Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory for plasma physics and nuclear fusion science. Its primary mission is development of fusion as an energy source. PPPL grew out of the top secret Cold War project to control thermonuclear reactions, called Project Matterhorn. In 1961, after declassification, Project Matterhorn was renamed the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. PPPL is located on Princeton University's Forrestal Campus in New Jersey; this is some distance from the main Princeton campus. In 1950, John Wheeler was setting up a secret H-bomb research lab at Princeton University. Lyman Spitzer, Jr. an avid mountaineer, was aware of this program and suggested the name "Project Matterhorn". Spitzer, a professor of Astronomy, had for many years been involved in the study of hot rarefied gases in interstellar space. While leaving for a ski trip to Aspen in February 1951, his father called and told him to read the front page of the New York Times.
The paper had a story about claims released the day before in Argentina that a unknown German scientist named Ronald Richter had achieved nuclear fusion in his Huemul Project. Spitzer dismissed these claims, they were proven erroneous, but the story got him thinking about fusion. While riding the chairlift at Aspen, he struck upon a new concept to confine a plasma for long periods so it could be heated to fusion temperatures, he called this concept the stellarator. That year he took this design to the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington; as a result of this meeting and a review of the invention by scientists throughout the nation, the stellarator proposal was funded in 1951. As the device would produce high-energy neutrons, which could be used for breeding weapon fuel, the program was classified and carried out as part of Project Matterhorn. Matterhorn ended its involvement in the bomb field in 1954, becoming devoted to the fusion power field. In 1958, this magnetic fusion research was declassified following the 1955 United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.
This generated an influx of graduate students eager to learn the "new" physics, which in turn influenced the lab to concentrate more on basic research. The early figure-8 stellarators included: Model-A, Model-B, Model-B2, Model-B3. Model-B64 was a square with round corners, Model-B65 was a racetrack configuration; the last and most powerful stellarator at this time was the'racetrack' Model C. The Model C was reconfigured as a tokamak in 1969. In the 1970s research at the PPPL refocused on the Russian tokamak design when it became evident that it was a more satisfactory containment design than the stellarator. In May 1972 the Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor began operation; the Princeton Large Torus, a tokamak, operated from 1975. By 1982, the PPPL under the direction of Harold Furth had the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor online, which operated until 1997. Beginning in 1993, TFTR was the first in the world to use 50/50 mixtures of deuterium-tritium. In 1994 it yielded an unprecedented 10.7 megawatts of fusion power.
In 1999, the National Spherical Torus Experiment, based on the spherical tokamak concept, came online at the PPPL. Laboratory scientists are collaborating with researchers on fusion science and technology at other facilities, both domestic and foreign. Staff are applying knowledge gained in fusion research to a number of theoretical and experimental areas including materials science, solar physics and manufacturing. Odd-parity heating was demonstrated in the 4 cm radius PFRC-1 experiment in 2006. PFRC-2 has a plasma radius of 8 cm. Studies of electron heating in PFRC-2 reached 500 eV with pulse lengths of 300 ms. In 2015, the U. S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory completed the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade that makes it the most powerful experimental fusion facility, or tokamak, of its type in the world. Experiments will test the ability of the upgraded spherical facility to maintain a high-performance plasma under conditions of extreme heat and power. Results could influence the design of future fusion reactors.
