Jesus College, Oxford
Jesus College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. It is in the centre of the city, on a site between Turl Street, Ship Street, Cornmarket Street and Market Street; the college was founded by Elizabeth I on 27 June 1571 for the education of clergy, though students now study a broad range of secular subjects. A major driving force behind the establishment of the college was Hugh Price, a churchman from Brecon in Wales; the oldest buildings, in the first quadrangle, date from the early 17th centuries. Further accommodation was built on the main site to mark the 400th anniversary of the college, in 1971, student flats have been constructed at sites in north and east Oxford; the life of the college was disrupted by the English Civil War. Leoline Jenkins, who became principal after the war in 1661, put the college on a more stable financial footing. Little happened at the college during the 18th century, the 19th century saw a decline in numbers and academic standards.
Reforms of Oxford University after two Royal Commissions in the latter half of the 19th century led to removal of many of the restrictions placed on the college's fellowships and scholarships, such that the college ceased to be predominantly full of Welsh students and academics. Students' academic achievements rose in the early 20th century as fellows were appointed to teach in new subjects. Women were first now form a large part of the undergraduate population. There are about 475 students at any one time. Former students include Harold Wilson, Norman Washington Manley, T. E. Lawrence, Angus Buchanan, Viscount Sankey; the university's professorship of Celtic is attached to the college, a post held by scholars such as Sir John Rhys, Ellis Evans and Thomas Charles-Edwards. Past or present fellows of the college include the historians Sir Goronwy Edwards and Niall Ferguson, the philosopher Galen Strawson, the political philosopher John Gray. Jesus College was founded on 27 June 1571, it was the first Protestant college to be founded at the university, it is the only Oxford college to date from Elizabeth's reign.
It was the first new Oxford college since 1555, in the reign of Queen Mary, when Trinity College and St John's College were founded as Roman Catholic colleges. The foundation charter named a principal, eight fellows, eight scholars, eight commissioners to draw up the statutes for the college; the commissioners included Hugh Price, who had petitioned the queen to found a college at Oxford "that he might bestow his estate of the maintenance of certain scholars of Wales to be trained up in good letters." The college was intended for the education of clergy. The particular intention was to satisfy a need for dedicated, learned clergy to promote the Elizabethan Religious Settlement in the parishes of England and Wales; the college has since broadened the range of subjects offered, beginning with the inclusion of medicine and law, now offers the full range of subjects taught at the university. The letters patent issued by Elizabeth I made it clear that the education of a priest in the 16th century included more than just theology, however:...to the Glory of God Almighty and Omnipotent, for the spread and maintenance of the Christian religion in its sincere form, for the eradication of errors and heresies, for the increase and perpetuation of true loyalty, for the extension of good literature of every sort, for the knowledge of languages, for the education of youth in loyalty and methodical learning, for the relief of poverty and distress, lastly for the benefit and well-being of the Church of Christ in our realms, we have decreed that a College of learning in the sciences, humane pursuits, knowledge of the Hebrew and Latin languages, to the ultimate profession of Sacred Theology, to last for all time to come, be created, founded and established....
Price continued to be involved with the college after its foundation. On the strength of a promised legacy, worth £60 a year on his death, he requested and received the authority to appoint the new college's principal and scholars, he financed early building work in the college's front quadrangle, but on his death in 1574 it transpired that the college received only a lump sum of around £600. Problems with his bequest meant; as the college had no other donors at this time, "for many years the college had buildings but no revenue". The main benefactor, other than the King, was Eubule Thelwall, from Ruthin, North Wales, who became Principal in 1621. Thelwall died on 8 October 1630, aged 68 and was buried in Jesus College Chapel where a monument was erected to his memory by his brother Sir Bevis Thelwall. Other benefactions in the 17th century include Herbert Westfaling, the Bishop of Hereford, left enough property to support two fellowships and scholarships (with the significant proviso that "my kindred shallbe always preferred before anie other
Bishop's University is a small liberal arts college in Lennoxville, a borough of Sherbrooke, Canada. It is one of three universities in the province of Quebec that teach in English; the university shares a campus with its neighbour, Champlain College Lennoxville, an English-language public college. It remains one of Canada's few undergraduate universities, is linked with three others in the Maple League. Established in 1843 as Bishop's College and affiliated with the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge in 1853, the school remained under the Anglican church's direction from its founding until 1947. Since that time, the university has been a non-denominational institution. Bishop's University has graduated fifteen Rhodes Scholars, it is ranked number one in Canada for student satisfaction by Maclean's magazine. Bishop's College was established by Bishop George Jehoshaphat Mountain on December 9, 1843, in Lennoxville, for the education of members of the Church of England and erected into a university in 1853.
