The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of working-class life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Bart and Maggie; the show is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American culture and society and the human condition. The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a solicitation for a series of animated shorts with producer James L. Brooks. Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after his own family members, substituting Bart for his own name; the shorts became a part of The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After three seasons, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show and became Fox's first series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season. Since its debut on December 17, 1989, 659 episodes of The Simpsons have been broadcast, it is the longest-running American sitcom, the longest-running American scripted primetime television series in terms of seasons and number of episodes.
The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film, was released in theaters worldwide on July 27, 2007, grossed over $527 million. On October 30, 2007, a video game was released; the Simpsons is on its thirtieth season, which began airing September 30, 2018. The Simpsons was renewed for a thirty-first and thirty-second season on February 6, 2019, in which the latter will contain the 700th episode; the Simpsons received acclaim throughout its first nine or ten seasons, which are considered its "Golden Age". Time named it the 20th century's best television series, Erik Adams of The A. V. Club named it "television's crowning achievement regardless of format". On January 14, 2000, the Simpson family was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it has won dozens of awards since it debuted as a series, including 31 Primetime Emmy Awards, 30 Annie Awards, a Peabody Award. Homer's exclamatory catchphrase "D'oh!" has been adopted into the English language, while The Simpsons has influenced many other adult-oriented animated sitcoms.
However, it has been criticized for a perceived decline in quality over the years. The Simpsons is known for its wide ensemble of supporting characters; the main characters are the Simpson family, who live in a fictional "Middle America" town of Springfield. Homer, the father, works as a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, a position at odds with his careless, buffoonish personality, he is married to a stereotypical American housewife and mother. They have three children: a ten-year-old troublemaker and prankster. Although the family is dysfunctional, many episodes examine their relationships and bonds with each other and they are shown to care about one another. Homer's dad Grampa Simpson lives in the Springfield Retirement Home after Homer forced his dad to sell his house so that his family could buy theirs. Grampa Simpson has had starring roles in several episodes; the family owns a dog, Santa's Little Helper, a cat, Snowball V, renamed Snowball II in "I, -Bot". Both pets have had starring roles in several episodes.
The show includes an array of quirky supporting characters, which include Homer's co-workers Lenny Leonard and Carl Carlson, the school principal Seymour Skinner and teachers Edna Krabappel and Elizabeth Hoover, neighbor Ned Flanders, friends Barney Gumble, Apu Nahasapeemapetilon, Moe Szyslak, Milhouse Van Houten, Nelson Muntz, extended relatives Patty and Selma Bouvier, townspeople such as Mayor Quimby, Chief Clancy Wiggum, tycoon Charles Montgomery Burns and his executive assistant Waylon Smithers, local celebrities Krusty the Clown and news reporter Kent Brockman. The creators intended many of these characters as one-time jokes or for fulfilling needed functions in the town. A number of them subsequently starred in their own episodes. According to Matt Groening, the show adopted the concept of a large supporting cast from the comedy show SCTV. Despite the depiction of yearly milestones such as holidays or birthdays passing, the characters do not age between episodes, appear just as they did when the series began.
The series uses a floating timeline in which episodes take place in the year the episode is produced though the characters do not age. Flashbacks and flashforwards do depict the characters at other points in their lives, with the timeline of these depictions generally floating relative to the year the episode is produced. For example, in the 1991 episode "I Married Marge", Bart appears to be born in 1980 or 1981, but in the 1995 episode "And Maggie Makes Three", Maggie appears to be born in 1993 or 1994. A canon of the show does exist, although Treehouse of Horror episodes and any fictional story told within the series are non-canon. However, continuity is limited in The Simpsons. For example, Krusty the Clown may be able to read in one episode, but may not be able to read in another. Lessons learned by the family in one episode may be forgotten in the next; some examples of limited continuity include Sideshow Bob's appearances where Bart and Lisa flashback at all the crimes he committed in Springfield or when the characters try to remember things that happened in previous episodes.