In 2017, the group received a Phase II NIAC grant along with two NASA STTRs funding the RF subsystem and superconducting coil subsystem. In 1961 Gottlieb became the first director of the renamed Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. 1951-1961: Lyman Spitzer, director of Project Matterhorn 1961-1980: Melvin B. Gottlieb 1981-1990: Harold Furth 1991-1996: Ronald C. Davidson 1997: John A. Schmidt, interim director 1997-2008: Robert J. Goldston 2008–2016: Stewart C. Prager 2016–2017: Terrence K. Brog 2017–2018: Richard J. Hawryluk 2018-present: Sir Steven Cowley, 1 July 2018 National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Hall Thruster Experiment Lithium Tokamak Experiment Magnetic Reconnection Experiment Beam Dynamics and Nonneutral Plasma Princeton field-reversed configuration experiment Laboratory for Plasma Nanosynthesis DOE Scientific Simulation Initiative U. S. MHD Working Group Field Reversed Configuration Theory Consortium Tokamak Physics Design and Analysis Codes TRANSP Code National Transport Code Collaboration Modules Library Project Sherwood Project Matterhorn Publications and Reports, 1951-1958 Princeton University Library Digital Collections Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Official Website
Svatopluk the Lion was Duke of Bohemia from 1107 until his assassination in 1109. His rule was overshadowed by the fierce conflict around the Bohemian throne in the 12th century. A member of the Přemyslid dynasty, he was the son of Prince Otto I of Olomouc and Euphemia, daughter of King Béla I of Hungary, his father was the youngest son of Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia. When Bretislaus died in 1055, the Bohemian ducal dignity first passed to his eldest son, Svatopluk's uncle Spytihněv II, upon Spytihněv's early death in 1061, it passed to Bretislaus's second son Vratislaus II, according to the patrilineal principle of agnatic seniority. Vratislaus, who had received the title of a Bohemian king by order of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV in 1086, elevated Svatopluk's father Otto to the rank of a prince at Olomouc in Moravia. However, when his father died the next year, young Savatopluk had to yield the inheritance claims raised by Bretislaus's third son, his uncle Conrad I, who took over the rule in the Moravian lands.
Svatopluk himself received the title Prince of Olomouc in 1091, but again had to wait to ascend the Bohemian throne. At the death of Duke Conrad in 1092 after eight months of rule, the Bohemian throne was awarded to Bretislaus II, the son of the late King Vratislaus, according to the rules of agnatic seniority; the enmity with the Moravian branch of the Přemyslids increased, more so when Duke Bretislaus II appointed his half-brother Bořivoj II ruler of the Moravian lands and made an application to Emperor Henry IV to acknowledge Bořivoj's succession as Bohemian duke, thus precipitating a civil war with the sons of his uncle Conrad I. In 1099, he prevailed when the Emperor had an Imperial charter written out, after the death of Bretislaus II in 1100, Bořivoj took power. Emperor Henry IV had to face the fact that his intervention had led to a state of anarchy in Bohemia; when he himself was deposed by his son King Henry V of Germany, Svatopluk took his chance, marched against Duke Bořivoj, with the support of Bořivoj's younger brother Vladislaus was able to oust him after two years of fighting and intriguing.
Henry V summoned Svatopluk, who dared not resist, retained him captive in order to restore his liensman Bořivoj. Soon, however, he became reconciled to Svatopluk, who pledged allegiance and promised military support in the German king's campaign against King Coloman of Hungary. Savatopluk could return to Bohemia, he made the king godfather of his new son, baptised Wenceslaus Henry. In 1108, Henry V intervened in Hungary on behalf of King Coloman's younger brother Duke Álmos of Nitra. Keeping his promise, Duke Svatopluk at first joined his expedition, but had to return to Bohemia, where Bořivoj had made an attack with the support of the Polish king Bolesław III Wrymouth, an ally of Coloman; the German king had to abandon the siege of Bratislava and King Coloman of Hungary was free to devastate the Moravian lands. Henry was desired to avenge the Polish intervention that caused his Hungarian fiasco. On behalf of Bolesław's expelled brother Zbigniew, he invaded Poland, again with the support of Svatopluk, who led a Bohemian army across the Sudetes into Silesia to join the German forces at the Battle of Głogów.
Here Svatopluk was killed on 21 September 1109 in Henry's tent by a member of the Bohemian Vršovice noble family, whose chief Mutina he had decapitated for the support he had given to Bořivoj. Bořivoj was not able to succeed Svatopluk.
