Princeton, New Jersey
As of the 2010 United States Census, the municipalitys population was 28,572, reflecting the former townships population of 16,265, along with the 12,307 in the former borough. Princeton was founded before the American Revolution and is best known as the location of Princeton University, Princeton is roughly equidistant from New York City and Philadelphia. It is close to major highways that serve both cities, and receives major television and radio broadcasts from each. It is close to Trenton, New Jerseys capital city, the governor of New Jerseys official residence has been in Princeton since 1945, when Morven in the borough became the first Governors mansion. It was replaced by the larger Drumthwacket, a mansion located in the former Township. Morven became a property of the New Jersey Historical Society. Princeton was ranked 15th of the top 100 towns in the United States to Live, although residents of Princeton traditionally have a strong community-wide identity, the community had been composed of two separate municipalities, a township and a borough.
The central borough was completely surrounded by the township, the Borough contained Nassau Street, the main commercial street, most of the University campus, and incorporated most of the urban area until the postwar suburbanization. The Borough and Township had roughly equal populations, the Lenni Lenape Native Americans were the earliest identifiable inhabitants of the Princeton area. Europeans founded their settlement in the part of the 17th century. The first European to find his home in the boundaries of the town was Henry Greenland. He built his house in 1683 along with a tavern, in this drinking hole representatives of West Jersey and East Jersey met to set boundaries for the location of the township. Originally, Princeton was known only as part of nearby Stony Brook, James Leonard first referred to the town as Princetown, when describing the location of his large estate in his diary. The town bore a variety of names subsequently, Princetown, Princes Town, although there is no official documentary backing, the town is considered to be named after King William III, Prince William of Orange of the House of Nassau.
Another theory suggests that the name came from a large land-owner named Henry Prince, a royal prince seems a more likely eponym for the settlement, as three nearby towns had similar names, Kingston and Princessville. When Richard Stockton, one of the founders of the township, died in 1709 he left his estate to his sons, who helped to expand property, based on the 1880 United States Census, the population of the town comprised 3,209 persons. Local population has expanded from the nineteenth century, according to the 2010 Census, Princeton Borough had 12,307 inhabitants, while Princeton Township had 16,265. Aside from housing the university of the name, the settlement suffered the revolutionary Battle of Princeton on its soil
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Springer Science+Business Media
Springer hosts a number of scientific databases, including SpringerLink, Springer Protocols, and SpringerImages. Book publications include major works, textbooks and book series. Springer has major offices in Berlin, Dordrecht, on 15 January 2015, Holtzbrinck Publishing Group / Nature Publishing Group and Springer Science+Business Media announced a merger. In 1964, Springer expanded its business internationally, opening an office in New York City, offices in Tokyo, Milan, Hong Kong, and Delhi soon followed. The academic publishing company BertelsmannSpringer was formed after Bertelsmann bought a majority stake in Springer-Verlag in 1999, the British investment groups Cinven and Candover bought BertelsmannSpringer from Bertelsmann in 2003. They merged the company in 2004 with the Dutch publisher Kluwer Academic Publishers which they bought from Wolters Kluwer in 2002, Springer acquired the open-access publisher BioMed Central in October 2008 for an undisclosed amount. In 2009, Cinven and Candover sold Springer to two private equity firms, EQT Partners and Government of Singapore Investment Corporation, the closing of the sale was confirmed in February 2010 after the competition authorities in the USA and in Europe approved the transfer.
In 2011, Springer acquired Pharma Marketing and Publishing Services from Wolters Kluwer, in 2013, the London-based private equity firm BC Partners acquired a majority stake in Springer from EQT and GIC for $4.4 billion. In 2014, it was revealed that Springer had published 16 fake papers in its journals that had been computer-generated using SCIgen, Springer subsequently removed all the papers from these journals. IEEE had done the thing by removing more than 100 fake papers from its conference proceedings. In 2015, Springer retracted 64 of the papers it had published after it was found that they had gone through a fraudulent peer review process, Springer provides its electronic book and journal content on its SpringerLink site, which launched in 1996. SpringerProtocols is home to a collection of protocols, recipes which provide step-by-step instructions for conducting experiments in research labs, SpringerImages was launched in 2008 and offers a collection of currently 1.8 million images spanning science and medicine.