The Simpsons takes place in the fictional American town of Springfield in an unknown and impossible-to-determine U. S. state. The show is intentionally e
Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment
"Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" is the thirteenth episode of The Simpsons' second season; the 26th episode of the series overall, it aired on the Fox network in the United States on February 7, 1991. In the episode, Homer gets an illegal cable hook-up. Despite the family's enjoyment of the new channels, Lisa becomes suspicious that they are stealing cable, her suspicions are confirmed by Reverend Lovejoy and she protests by no longer watching television. Meanwhile, Bart manages to tune into a sexually explicit adult movie channel, Homer invites his friends over to watch a boxing match, but Lisa's protest gets to him, he decides not to watch cuts the cable. The episode was directed by Rich Moore, it is based on the Eighth Commandment. The episode marks the debut of Troy McClure, voiced by Phil Hartman and based on the typical "washed up" Hollywood actor; the character Drederick Tatum, one of the boxers in the boxing match Homer and his friends watch makes his first appearance on the show in this episode.
In its original broadcast, "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" received a Nielsen rating of 15.2, finishing 25th the week it aired. It received favorable reviews from critics and became the second episode of The Simpsons to win the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program. After seeing Ned Flanders reject an offer from a crooked cable man to get an illegal cable hook-up for $50, Homer chases after the cable man and takes the offer. Homer spends a lot of time watching the television along with his family. Lisa, feels suspicious about the cable hook-up. Following a Sunday school lesson regarding the existence and nature of Hell, Lisa becomes terrified of violations of the Ten Commandments, the adherence to which she is assured will keep one's soul safe from Hell, she fears. Lisa begins to oppose other examples of common thievery all around her convincing Marge to pay the cost on two grapes she sampled in a grocery store, much to the clerk's chagrin. Lisa pays a visit to Reverend Lovejoy at church, where he suggests that Lisa cannot turn her father in to the police for the illegal hook-up, since she must continue to "Honour Thy Father and Thy Mother", according to the Fifth Commandment.
He instead encourages Lisa to not watch anything on Homer's cable hook-up, setting a good example that he hopes others will follow. Marge pleads with Homer to either cut the cable or pay for it, but he refuses to do either, saying that the cable will stay as long as he desires. Meanwhile, Bart sets up posters on the back door for his showing of a porn channel for 50 cents, but he is caught a few seconds by Homer, who forbids him from doing it. Homer sees a commercial for "The Bout to Knock the Other Guy Out!", a much-anticipated boxing match in which Drederick Tatum will fight for the World Heavyweight Championship. Homer invites all of his friends to come over and watch the fight. Lisa tries to boycott the party, so this results in Homer making her stay outside on the lawn. Homer’s conscience bothers him, more in the form of his daughter's distress than a moral objection to stealing cable due to a hallucination that he goes to prison for stealing cable, he gives in to Lisa's protests, begrudgingly choosing not to watch the last minutes of the fight, Marge and Maggie join them as well.
Bart refuses to give in. The family sits the fight out and when everyone has left, Homer hesitantly cuts his cable hook-up while ignoring Bart's objection, but he accidentally ends up cutting the power to the whole neighborhood, only to get the right cable on the third attempt, resulting in the episode abruptly ending showing static. "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" was written by freelance writer Steve Pepoon and directed by Rich Moore, it was going to be named "Homer vs. the 8th Commandment", but the writers decided to include Lisa in the title because they wanted the cast to feel as if all their characters were represented on the show. The episode is based on the Eighth Commandment, one of the Ten Commandments; the Simpsons writer Al Jean said that "whenever people come up to me and say that The Simpsons is just sort of this outrageous show that has no moral center, I always point them to this, where Homer gets an illegal cable hook-up and suffers enormous consequences."The Simpsons writer Mike Reiss feels that episodes such as "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" are his favorite episodes to write because they have a "solid theme or an issue", that one can "discuss endlessly and just have it present itself in so many different ways."