The school was founded by Bishop Mountain, the third Anglican bishop of Quebec, as a liberal arts college. In 1845, instruction began, in 1854, the first degrees were granted. In 1845, the Reverend Jasper Hume Nicolls, a Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford was appointed first principal of Bishop's College. In 1853, he and Bishop Mountain obtained the Royal Charter through which the college became a university, he led Bishop's for 32 years, through several financial crises. A faculty of medicine, known as Bishop's Medical Faculty, was established in Montreal in 1871, closed in 1905 when it amalgamated with McGill University. A short-lived Faculty of Law was established in Sherbrooke in 1880, to close in 1888, it granted only fifteen degrees. The Church of England controlled the university until 1947. Since 1947, a corporation and appointed trustees have been responsible for its business affairs, a senate has dealt with academic matters; this bicameral model of governance was based on the 1906 provincial University of Toronto Act, which established a system dividing university government into a senate to set academic policy, a board of governors to oversee financial policy and other matters.
The president, appointed by the board, was to perform institutional leadership and provide a link between the senate and the board of governors. In the early part of the twentieth century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine, while graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced; the policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. On December 9, 1993, a Sesquicentennial Convocation was held in Centennial Theatre. Governor General of Canada Ray Hnatyshyn presented the Coat of Arms and Flag and signed and presented the Letters Patent of Bishop's University. Undergraduate, Bishop's University offers graduate courses and M. A. and M. Ed. degrees in education and M. Sc. in computer science and physics.
Bishop's offers several programs from five academic divisions: Each division seeks to provide a well-rounded education for all its students. The average class size as of fall 2-17 was 34.7 in first- and second-year courses and 18.9 in upper-year courses. In 2004, Bishop's joined the Université de Sherbrooke in creating SIXtron, a joint spin-off of technology based in Montreal, focused on developing scalable and cost-effective, amorphous silicon carbide -based thin film coatings for the solar industry. In 2009, the Psychological Health and Well-Being Laboratory was founded as an initiative to produce and share knowledge regarding how to enhance the psychological health and well-being of individuals and the communities that they live in; the research cluster is headed by Dr. Heather Lawford, it is one of the others examining Social and Cultural Identities. As of 2018, Bishop's has a total of 2,867 students; the student body represents every Canadian province and territory along with 18 U. S. states and more than 50 countries.
The Williams School of Business is the business school at Bishop's University. It is accredited under the Network of International Business Schools and claims multiple first place victories in international business case competitions, it offers courses through a bachelor of business administration or bachelor of arts major in business. A cooperative education program is offered. 22% of Bishop's University students are enrolled in the Williams School of Business. The Williams School of Business offers the following concentrations under the BBA: The Bishop's campus is located on 500 acres of land at the junction of the Saint Francis and Massawippi rivers in the Eastern Townships region of Quebec; the site of Bishop's College, a grassy knoll at the confluence of two rivers, provided a natural setting where architecture would be viewed as an integral but subsidiary part of the scenic vista. Known as'Oxford on the Massawippi' for its architectural style, the campus is influenced by the Gothic Revival period and is home to some of Quebec's most historic buildings, including St. Mark's chapel.
Construction on campus began with "Old Arts" in 1846 and continues today with the University's most recent building, the Library Learning Commons, in 2017. The campus provided the setting for the films Lost and Delirious and The
Queen Mary University of London
Queen Mary University of London is a public research university in London, a constituent college of the federal University of London. It dates back to the foundation of London Hospital Medical College in 1785. Queen Mary College, named after Mary of Teck, was admitted to the University of London in 1915 and in 1989 merged with Westfield College to form Queen Mary and Westfield College. In 1995 Queen Mary and Westfield College merged with St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College and the London Hospital Medical College to form the School of Medicine and Dentistry. Queen Mary's main campus is in the Mile End area of Tower Hamlets, with other campuses in Holborn and Whitechapel. In 2015/16 it had 4,000 staff. Queen Mary is organised into three faculties – the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, the Faculty of Science and Engineering and Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry. Queen Mary is a member of the Russell Group of British research universities, the Association of Commonwealth Universities and Universities UK.