SpringerMaterials was launched in 2009 and is a platform for accessing the Landolt-Börnstein database of research and information on materials, authorMapper is a free online tool for visualizing scientific research that enables document discovery based on author locations and geographic maps. The tool helps users explore patterns in scientific research, identify trends, discover collaborative relationships. While open-access publishing typically requires the author to pay a fee for copyright retention, for example, a national institution in Poland allows authors to publish in open-access journals without incurring any personal cost - but using public funds. Springer is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, the Academic Publishing Industry, A Story of Merger and Acquisition – via Northern Illinois University
Princeton University Press
The Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within academia and society at large, the press was founded by Whitney Darrow, with the financial support of Charles Scribner, as a printing press to serve the Princeton community in 1905. Its distinctive building was constructed in 1911 on William Street in Princeton and its first book was a new 1912 edition of John Witherspoons Lectures on Moral Philosophy. Six books from the Princeton University Press have won Pulitzer Prizes, russia Leaves the War by George F. The Princeton University Press Bollingen Series had its beginnings in the Bollingen Foundation, from 1945, the foundation had independent status and providing fellowships and grants in several areas of study including archaeology and psychology. The Bollingen Series was given to the university in 1969, first copyright 1950, 27th printing 1997. Bernstein Military Power, Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle by Stephen Biddle Banks, book of Lists, Princeton University Press at 100.
A Century in Books, Princeton University Press 1905-2005
A small press is a publisher with annual sales below a certain level. Commonly, in the United States, this is set at $50 million, after returns, Small presses are defined as those that publish an average of fewer than 10 titles per year, though there are a few who manage to do more. Defined this way, these make up approximately half of the market share of the book publishing industry. Many small presses rely on specialization in genre fiction, poetry, or limited-edition books or magazines, Small presses should not be confused with self-publishing presses. Self-publishing or subsidy presses usually require payment by authors, or a purchase of copies. By comparison, small presses make their profits by selling books to consumers, Small presses should not be confused with printers. Small presses are publishers, which means that they engage in a selection process, along with editing, marketing. Small presses enter into a contract with the author, often paying royalties for being allowed to sell the book, Publishers own the copies they have printed, but usually do not own the copyright to the book itself.
In contrast, printers merely print a book, and sometimes offer limited distribution if they are a POD printing press, printers have a very low selectivity. They will accept anyone who can pay the cost of printing. They rarely offer editing or marketing, printers do not own the copies that are printed, and they do not pay royalties. Book packagers combine aspects of small presses and printers, but they are technically neither small presses nor printers, the majority of small presses are independent or indie publishers, meaning that they are separate from the handful of major publishing house conglomerates, such as Random House or Hachette. Since the profit margins for small presses can be narrow, many are driven by other motives, many presses are associated with crowdfunding efforts that help connect authors with readers. Small presses tend to fill the niches that larger publishers neglect and they can focus on regional titles, narrow specializations and niche genres. At its most minimal, small press production consists of chapbooks and this role can now be taken on by desktop publishing and Web sites.
Small presses became distinguishable from jobbing printers at some time towards the end of the nineteenth century, the roots lie with the Arts and Crafts Movement, particularly the Kelmscott Press. The use of small letterpress machines by amateur printers increased proportionately to the mechanization of commercial printing, the advance of practical lithography made small press publication much easier. A recent burgeoning of small presses has been caused by the introduction of digital printing, there is now a distinction made between small presses and micro-presses
The Daily Princetonian
The Daily Princetonian is the award-winning daily independent student newspaper of Princeton University. Founded in 1876 and daily since 1892, the Prince is among the oldest college newspapers in the country and its alumni have pursued careers in journalism at The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal and have won the Pulitzer Prize. In addition to the print and online editions, the Prince publishes The Prox, a blog, Intersections. The Daily Princetonian, nicknamed the Prince, was the college newspaper in America to publish daily. The paper, founded in 1876 as a publication named The Princetonian. Produced by a staff of nearly 200 undergraduate students, the organization has a budget of more than $600,000. The Prince has a print circulation of 2,000. The Prince is fully independent from Princeton University and it is directed by a graduate board of trustees, consisting of former editors and business staffers. The paper supports itself financially and does not receive support from the university or from alumni donations.
The paper currently has an endowment of 1.3 million dollars, no staff member on the Prince is paid. The papers editorial staff consists entirely of Princeton students, Daily operations at the Prince are run by the Editor-in-Chief, who directs the editorial side of the paper, and the Business Manager, who directs the business and financial side. The Business Manager and the Editor-in-Chief report independently to the board of trustees, in order to prevent business. The Editor-in-Chief and Business Manager are chosen in December and appoint the remainder of their respective boards, the current Editor-in-chief is Sarah Sakha and the business manager is Matt McKinlay. Those boards take control of the newspaper with the beginning of the second semester, the editorial boards serve for two semesters. Typically, the Editor-in-Chief and Business Manager begin their service in the spring of their junior year and this staggered system was created in part to allow graduating seniors time to finish their senior theses.