Producer Jeff Martin said that the writers tried to use a "very strict construction of the Eighth Commandment," considering cable theft to be "essentially a victimless crime." "Homer vs. the 8th Commandment" was produced at a time when illegal cable hookups were becoming commonplace in many homes. This episode inspired the season four episode "Homer the Heretic", in which Homer stops going to church on Sundays. Based on the Fourth Commandment, "remember the Sabbath and keep it holy", that episode originated when Jean commented to Reiss, "We had a lot of luck with Homer stealing cable, so maybe we could look to other commandments?"The episode marks the debut appearance of the character Troy McClure, voiced by Phil Hartman. McClure was based on the typical "washed up" Hollywood actor, B movie actors Troy Donahue and Doug McClure served as in
Our Miss Brooks
Our Miss Brooks is an American sitcom starring Eve Arden as a sardonic high-school English teacher. It began as a radio show broadcast on CBS from 1948 to 1957; when the show was adapted to television, it became one of the medium's earliest hits. In 1956, the sitcom was adapted for the big screen in the film of the same name. Constance "Connie" Brooks is an English teacher at fictional Madison High School. Osgood Conklin is the blustery, gruff and unsympathetic principal of Madison High, a near-constant pain to his faculty and students. Conklin would abuse his authority to make teachers work extra hours or perform personal favors for him. Philip Boynton, is a Madison High biology teacher, the shy and clueless object of Miss Brooks' affections. Walter Denton, is a Madison High student, well-intentioned and clumsy, with a nasally high, cracking voice, which he can disguise when making mischief driving Miss Brooks to school in a broken-down jalopy. Aware of Miss Brooks' feelings, he tirelessly tries to help her snare Mr. Boynton, despite the latter's cluelessness.
Margaret Davis, Miss Brooks' absentminded landlady, has two trademarks, a penchant for whipping up exotic and inedible breakfasts and tendency to lose her train of thought midsentence. Harriet Conklin is a Madison High daughter of Osgood Conklin. A sometime love interest for Walter Denton, Harriet is sweet and guileless, unlike her father. Fabian "Stretch" Snodgrass is Walter's best friend. Daisy Enright is a Madison High English teacher and a scheming professional and romantic rival to Miss Brooks. Ruth Nestor, introduced as the new school principal in the episode "Big Ears" Minerva, Mrs. Davis' cat. In the radio series, Minerva had the habit of sleeping inside Mrs. Davis' parlor piano, leading to a running gag of an impressive piano riff any time something startled her awake. Our Miss Brooks was a hit on radio from the outset. Arden had been the third choice to play the title role. Harry Ackerman, at the time CBS's West Coast director of programming, wanted Shirley Booth for the part, but as he told historian Gerald Nachman many years he realized Booth was too focused on the underpaid downside of public school teaching at the time to have fun with the role.
Lucille Ball was believed to have been the next choice, but she was committed to My Favorite Husband and did not audition. CBS chairman Bill Paley, friendly with Arden, persuaded her to audition for the part. With a rewritten audition script—Osgood Conklin, for example, was written as a school board president but was now written as the incoming new Madison principal—Arden agreed to give the newly revamped show a try. Produced by Larry Berns and written by director Al Lewis, Our Miss Brooks premiered on CBS July 19, 1948. According to radio critic John Crosby, her lines were "feline" in dialogue scenes with principal Conklin and would-be boyfriend Boynton, with sharp, witty comebacks; the interplay between the cast—blustery Conklin, nebbishy Denton, accommodating Harriet, absentminded Mrs. Davis, clueless Boynton, scheming Miss Enright—also received positive reviews. Jeff Chandler played Boynton and stayed with the role for five years after becoming a movie star, he resigned because it was too exhausting to juggle a regular radio role with his film commitments.
Others in the cast included Anne Whitfield as Harriet. Arden won a radio listeners' poll by Radio Mirror magazine as the top-ranking comedienne of 1948–49, receiving her award at the end of an Our Miss Brooks broadcast that March. "I'm going to try in the coming months to merit the honor you've bestowed upon me, because I understand that if I win this two years in a row, I get to keep Mr. Boynton", she joked, but she was a hit with the critics. For its entire radio life, the show was sponsored by Colgate-Palmolive-Peet, promoting Palmolive soap, Lustre Creme shampoo, Toni hair-care products; the radio series continued until 1957, a year. This content is now available for download at the Internet Archive here; the show's full cast, minus Jeff Chandler, played the same characters in the television version, which continued to revolve around Connie Brooks' daily relationships with Madison High students and principal. Philip Boynton was played by Robert Rockwell, who succeeded Jeff Chandler on the radio series.