Queen Mary is a major centre for medical teaching and research and is part of UCLPartners, the world's largest academic health science centre. It has a strategic partnership with the University of Warwick, including research collaboration and joint teaching of English and computer science undergraduates. Queen Mary run programmes at the University of London Institute in Paris, taking over the functions provided by Royal Holloway. Queen Mary collaborates with University of London to offer its Global MBA program. For 2017–18, Queen Mary had a turnover of £459.5 million, including £106.5 million from research grants and contracts. In the 2018/19 international university rankings, Queen Mary ranked 119th, 130th, 110th and 151–200. In the national rankings for UK universities, Queen Mary ranked 38th by The Complete University Guide 2019 and 46th by the The Times/Sunday Times Good University Guide 2019. There are eight Nobel Laureates amongst Queen Mary's alumni and former staff; the Medical College of the Royal London Hospital was England’s first medical school when it opened in 1785.
In 1850, Elizabeth Blackwell became the first qualified female doctor in the UK, after training at St Bartholomew's Hospital. The predecessor to Queen Mary College was founded in the mid Victorian era as a People's Palace when growing awareness of conditions in London's East End led to drives to provide facilities for local inhabitants, popularised in the 1882 novel All Sorts of Conditions of Men – An Impossible Story by Walter Besant, which told of how a rich and clever couple from Mayfair went to the East End to build a "Palace of Delight, with concert halls, reading rooms, picture galleries and designing schools.":15-17 Although not directly responsible for the conception of the People's Palace, the novel did much to popularise it. The trustees of the Beaumont Trust, administering funds left by Barber Beaumont, purchased the site of the former Bancroft's School from the Drapers' Company. On 20 May 1885 the Drapers' Court of Assistants resolved to grant £20,000 "for the provision of the technical schools of the People's Palace.":21 The foundation stone was laid on 28 June 1886 and on 14 May 1887 Queen Victoria opened the palace's Queen's Hall as well as laying the foundation stone for the technical schools in the palace's east wing.
The technical schools were opened on 5 October 1888, with the entire palace completed by 1892. However others saw the technical schools as one day becoming a technical university for the East End.:37 In 1892 the Drapers' Company provided £7,000 a year for ten years to guarantee the educational side income. In 1895 John Leigh Smeathman Hatton, Director of Evening Classes, proposed introducing a course of study leading to the Bachelorsee of Science degree of the University of London. By the start of the 20th century the first degrees were awarded and Hatton, along with several other Professors, were recognised as Teachers of the University of London. In 1906 an application for Parliamentary funds "for the aid of Educational Institutions engaged in work of a University nature", led to the College being admitted on an initial three-year trial basis as a School of the University of London on 15 May 1907 as East London College. Teaching of aeronautical engineering began in 1907 which led to the first UK aeronautical engineering department being established in 1909, boasting a ground-breaking wind tunnel and creating what became the oldest Aeronautical Programme in the World.
In 1910 the College's status in the University of London was extended for a further five years, with unlimited membership achieved in May 1915. During this period the organisation of the governors of the People's Palace was rearranged, creating the separate People's Palace Committee and East London College Committee, both under the Palace Governors, as a sign of the growing separation of the two concepts within a single complex.:39–48During the First World War the College admitted students from the London Hospital Medical College who were preparing for the preliminary medical examination, the first step in a long process that would bring the two institutions together. After the war, the College grew, albeit constrained by the rest of the People's Palace to the west and a burial ground to the east. In 1920 it obtained both the Palace's Rotunda and rooms under the winter gardens at the west of the palace, which became chemical la
Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford
Lady Margaret Hall is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England, located on the banks of the River Cherwell at Norham Gardens in north Oxford and adjacent to the University Parks. The college is more formally known under its current royal charter as "The Principal and Fellows of the College of the Lady Margaret in the University of Oxford"; the college was founded in 1878 collaborating with Somerville College. Both colleges opened their doors in 1879 as the first two women's colleges of Oxford; the college began admitting men in 1979. The college has just under 400 undergraduate students, around 200 postgraduate students and 24 visiting students. In 2016, the college became the only college in Oxford or Cambridge to offer a Foundation Year for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. In 2018, Lady Margaret Hall ranked 21st out of 30 in Oxford's Norrington Table, a measurement of the performance of students in finals; the college's colours are blue and white. The college uses a coat of arms which accompanies the college's motto "Souvent me Souviens", an Old French phrase meaning "I remember" or "Think of me often", the motto of Lady Margaret Beaufort, for whom the college is named.