Bon Echo Provincial Park is a provincial park in southeastern Ontario north of Kaladar 6 kilometres north of Cloyne. Bon Echo features several lakes, including part of Mazinaw Lake, the seventh-deepest lake in Ontario; the southeastern shore of Mazinaw Lake features the massive 100 m high Mazinaw Rock, an escarpment rising out of the water, adorned with many native pictographs. The unofficial mascot of Bon Echo Park is the Ojibwe trickster figure and culture hero, among the over 260 pictographs found in the area. Pictographs are confused with petroglyphs, which are rock carvings rather than the rock paintings found on Mazinaw; the site of the Mazinaw pictographs was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1982. The Bon Echo region – after enterprising lumbering companies came and went, along with the farming communities that accompanied them – was purchased in 1889 by Weston A. Price and his wife, who were inspired by Mazinaw Rock and the surrounding area, they named the area "Bon Echo" because of the acoustical properties of the Rock, which bounced sound across Mazinaw Lake.
The Prices built a large hotel at the narrows, the Bon Echo Inn, which catered to the wealthy who were looking for a healthful retreat. Price banned alcohol on the premises due to strong religious beliefs and the Inn attracted people who shared the Prices' beliefs; the hotel was populated by a contingent of Methodist pastors, attendance at Sunday church was required of those who stayed there. After several successful years at the Inn, a personal tragedy compelled Dr. Price to sell his holdings at Bon Echo, he found buyers in Flora MacDonald Denison. Flora was both a successful business operator in Toronto and a vocal proponent of women's rights who founded, along with other feminists, the Canadian Suffrage Association. Years earlier the Denisons had attempted to purchase a cottage from Price, but instead had settled for a lot south of the Inn when Price was reluctant to sell to them. After obtaining the property for $15,000, they sent away the pastors and turned Bon Echo Inn into a haven for artists and writers, most notably James Thurber and members of the Group of Seven.
Although Walt Whitman had never visited Bon Echo, Flora admired Whitman's work so much that she commissioned a piece of his poetry to be chiseled into the face of the rock in foot-tall lettering, where it can still be seen. The work was performed by two Aberdeen, Scotland stonemasons and took all of the summer of 1919 to complete. After her death in 1921, the land and inn was inherited by Merrill Denison, her son and a successful entrepreneur, he continued to operate the inn until the beginning of the Great Depression in 1929 along with his first wife, Muriel Denison, an author whose works include the "Susannah" series, made famous by the Shirley Temple film adaptions. After that, the inn was leased to the Leavens Brothers who operated it as a summer hotel, other portions of the property were rented out for use as a boys' camp and other recreational purposes. In 1936, the inn and many outbuildings were destroyed in a fire started by lightning striking the bakehouse; the loss was not covered by insurance, the inn was never rebuilt.
Merrill Denison continued using it as a quiet location to write. Some of the cottages, including Dollywood and Greystones, remained in use as summer getaways for years, but financially the property was a burden on the Denisons. In 1955, the Province of Ontario passed legislation allowing them to accept donations of land to form provincial parks. Although he could have made a substantial profit dividing and selling sections of the property as building lots, Denison's interests in conservation led him to donate the land to the province for the purpose of forming a park in 1959. In 1965, Bon Echo Provincial Park opened. A plaque was placed at the narrows dedicating the park to Flora MacDonald Denison and Muriel Denison, Merrill Denison's first wife and an author whose works include the "Susannah" series, made famous by the Shirley Temple film adaptions. In 1956, Kay McCormick, Marnie Gilmour, David Fisher and Alan Bruce-Robertson paddled across Mazinaw Lake in a canoe on the Saturday of the Labour Day weekend, climbed a rock outcropping subsequently named Birthday Ridge.
