his wife were in a saloon railway carriage at Perth Station. Lieutenant Colonel H A Yorke, the Inspecting Officer of Railways who reported on the accident, said that they had had a miraculous escape from injury when another train collided with the stationary train in which they were standing. On 24 September 1862 at Karlsruhe, he married Princess Leopoldine of Baden, daughter of Prince William of Baden, they had three children: Ernst II, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg he married Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 20 April 1896.
They have five children. Princess Elise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg she married Heinrich XXVII, Prince Reuss Younger Line on 11 November 1884, they have five children. Princess Feodora Viktoria Alberta of Hohenlohe-Langenburg she married Emich, 5th Prince of Leiningen on 12 July 1894, they have five children. Kurt Eißele: Fürst Hermann zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg als Statthalter im Reichsland Elsass-Lothringen 1894–1907. O. O. 1950 Günter Richter: Hermann Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie. Vol 9, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, 1972, p. 491 et suiv. Hermann zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg in daten.digitale-sammlungen.de
House of Zähringen
The House of Zähringen was a dynasty of Swabian nobility. Their name is derived from Zähringen castle near Freiburg im Breisgau; the Zähringer in the 12th century used the title of Duke of Zähringen, in compensation for having conceded the title of Duke of Swabia to the Staufer in 1098. The "Duchy of Zähringen" by definition consisted of the territories and fiefs held by the Zähringer, it was not seen as a duchy in equal standing with the old stem duchies; the Zähringer attempted to expand their territories in Swabia and Burgundy into a recognized duchy, but their expansion was halted in the 1130s due to their feud with the Welfs. They were granted the special title of Rector of Burgundy in 1127, they continued to use both titles until their extinction in 1218. Pursuing their territorial ambitions, they founded numerous cities and monasteries, on either side of the Black Forest as well as in the western Swiss plateau. After their extinction, parts of their territories reverted to the crown, other parts were divided between the houses of Kyburg, Urach and Fürstenberg.
The title of "Duke of Zähringen" was revived in the 19th century by the House of Baden, which shares descent from Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia with the House of Zähringen. The earliest known ancestor of the family was one Berthold, Count in the Breisgau, first mentioned in 962. In view of his name, he may have been related to the Alemannic Ahalolfing dynasty. Berthold's great-grandson, the Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia, held several lordships in the Breisgau, in Thurgau and Baar. By his mother, he was related to the rising Hohenstaufen family. Emperor Henry III had promised his liensman Berthold the Duchy of Swabia, but this was not fulfilled, as upon Henry's death, his widow Agnes of Poitou appointed Count Rudolf of Rheinfelden to the position of Duke of Swabia in 1057. In compensation, Berthold was made Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona in 1061. However, this dignity was only a titular one, Berthold subsequently lost it when, in the course of the Investiture Controversy, he joined the rising of his former rival Rudolf of Rheinfelden against German king Henry IV in 1073.
Berthold's son Berthold II, who like his father fought against Henry IV, inherited a lot of the lands of Rudolf's son Count Berthold of Rheinfelden in 1090. Berthold II is so named both as head of the House of Zähringen. Berthold II did use the "Zähringen" name, although he moved his main residence from Zähringen Castle to the newly-built Freiburg Castle in 1091. In 1092, Berthold II was elected Duke of Swabia against Frederick I of Hohenstaufen. In 1098, he reconciled with Frederick, renounced all claims to Swabia and instead concentrated on his possessions in the Breisgau region, assuming the title of Duke of Zähringen, he was succeeded in turn by Berthold III and Conrad. In 1127, upon the assassination of his nephew Count William III, Conrad claimed the inheritance of the County of Burgundy against Count Renaud III of Mâcon. Renaud prevailed, though he had to cede large parts of the eastern Transjuranian lands to Conrad, who thereupon was appointed by Emperor Lothair III as a "rector" of the Imperial Kingdom of Arles or Burgundy.
This office was confirmed in 1152 and held by the Zähringen dukes until 1218, hence they are sometimes called "Dukes of Burgundy", although the existing Duchy of Burgundy was not an Imperial but a French fief. Duke Berthold IV, who followed his father Conrad and founded the Swiss city of Fryburg in 1157, spent much of his time in Italy in the train of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, his son and successor, Berthold V, showed his prowess by reducing the Burgundian nobles to order. This latter duke was the founder of the city of Bern, when he died in February 1218, the ducal line of the Zähringen family became extinct. Among other titles, the Zähringen family acted as Reichsvogt of the Zürichgau area. After the extinction of the ducal line in 1218, much of their extensive territory in the Breisgau and modern-day Switzerland returned to the crown, except for their allodial titles, which were divided between the counts of Urach and the counts of Kyburg, both descended from the sisters of Berthold V.
Less than fifty years the Kyburgs died out and large portions of their domains were inherited by the House of Habsburg. Bern achieved the status of a free imperial city, whereas other cities such as Fribourg-Freiburg only obtained the same status in history. Berthold I held the comital titles of Breisgau, Thurgau, as well as being reeve in Stein am Rhein; the county of Thurgau was lost in c. 1077. Berthold II, founder of the House of Zähringen proper, in 1098 received Zähringen castle and the jurisdiction over Zürich. Ownership of the county of Rheinfelden and of Burgdorf dates to c. 1198. The "rectorate" of the county of Burgundy was granted in 1127. Ownership of Burgundy was contested, Zähringer de facto rule was limited to the parts of Upper Burgundy east of the Jura and north of Lake Geneva; the territories south of Lake Geneva were conceded to the Savoy an
House of Glücksburg
The House of Glücksburg, shortened from House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, is a Dano-German branch of the House of Oldenburg, members of which have reigned at various times in Denmark, Norway and several northern German states. Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, King Harald V of Norway, King Constantine II of Greece, Queen Sofía of Spain and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh are patrilineal members of cadet branches of the Glücksburg dynasty; the family takes its ducal name from Glücksburg, a small coastal town in Schleswig, on the southern, German side of the fjord of Flensburg that divides Germany from Denmark. In 1460, Glücksburg came, as part of the conjoined Dano-German duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, to Count Christian VII of Oldenburg whom, in 1448, the Danes had elected their king as Christian I, the Norwegians taking him as their hereditary king in 1450. In 1564, Christian I's great-grandson, King Frederick II, in re-distributing Schleswig and Holstein's fiefs, retained some lands for his own senior royal line while allocating Glücksburg to his brother Duke John the Younger, along with Sonderburg, in appanage.