The current principal of the college is Alan Rusbridger. Notable students of Lady Margaret Hall include Benazir Bhutto, Michael Gove, Nigella Lawson, Josie Long, Ann Widdecombe and Malala Yousafzai. In June 1878, the Association for the Higher Education of Women was formed, aiming for the eventual creation of a college for women in Oxford; some of the more prominent members of the association were George Granville Bradley, Master of University College, T. H. Green, a prominent liberal philosopher and Fellow of Balliol College, Edward Stuart Talbot, Warden of Keble College. Talbot insisted on a Anglican institution, unacceptable to most of the other members; the two parties split, Talbot's group founded Lady Margaret Hall, while T. H. Green founded Somerville College. Lady Margaret Hall opened its doors to its first nine students in 1879; the first 21 students from Somerville and Lady Margaret Hall attended lectures in rooms above a baker's shop on Little Clarendon Street. The college was named after Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII, patron of scholarship and learning.
The first principal was Elizabeth Wordsworth, the great-niece of the poet William Wordsworth and daughter of Christopher Wordsworth, Bishop of Lincoln. The religious attitudes of the founders and principal were a deliberate contrast with the non-denominational Somerville College, founded shortly afterwards but despite the college's High Anglican origins, not all students were devout Christians. With a new building opening in 1894 the college expanded to 25 students; the land on which the college is built was part of the manor of Norham which belonged to St John's College. The college bought the land from St John's in 1894, the other institution driving a hard bargain and requiring a development price not only on the practical building land but on the undevelopable water meadows. However, this land purchase marked a change in ambition from occupying residential buildings for teaching purposes to erecting buildings befitting an educational institution. In 1897, members of Lady Margaret Hall founded the Lady Margaret Hall Settlement, a charitable initiative a place for graduates from the college to live in North Lambeth where they would work with and help develop opportunities for the poor.
It continues to operate to this day. Before 1920, the university refused to give degrees to women and would not acknowledge them as full members of the university. In 1920 the first women graduated from the college at the Sheldonian Theatre and the principal at the time, Henrietta Jex-Blake, was given an honorary degree. During the Second World War women were not permitted to fight on the front line and thus many of the students and fellows took up other roles to aid in the war effort, becoming nurses and ambulance drivers; the Fellows' Lawn was dug up and the students grew vegetables as part of the Dig for Victory campaign. In 1979, one hundred years after its foundation, the college began admitting men as well as women. In 1919 J. R. R. Tolkien started to give private tuition to students at Oxford, including members of students from LMH where his tuition was much needed given the limited resources and tutors the college had in its early years, his daughter, Priscilla Tolkien, attended the college, graduating in 1951.
In 2017 Malala Yousafzai, the youngest-ever Nobel Prize Peace laureate and Pakistani campaigner for girls' education, became a student of the college. In the same year, prospective Chemistry student Brian White faced deportation at the hands of the Home Office, but was able to take up his place at the college. In 2017, alumnus Paul McClean, a 24-year-old Financial Times journalist who had reported on the scale of treaty renegotiation necessitated by Brexit, was killed by a crocodile while on holiday in Sri Lanka. Lady Margaret Hall is the only Oxford college to offer a foundation year. Students choose a subject to specialise in, take courses in study skills and other general subject areas, with the aim that they progress to an undergraduate degree at the college after a year of study. Pupils live in the college and have access to the same university facilities, both academic and social, as other students. Modelled after a programme at Trinity College
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations known as the Commonwealth, is a unique political association of 53 member states, nearly all of them former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states; the Commonwealth dates back to the first half of the 20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was created as the British Commonwealth through the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, formalised by the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in 1931; the current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which modernised the community, established the member states as "free and equal". The human symbol of this free association is the Head of the Commonwealth Queen Elizabeth II, the 2018 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting appointed Charles, Prince of Wales to be her designated successor, although the position is not technically hereditary.