The first woman elected editor of the Prince was Anne C. Mackay- Smith, Class of 1980, Judy E. Piper, the staff is grouped into several sections, including news, opinion, copy editing, design and web. In December 2006, Larry DuPraz, an employee of the newspaper who directed its publication and guided its editors from 1946 to 1987. In 2012, the papers digitized archives was launched and named in his honor
Chronicle Books is a San Francisco-based American publisher of books for adults and children. The company was established in 1967 by Phelps Dewey, an executive with Chronicle Publishing Company, in 1999 it was bought by Nion McEvoy, great-grandson of M. H. de Young, founder of the Chronicle, from other family members who were selling off the companys assets. At the time Chronicle Books had a staff of 130 and published 300 books per year, in 2000 McEvoy set up the McEvoy Group as a holding company. In 2006 the McEvoy Group purchased Spin magazine in connection with the owners of San Franciscos 7x7 magazine, McEvoy sold off the magazines by 2014. Chronicle Books publishes books in such as architecture, culture, interior design, childrens books, pop culture, food, travel. It has published a number of New York Times Best Sellers, rabbit. by Amy Krouse Rosenthal and Olive, the Other Reindeer by Vivian Walsh. Other best sellers have included The Beatles Anthology, Whats Your Poo Telling You, in March 2006 the company published Between the Bridge and the River, a novel by Craig Ferguson.
Chronicle Books has published at least 25 books in The Art of, series that showcase the evolution of artwork and stories of animated films, including many by Walt Disney Animation Studios, DreamWorks and Blue Sky Studios. The company sells custom publishing service and gift accessories, Chronicle Books books Chronicle Books website
Publishers Weekly is an American weekly trade news magazine targeted at publishers, librarians and literary agents. Published continuously since 1872, it has carried the tagline, “The International News Magazine of Book Publishing and Bookselling, with 51 issues a year, the emphasis today is on book reviews. The magazine was founded by bibliographer Frederick Leypoldt in the late 1860s, the publication was a compilation of information about newly published books, collected from publishers and from other sources by Leypoldt, for an audience of booksellers. By 1876, Publishers Weekly was being read by nine tenths of the booksellers in the country, in 1878, Leypoldt sold The Publishers Weekly to his friend Richard Rogers Bowker, in order to free up time for his other bibliographic endeavors. Eventually the publication expanded to include features and articles, harry Thurston Peck was the first editor-in-chief of The Bookman, which began in 1895. Peck worked on its staff from 1895 to 1906, and in 1895, in 1912, Publishers Weekly began to publish its own bestseller lists, patterned after the lists in The Bookman.
These were not separated into fiction and non-fiction until 1917, when World War I brought an increased interest in non-fiction by the reading public. Born April 12,1879, in Malden, Melcher began at age 16 in Bostons Estes & Lauriat Bookstore and he moved to Indianapolis in 1913 for another bookstore job. In 1918, he read in Publishers Weekly that the editorship was vacant. He applied to Richard Rogers Bowker for the job, was hired and he remained with R. R. Bowker for 45 years. While at Publishers Weekly, Melcher began creating space in the publication, in 1919, he teamed with Franklin K. Mathiews, librarian for the Boy Scouts of America, and Anne Carroll Moore, a librarian at the New York Public Library, to create Children’s Book Week. When Bowker died in 1933, Melcher succeeded him as president of the company, in 1943, Publishers Weekly created the Carey–Thomas Award for creative publishing, naming it in honor of Mathew Carey and Isaiah Thomas. In 2008, the circulation was 25,000. It attempts to serve all involved in the creation, production and sale of the word in book, video.
The book review section of Publishers Weekly was added in the early 1940s and grew in importance during the 20th century and through the present time. It currently offers prepublication reviews of 9,000 new trade books each year, in a range of genres and including audiobooks and e-books. These anonymous reviews are short, averaging 200–250 words, and it is not unusual for the section to run as long as 40 pages. In the past, a book review editorial staff of eight editors assigned books to more than 100 freelance reviewers, some are published authors, and others are experts in specific genres or subjects
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, to the current site nine years later, Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. The university has graduated many notable alumni, two U. S. Presidents,12 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princetons alumni body. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746 in order to train ministers, the college was the educational and religious capital of Scots-Irish America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governors interest, gov. Jonathan Belcher replied, What a name that would be.