On Sunday, they climbed Front of the Pinnacle. This marked the first rock climbing on Mazinaw Rock; the Alpine Club of Canada maintains a hut on the lake, Bon Echo rock climbing remains core to the ACC's Toronto Section to this day. Bon Echo's 500+ campsites in the Mazinaw and Hardwood Hills campgrounds are typical of those in the Ontario Parks system. Grassy or wooded lots are set back from unpaved access roads and are backed by natural, untended land, conifer-deciduous forest. Both campgrounds host a number of RV-accessible lots. Electricity is available to 130 campsites. All sites are located close to a source of running water, as well as a flush toilet. Comfort stations with washrooms and laundry facilities are available at major campgrounds. There are radio-free areas, a visitor centre, gift shop, the Mugwump ferry, which brings visitors to the Clifftop Trail located across Mazinaw Lake. In addition, accommodation in heated yurts is available in the Sawmill Bay camping area, as well as a number of cabins, most of which are located on Bon Echo Lake, west of Highway 41.
The yurts and cabins are an alternative to tenting or RVs, accommodating up to 5 or 6 and providing a more protected environment for less hardy visitors. Cutting and collecting firewood is prohibited on these sites to prevent environmental disturbances or d
Titan is a fictional location appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Based on Saturn's real-life moon of the same name, it is depicted in the Marvel Universe as the home of the Titanian Eternals, it first was conceived by Jim Starlin and Mike Friedrich. The Titanians known as Titans, were retconned as being an offshoot of the Eternals, created separately by Jack Kirby. Titan appeared in the 2018 film Avengers: Infinity War and 2019 film Avengers: Endgame as a ruined planet and the former home of Thanos; the colony of Titanian Eternals was founded about 750,000 years ago in the aftermath of a devastating civil war among the first generation of Earth's Eternals. The Eternals Uranos and Kronos led opposing factions, which clashed in a conflict of ideals over the Eternals' destiny as a people. Kronos' side prevailed, Uranos and his surviving followers were exiled into space and landed on the planet Uranus. There, they discovered a supply depot guarded by Kree Sentry #213; when the Eternals destroyed the Sentry and raided the outpost, the Kree armada came to investigate, thinking Earth's solar system to be devoid of intelligent life.
The armada destroyed the Eternals’ spacecraft, forcing them to crash on the moon Titan, where they hid from the Kree. There, the small group of survivors formed a colony beneath the surface of the moon, employing artificial life systems; these Eternals fell prey to internal strife, all of them but Sui-San were killed. Mentor, who had gone into voluntary exile, arrived on Titan, the two Eternals began to repopulate the Titan colony; these new Titanian Eternals achieved much scientifically and not the least of, ISAAC, an immense computer system that could monitor and maintain all of the life support functions of the inner world. Under A'lars' leadership, Titan became a haven for peace. A'lars sired the last two of his numerous children: Eros and Thanos. Thanos was born a mutant, grew up with dark visions of conquest and destruction. Thanos left Titan, recruited an army of mercenaries, returned to attack. Only a hundred of Titan's thousands of inhabitants survived, Sui-San perished in the slaughter.
The Titanians rebuilt the colony and restored it to a place of meditation and the pursuit of knowledge. Chaos - Cloned being created by ISAAC, while acting under Thanos’ control; the Cotati - Refugees from Hala under the protection of the Priests of Pama. Demeityr - Young Titan companion of Sundragon. Dionysus - Cloned being created by ISAAC, while acting under Thanos’ control. Dr. Aurilius - Titan Medic. Dragon of the Moon - Elderspawn child of Chthon Elysius - Cloned being created by ISAAC, while acting under Thanos’ control, she allied with Mar-Vell. Emlot - Genis-Vell - Cloned child of Mar-Vell and Elysius. Brother of Phyla-Vell, killed by Baron Zemo. ISAAC - Moon-wide computer that controls all systems, it was once corrupted by Thanos to create agents of war to continue his war. Kazantra- One of Mentor's wives. Lord Gaea - Cloned being created by ISAAC, while acting under Thanos’ control. Mentor - Monks of Shao Lom - The mentors of Moondragon. Moondragon - Adopted by Mentor and raised on Titan Phyla-Vell - Cloned child of Mar-Vell and Elysius.