The Queen is the head of state of 16 member states, known as the Commonwealth realms, while 32 other members are republics and five others have different monarchs. Member states have no legal obligations to one another. Instead, they are united by English language, history and their shared values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law; these values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games. The countries of the Commonwealth cover more than 29,958,050 km2, equivalent to 20% of the world's land area, span all six inhabited continents. Queen Elizabeth II, in her address to Canada on Dominion Day in 1959, pointed out that the confederation of Canada on 1 July 1867 had been the birth of the "first independent country within the British Empire", she declared: "So, it marks the beginning of that free association of independent states, now known as the Commonwealth of Nations." As long ago as 1884 Lord Rosebery, while visiting Australia, had described the changing British Empire, as some of its colonies became more independent, as a "Commonwealth of Nations".
Conferences of British and colonial prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in 1911. The Commonwealth developed from the imperial conferences. A specific proposal was presented by Jan Smuts in 1917 when he coined the term "the British Commonwealth of Nations" and envisioned the "future constitutional relations and readjustments in essence" at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, attended by delegates from the Dominions as well as Britain; the term first received imperial statutory recognition in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, when the term British Commonwealth of Nations was substituted for British Empire in the wording of the oath taken by members of parliament of the Irish Free State. In the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference and its dominions agreed they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations".
The term "Commonwealth" was adopted to describe the community. These aspects to the relationship were formalised by the Statute of Westminster in 1931, which applied to Canada without the need for ratification, but Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland had to ratify the statute for it to take effect. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 February 1934, with the consent of its parliament, the government of Newfoundland voluntarily ended and governance reverted to direct control from London. Newfoundland joined Canada as its 10th province in 1949. Australia and New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1947 respectively. Although the Union of South Africa was not among the Dominions that needed to adopt the Statute of Westminster for it to take effect, two laws—the Status of the Union Act, 1934, the Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act of 1934—were passed to confirm South Africa's status as a sovereign state. After the Second World War ended, the British Empire was dismantled. Most of its components have become independent countries, whether Commonwealth realms or republics, members of the Commonwealth.
There remain the 14 self-governing British overseas territories which retain some political association with the United Kingdom. In April 1949, following the London Declaration, the word "British" was dropped from the title of the Commonwealth to reflect its changing nature. Burma and Aden are the only states that were British colonies at the time of the war not to have joined the Commonwealth upon independence. Former British protectorates and mandates that did not become members of the Commonwealth are Egypt, Transjordan, Sudan, British Somaliland, Bahrain, Oman and the United Arab Emirates; the postwar Commonwealth was given a fresh mission by Queen Elizabeth in her Christmas Day 1953 broadcast, in which she envisioned the Commonwealth as "an new conception – built on the highest qualities of the Spirit of Man: friendship and the desire for freedom and peace". Hoped for success was reinforced by such achievements as climbing Mount Everest in 1953, breaking the four-minute mile in 1954
St George's, University of London
St George's, University of London, is a medical school located in Tooting in South London and is a constituent college of the University of London. St George's has its origins in 1733, was the second institution in England to provide formal training courses for doctors. St George's affiliated with the University of London soon after the latter's establishment in 1836. St George's is affiliated to St George's Hospital and is one of the United Hospitals. St George Hospital Medical School was established in 1733 as part of St George's Hospital at Hyde Park Corner, in central London; the medical school was relocated, together with St George's Hospital to Tooting, South London in 1980. A joint faculty with Kingston University, the Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, has increased the variety of allied healthcare courses offered at St George's, including Nursing, Paramedic Science and Radiography. St George's was the first institution in the United Kingdom to offer a four-year graduate entry Medicine degree based on the program from Flinders University with which it has an exchange program.