John's heirs further sub-divided their share and created, among other branches, a line of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg dukes at Beck, who remained vassals of Denmark's kings. By 1825, the castle of Glücksburg had returned to the Danish crown and was given that year by King Frederick VI, along with a new ducal title, to his kinsman Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. Frederick suffixed the territorial designation to the ducal title he held, in lieu of "Beck", thus emerged the extant Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. The Danish line of Oldenburg kings died out in 1863, the elder line of the Schleswig-Holstein family became extinct with the death of the last Augustenburg duke in 1931. Thereafter, the House of Glücksburg became the senior surviving line of the House of Oldenburg. Another cadet line of Oldenburgs, the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp, consisted of two branches which held onto sovereignty into the 20th century, but members of the Romanov line were executed in or exiled from their Russian Empire in 1917, while the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg was abolished in 1918, although its dynastic line survives.
Neither the Dukes of Beck nor of Glücksburg had been sovereign rulers. Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, the fourth son of Duke Friedrich of Glücksburg, was recognized in the London Protocol of 1852 as successor to the childless King Frederick VII of Denmark, he became King of Denmark as Christian IX on 15 November 1863. Prince Vilhelm, the second son of Crown Prince Christian and Crown Princess Luise, was elected King of the Hellenes on 30 March 1863, succeeding the ousted Wittelsbach Otto of Greece and reigning under the name George I. Prince Carl, the second son of Frederick VIII of Denmark, Christian IX's eldest son, became King of Norway on 18 November 1905 as Haakon VII of Norway. Christian IX's daughters, Alexandra of Denmark and Dagmar of Denmark became the consorts of Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Alexander III of Russia; as a result, by 1914 descendants of King Christian IX held the crowns of several European realms, he became known as the "Father-in-law of Europe".
Christian IX's older brother inherited formal headship of the family as Karl, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. It is his descendants who now represent the senior line of the Schleswig-Holstein branch of the House of Oldenburg. Elimar I, Count of Oldenburg Elimar II, Count of Oldenburg Christian I, Count of Oldenburg Maurice, Count of Oldenburg Christian II, Count of Oldenburg John I, Count of Oldenburg Christian III, Count of Oldenburg John II, Count of Oldenburg Conrad I, Count of Oldenburg Christian V, Count of Oldenburg Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg Christian I of Denmark Frederick I of Denmark Christian III of Denmark John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Alexander, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck Karl Anton August, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg The Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg constitute the senior male line of the branch.
They hold the headship by primogeniture of the cadet house of Glücksburg. The headship by agnatic primogeniture of the entire House of Oldenburg is held by Christoph, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein; the heir apparent is Friedrich Ferdinand, Hereditary Prince of Schleswig-Holstein. In 1853, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg became heir to the Kingdom of Denmark, in 1863, he ascended the throne, he was the third son of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, whose elder brother retained the Glücksburg dukedom. The Danish royal family call itself Glücksborg, using a Danicized form of Glücksburg; the heir apparent is Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark, who belongs agnatically to the Monpezat family. See the present line of succession. Although there are no more male members of the dynastic line of Glũcksburgs domici
Princess Leopoldine of Baden
Princess Leopoldine of Baden was a Princess of Baden by birth and Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg by marriage. Leopoldine was the fourth and youngest daughter of Prince William of Baden and Duchess Elisabeth Alexandrine of Württemberg, daughter of Duke Louis of Württemberg, her paternal grandparents were Charles Frederick of Baden, the first Grand Duke of Baden, his second wife, Baroness Louise Caroline Geyer of Geyersberg, Countess of Hochberg. She grew up in Karlsruhe, together with her two older sisters and Elizabeth. Princess Leopoldine married on 24 September 1862 in Karlsruhe, Prince Hermann of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, second son of Prince Ernst I of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Princess Feodora of Leiningen, they had three children: Prince Ernest William Frederick Maximilian Charles of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. Princess Elise Victoria Feodora Sophie Adelheid of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. Princess Feodora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. Princess Leopoldine founded the Leopoldine Association. In Strasbourg, where her husband was appointed as the Governor of Alsace-Lorraine, she took ceremonial duties.
She died the day after a long illness. She was buried in the family cemetery in Langenburg. 22 February 1837 – 24 September 1862: Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Leopoldine of Baden 24 September 1862 - 23 December 1903: Her Grand Ducal Highness The Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Annette Borchardt-Wenzel: Die Frauen am badischen Hof. Gefährtinnen der Großherzöge zwischen Liebe, Pflicht und Intrigen, Piper Verlag GmbH München, 2003, ISBN 3-492-23696-0 Paul Zinsmaier: Leopoldine Fürstin zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg, in: Badische Biographien, vol. 6, edited by A. Krieger and R. Obser, Heidelberg, 1935, p. 785 ff