Sister of Genis-Vell. Known as Captain Marvel and Martyr, the avatar of Oblivion. She's the step-sister of Dorrek VIII. Priests of Pama - Pacifistic Kree who protect the Cotati Shastra - Starfox - Hedonistic Avenger, Thanos’ brother. Stellarax - Cloned nihilistic terrorist created by ISAAC, while acting under Thanos’ control. Sui-San - Mother of Starfox and Thanos, she was the last living follower of Uranos on Titan. Sundragon - Cousin of Moondragon and companion of Demeityr. Thanos - The Mad Titan Thyrio - Tycho - Uranos -Mar-Vell's grave and Genis-Vell's memorial monument are on the surface of the moon. In the Avengers Assemble episode "Thanos Rising," Falcon finds footage of Titan being firebombed while searching through Uatu the Watcher's computer. Titan appears in the Guardians of the Galaxy episode "Titan Up." This is where Thanos trains his followers at and is where Sam Alexander's father Jesse is being held prisoner. Titan appears in Avengers: Infinity War. In the film, Titan is a habitable exoplanet.
The planet was left in ruin due to overpopulation which Thanos tried to prevent by offering a solution to his people, exterminating half the population. Iron Man, Doctor Strange, Spider-Man and the present Guardians of the Galaxy including Star-Lord, Drax and Nebula battle Thanos on Titan to protect the Eye of Agamotto, which contains the Time Stone, it is on Titan just prior to their battle when Strange used the Time Stone to go into the future and see millions of possible outcomes from their conflict with Thanos, but only one in which they win. As Iron Man is about to be killed by Thanos, Strange surrenders the Time Stone in exchange for Thanos sparing his life. Thanos activates the Infinity Gauntlet after acquiring all six Infinity Stones and half of all life in the universe disintegrates. Iron Man and Nebula are the only ones on Titan. Titan on Marvel Database, a Marvel Comics wiki
The Sun Microsystems Ultra 80 is a computer workstation that shipped from November 1999 to 2002. Its enclosure is a large and heavy tower design. At launch, it shipped with Solaris 2.5.1, was available in a variety of different configurations, with one, two or four 64-bit UltraSPARC II CPUs and up to 4 GB of RAM. When released, the Ultra 80 was Sun's highest performance workstation; the Ultra 80 is similar to the lower-cost Sun Ultra 60, but is somewhat larger and supports more CPUs and memory. Although it was designed as a workstation rather than a server, it may be rack mounted using an optional kit; the Enterprise 420R is a server product based on the Ultra 80 motherboard in a specialized rack-mountable chassis, with custom power supplies and other parts more appropriate for server applications. The last order date for the Ultra 80 was July 2002 and the last model stopped shipping in October 2002; the Ultra 45, introduced in 2006, supports a maximum of two CPUs, rather than the four of the Ultra 80.
The Ultra 80 shipped with Solaris 2.5.1, is capable running versions of Solaris through Solaris 10, as well as Linux and various other UNIX operating systems. The Ultra 80 cannot run Microsoft Windows directly, although an internal PCI card from Sun could be fitted to allow the use of Windows. Full specifications can be found on the Sun web site. Although only sold with either one, two, or four CPUs, the use of three CPUs is a supported configuration; the CPUs run at 450 MHz and have 16-KB data and 16-KB instruction cache on chip with a secondary 4-MB external cache. The X1195A is the part number of one of the CPUs; each CPU has an integrated floating point processor. The Ultra 80 uses 144-pin 5V 60-ns DIMM memory modules of either 64 or 256 MB, which should be installed in sets of four identical DIMMs. There are 16 DIMM sockets, so it is possible to fit up to 4 GB with 16 256 MB modules; the memory bus is 576 bits wide. The specifications list a maximum throughput of 1.78-GB/s. Performance is improved if 2-way interleaving is used and maximum performance is achieved with 4-way interleaving, in which case all 16 memory slots would be used, providing the machine with 1 GB or 4 GB of RAM.