The first intake was in 2000 with 35 students and the course has since been emulated by many other universities. Entry to the course is competitive with candidates being required to sit the GAMSAT as part of the application process. In 2008, St George's announced that it planned to merge with Royal Holloway to form a single institution within the University of London; the merger was called off in a joint statement by the two colleges' principals on 25 September 2009. St George's intends to keep working with Royal Holloway in the field of health and social care along with its well-established Joint Faculty with Kingston University. St George's, Kingston University and Royal Holloway will continue to collaborate in the field of health and social care as part of the existing SWan healthcare alliance; the St George's University of London campus is located in the Tooting area of south-west London, is co-located with St George's Hospital, a 1,300 bed major trauma centre. Teaching facilities at the campus include clinical skills laboratories and a simulation suite allowing students to practice based on real-life situations including surgical and medical emergencies.
The university library houses 42,000 books and subscribes to over 10,000 journals. The Rob Lowe Sports Centre located at the St George's Hospital grounds provided sporting facilities to students and staff, including a sports hall, three squash courts, weights and fitness rooms. However, the site has been decommissioned, with only the sports hall retained. Students have used other facilities instead, including the nearby Tooting Leisure Centre. St George's offers foundation and undergraduate degrees at its site in Tooting in medical and healthcare sciences, including: Biomedical Science BSc, Biomedical Science Foundation Degree, Healthcare Practice DipHE and BSc, Healthcare Practice Foundation Degree, Healthcare Science BSc, Medicine MBBS4, Medicine MBBS5, Medicine MBBS6, Physician Associate Studies MSc. In partnership with Kingston University, the joint Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences offers degrees in physiotherapy, paramedic science, midwifery, social work and diagnostic or therapeutic radiography.
St George's, in partnership with INTO University Partners, has formed a joint venture, INTO SGUL, to offer a Foundation in Medical and Health Sciences for international students whose qualifications do not allow direct progression into Bachelors level study in the UK, a six-year MBBS and a four-year graduate stream MBBS programme for international students, with clinical placements overseas. The first student cohort on each international MBBS programme entered St George's in September 2012. Outside of the UK, the MBBS4 is offered in Nicosia, through a partnership between St George's and the University of Nicosia; the new programme was inaugurated and the first student cohort commenced in Nicosia in September 2011. The programme at the University of Nicosia features international clinical placements in Israel and the USA. St George's offers numerous research and taught postgraduate degrees. St George's uses the integrated approach which involves the use of both Case Based Learning, Problem Based Learning and a traditional style of learning with the use of lectures and tutorials.
The degree of PBL used in teaching varies between courses, for example, being a major part of the Medicine course but not prominently within the Biomedical Sciences curriculum. Anatomy is taught at St George's through prosections and practical within the dissecting room, with anatomical dissection being optional as part of the Summer Dissection Programme. In the medical curriculum, preclinical teaching is based on lectures and tutorials held at the St George's campus, with a few weeks worth of attachments to various hospital departments; the third year of the undergraduate stream and second year of the graduate stream known as Transitional year, comprises three blocks of PBL with lectures and tutorials and three blocks of clinical placements in medicine and general practice. Subsequent clinical years of either course are spent on clinical placements of various specialities, with teaching occurring as lecture weeks prior to each placement block, or teaching which occurs at ho
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV; the university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College. McGill's main campus is at Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with the second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue on the Montreal Island, 30 kilometres west of the main campus; the university is one of two universities outside the United States who are members of the Association of American Universities and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum within the World Economic Forum. McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average admission requirements of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Medicine and Management. McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as five astronauts, the incumbent prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the incumbent Governor General of Canada, 14 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, over eight dozen members of the Canadian Parliament, United States Congress, British Parliament, other national legislatures, several billionaires, nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, two Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, at least 16 Emmy Award winners, 28 Olympic medalists, all of varying nationalities.
McGill alumni were instrumental in inventing or organizing football and ice hockey. McGill University or its alumni founded several major universities and colleges, including the Universities of British Columbia and Alberta, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dawson College; the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was created in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, An Act for the establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning in this Province. In 1816 the RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal; this was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools; when James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.
Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal. By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the school's board of directors and continued to operate it until 1870. Thereafter, its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college; the RIAL continues to exist today. Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756. Soon afterwards, McGill left for North America to explore the business opportunities there. Between 1811 and 1813, he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada. As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have to be established within 10 years of his death. On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family, McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV; the Charter provided the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees. Although McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school.
The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833. The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing; the university historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is m