In 1756, the moved to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England, following the untimely deaths of Princetons first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college, in 1812, the eighth president the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door. The plan to extend the theological curriculum met with approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey. Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include such as cross-registration. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the sole building.
The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17,1754, during the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the countrys capital for four months. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, Nassau Halls bell rang after the halls construction, the fire of 1802 melted it. The bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855, James McCosh took office as the colleges president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. McCosh Hall is named in his honor, in 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides
Hudson, New York
Hudson is a city located along the west border of Columbia County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 6,713, the city is named after the adjacent Hudson River and ultimately after the explorer Henry Hudson. Hudson is the county seat of Columbia County, Hudson is sister city with Pallisa, Uganda. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 2.3 square miles. 2.2 square miles of it is land and 0.15 square miles, Hudson is located on what began as a spit of land jutting into the Hudson River between the South Bay and North Bay, now both largely filled in. Across the Hudson River lies the town of Athens in Greene County, New York, the town of Greenport borders the other three sides of the city. As of the census of 2010, there were 6,713 people,2,766 households, the population was estimated at 6,648 in 2013. These numbers include the approximately 360 residents of the local Hudson Correctional Facility, the population density was 3,110.8 inhabitants per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 59. 0% White,25. 0% African American,0. 4% Native American,7. 1% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander, hispanic or Latino of any race were 8. 2% of the population. 40. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was out with 22. 5% under the age of 18,9. 8% from 18 to 24,27. 3% from 25 to 44,27. 0% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37.5 years, for every 100 females there were 106.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.6 males, the median income for a household in the city was $35,117, and the median income for a family was $37,400. Males had an income of $26,274 versus $22,598 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,353, about 23. 0% of families and 23. 2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31. 8% of those under age 18 and 19. 1% of those age 65 or over.
The land was purchased from native Mahicans by Dutch settlers in 1662 and was part of the town of Claverack. Settled by New England whalers and merchants hailing primarily from Nantucket, Marthas Vineyard, the self-described Proprietors laid out a city grid, and Hudson grew rapidly as an active port, coming within one vote of being named the capital of New York state. The city grew rapidly and by 1790 was the 24th largest city in the United States, as late as 1820, it was the fourth largest city in New York
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The Christian Science Monitor
It was started in 1908 by Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist. As of 2011, the print circulation was 75,052, the Monitor is a newspaper that covers international and United States current events. The paper includes a daily feature on The Home Forum page. In 2008 the Monitor discontinued its print version to focus on web-based publishing, replacing its daily print edition with a weekly news magazine with an international focus. Since late 2013, the Editor-in-chief has been Marshall Ingwerson, despite its name, the Monitor does not claim to be a religious-themed paper, and says it does not promote the doctrine of its patron church. However, at its founder Eddys request, a religious article has appeared in every issue of the Monitor. Eddy required the inclusion of Christian Science in the papers name, in addition, Joseph Pulitzers New York World was consistently critical of Eddy, and this, along with a derogatory article in McClures, furthered Eddys decision to found her own media outlet.
These descriptions carry fears to many minds, to be depicted in some time upon the body. Eddy declared that the Monitors mission should be to no man. The Monitor was for several decades published in form but in 1975 switched to tabloid format. The papers overall circulation has ranged widely, from a peak of over 223,000 in 1970 and these developments presaged administrative moves to scale back the print newspaper in favor of expansions into radio, a magazine, shortwave broadcasting, and television. Expenses, rapidly outpaced revenues, contradicting predictions by church directors, on the brink of bankruptcy, the board was forced to close the broadcast programs in 1992. The paper has been known for avoiding sensationalism, producing a brand of nonhysterical journalism. Monitor staff have been the recipients of seven Pulitzer Prizes, the most recent in 2002,1950, Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting, Edmund Stevens, for his series of 43 articles written over a three-year residence in Moscow entitled, This Is Russia Uncensored.
1967, Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting, R. John Hughes, For his thorough reporting of Indonesias attempted Transition to the New Order in 1965,1968, Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting, Howard James, for his series of articles, Crisis in the Courts. 1969, Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting, Robert Cahn, for his inquiry into the future of the United States national parks and the methods that may help to preserve them. 1996, Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting, David Rohde, for his persistent on-site reporting of the slaughter of thousands of Bosnian Muslims in the Srebrenica Genocide. S, senate Committee led by Norm Coleman of personally profiting from corruption within the United Nations Oil-for-Food program. The Monitor investigated the matter, concluding that the documents were almost certainly forgeries, in 2006, Jill Carroll, a freelance reporter for the Monitor, was kidnapped in Baghdad, and released safely after 82 days