Half of the Ultra 80's memory must be fitted on the motherboard and the other half on a memory riser board. Care is needed in handling the memory riser board, as the connector is not designed for repeated use, it must be tightened using a torque wrench supplied with the Ultra 80, as detailed in the service manual. The Ultra 80 takes two 1" high SCA SCSI disk drives internally, it can in practice use any SCA disk. The internal disks must be mounted in a spud-bracket; the SCSI IDs of the internal disks are 0 and 3. These can not be changed. An optional 1.44 MB 3.5" MS-DOS/IBM compatible floppy drive can be fitted. The Ultra 80 could be purchased new with an optional 12/24 GB DDS-3 tape drive, but will work with a DDS-4 drive, larger tape drives. An optional 644 MB SunCD 32X-speed, Photo CD compatible CD-ROM drive or an optional 10X DVD-ROM could be specified as well. 3rd-party rewritable CD-ROM drives could be used.. The Ultra 80 has four full-size slots compliant with PCI specification version 2.1: One PCI slot operating at 33- or 66 MHz, 32- or 64-bit data bus width, 3.3 volt Two PCI slots operating at 33 MHz, 32- or 64-bit data bus width, 5 volt One PCI slot operating at 33 MHz, 32-bit data bus width, 5 volt.
Some systems might be inoperable. There are two UPA graphics slots running at 112 MHz, supporting one or two Elite3D m3 and/or Elite3D m6 graphics options; the popular Creator3D framebuffer is not supported, but will work. Some Ultra 80s were sold with the PGX32 framebuffer though its low performance made it more appropriate for use in server rather than workstation applications. Although not sold with the Ultra 80s, the XVR series framebuffers work, as do the Expert3D series; the Sun Ultra 80 is fitted with a dual channel Ultra-3 SCSI controller. The speed is 40 MB/s. One controller is used for CD-ROM, DVD-ROM and tape; the second channel is used for the external 68-pin Ultra wide SCSI connector on the rear of the Ultra 80. The Sun Ultra 80 has Two RS-232C/RS-423 serial ports using 25-pin D connectors A 2 MB/s Centronics-compatible parallel port using a 25-pin D connector Standard mini DIN-8 connector for Sun keyboard/ Sun mouse External ultra wide 68-pin SCSI connector 10/100 BASE-T ethernet using the HME adapter IEC mains input connector1 Gb/s Ethernet can be used with the optional Sun X1141A Ethernet card.
USB is not supported, but various USB boards for PCs have been known to work with Linux and Solaris. Maximum power consumption is documented as 380W; the Ultra 80 is a well-built workstation. It does not use cheap mass-produced commodity PC parts like some of Sun's Ultra workstations such as the Ultra 5 and Ultra 10, it is well cooled, suffering none of the overheating problems of Sun's previous quad-processor machine, the SPARCstation 20. Support for the Ultra 80 ended in October 2007. In addition to official support, knowledgeable people, are regular visitors to the comp.unix.solaris, comp.sys.sun.hardware and comp.sys.sun.admin Usenet newsgroups. The Sun Ultra 80 Wor
See List of West Ham United F. C. seasonsWest Ham United Football Club are based in Stratford, east London. They played home matches at the Boleyn Ground in Upton Park between 1904 and 2016, moved to the London Stadium for the start of the 2016-17 season; the club's formative roots stretch back to their formation as a professional side in 1900, but existed for at least five years prior to this under the name Thames Ironworks F. C. who themselves were built upon the remains of Old Castle Swifts F. C.. The club competed in the London League joining the Southern League and Western League before joining the full Football League in 1919, they enjoyed their first top flight season in 1923 and have never fallen outside the top two divisions. They have won the FA Cup three times: in 1964, 1975, 1980, have been runners-up twice, in 1923 and 2006; the club have reached two major European finals, winning the European Cup Winners Cup in 1965 and finishing runners up in the same competition in 1976. West Ham won the Intertoto Cup in 1999.
The club were inaugural winners of the War Cup in 1940. Their best finish in the top flight was a third-place finish in 1986. West Ham have been runners up twice in the Football League Cup in 1966 and 1981, shared the 1964 Charity Shield They were awarded the 1965 BBC Sports Personality of the Year Team Award in honour of their European Cup Winners Cup win; the football club’s roots lie in the shipbuilding industry of Blackwall and Canning Town, this has contributed to West Ham’s history being one of the most written about in English football. Many of the primary sources were lost in a fire resulting from a V-1 flying bomb landing on the clubs Boleyn Ground home in 1944. West Ham United grew from largest and last surviving shipbuilder on the Thames, the Thames Ironworks, based on either bank of the Lea, at Bow Creek where the Lea meets the Thames; the Thames Ironworks had an initial base at Leamouth and expanded to include a much larger site on the Canning Town side. Blackwall, in Poplar, was traditionally part of the Tower Division of Middlesex, while the Canning Town area of West Ham was part of Essex.
The repair yard of the Castle Shipping Line was a near neighbour on the Blackwall side, their work team known as the Castle Swifts, would informally merge with the Thames Ironworks own team. There had been a shipbuilding industry in Blackwall since at least 1485, in 1838 the Ditchburn & Mare company moved their premises to Blackwall, taking on the yard and some of the workforce of the closed shipbuilder William & Benjamin Wallis. By 1855 Ditchburn & Mare were bankrupt, but refinanced as the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company. Thames Ironworks built many ships and other structures, the most famous being HMS Warrior, HMS Albion and their last ship, the dreadnought, HMS Thunderer, launched in 1912 By the early years of the 20th century, Thames Ironworks was struggling compete with northern yards which had better access to steel and other supplies while a further disadvantage was that the yard's commitment to the eight-hour day was not matched by its northern rivals; the yard shut in 1912 but several of her ships fought in the Royal Navy during World War I.
HMS Thunderer and the old armoured cruiser HMS Black Prince took an active part in the Battle of Jutland which ensured the continued blockade of Germany, which did so much to determine the course of the war. Thunderer survived unscathed but Black Prince was sunk with the loss of all 857 of her crew; the core of the initial Thames Ironworks, thereby West Ham United, club originated in the remains of the bankrupt Old Castle Swifts in 1895. Old Castle Swifts had formed in 1892 as "Castle Swifts" at the behest of Castle Shipping Line employer Donald Currie and played their football opposite what is now the West Ham Police station; the club was the first professional football team in Essex, with players drawn from Castle Shipping Line's predominantly Scottish work force paid extra in addition to their works wages each time they made appearances for the team. The team won the 1892–93 West Ham Charity Cup against Barking Woodville. In 1895, Currie was no longer interested in bankrolling the club, allowed the team to lapse into bankruptcy.
With both the club, their tenancy at Hermit Road now up for grabs, the philanthropic Arnold Hills stepped in to take up the lease and absorb some of the players into his new club including former Woolwich Arsenal player Robert Stevenson the club's first captain and player of note. Further connections between these clubs include the continuing presence of Old St Luke's honorary secretary Mr A. C. Davis, whilst several Thames Ironworks players had turned out on an amateur basis for Old St Luke's on several occasions; the Castle Swifts colours were re-used on several occasions by the Thames Ironworks team as an alternative to their traditional Oxford Blue kit. The club was founded in 1895 as the works side Thames Ironworks F. C. by Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd company chairman Arnold Hills and works foreman Dave Taylor, it was announced in the Thames Ironworks Gazette in June 1895 under the heading "The importance of co-operation between worke