The television show, sponsored by General Foods, shifted focus in its run, moving Connie Brooks and Osgood Conklin from a public high school to an exclusive private school in the fall of 1955. It changed the title character's romantic focus: Gene Barry was cast as physical education teacher Gene Talbot, Connie was now the pursued instead of the pursuer, although Mr. Boynton reappeared in several episodes before the season ended. Our Miss Brooks ran for 130 episodes on television and won an Emmy Award before it w
Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?
"Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?" is the fifteenth episode of The Simpsons' second season. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on February 21, 1991. In the episode, Grampa confesses that Homer has a half-brother, whom Homer tries to track down, he discovers that his brother is Herbert Powell, a car manufacturer. Herb starts to bond with Bart and Lisa, he invites Homer to design his own car. Homer's car design turns out to be a disaster; the episode was directed by Wes Archer. American actor Danny DeVito provided the voice of Herb; the episode features cultural references to cars such as the Edsel, the Tucker Torpedo, the Ford Mustang, the Lamborghini Cheetah. Since airing, the episode has received positive reviews from television critics, it acquired a Nielsen rating of 15.4, was the highest-rated show on the Fox network the week it aired. Some fans were upset with the sad ending of the episode, as a result the producers decided to write a sequel, "Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?", in which Herb regains his fortune and forgives Homer.
After watching the latest McBain film, Grampa suffers a mild heart attack. Thinking he might die, he is prompted to confess a long-hidden secret: Homer has a half-brother. Grampa explains that he met a carnival prostitute before marrying Mona, Homer's mother, they had a son that they left at the Shelbyville Orphanage. Determined to find his brother and his family go to the orphanage and find out that Grampa's love child was adopted by a Mr. and Mrs. Powell and named Herbert. Herbert "Herb" Powell, who looks just like Homer, except he is taller and has more hair, is the head of the automobile manufacturer Powell Motors in Detroit, in need of new ideas, he is rich, but is unhappy not knowing who he is and where he comes from. He is overjoyed upon hearing of his half-brother and invites the entire Simpson family to stay at his mansion. Bart and Maggie are enthralled by Herb's wealthy lifestyle and kind personality, although Marge worries about spoiling her children. Herb decides that Homer, being an average American, is the perfect person to design a new car for his company.
Homer is given free rein in the design. At the unveiling of the new car, Herb is horrified to find that the car is a badly designed monstrosity that costs US$82,000, leaving Powell Motors bankrupt and out of business, while Herb's mansion is foreclosed and he loses everything he worked for; as he departs Detroit on a bus, he angrily remarks to Homer that he would have been better off if he never met him and that as far as he is concerned, he has no brother. While Marge tries to console Homer, Lisa agrees with Herb and laments on his life before he discovered he was a Simpson. Grampa soon asks about Herb. Before Homer can answer what happened, Grampa remarks to Homer that he knew "he'd blow it", leaves in the cab he just arrived in, rather than getting in the car with the rest of the Simpson family. While Homer drives the family home, Bart tells him that the car he built was great, Homer becomes relieved to discover that at least one person liked it. "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?" was written by Jeff Martin and directed by Wes Archer.
Both Homer's mother Mona Simpson and Herb make their first appearances on The Simpsons in the episode. Some fans were upset with the sad ending of the episode, as a result the producers decided to write a sequel in which Herb would be given a kinder fate; the resulting episode, "Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?", aired at the end of the third season. In that episode, Herb settled in the Simpson household, despite his intense continuing antipathy toward Homer. Homer loaned Herb US$2000, which Herb used to build an invention that translated infantile speech into comprehensible English, based on observations he made of Maggie, he regained his fortune. He bought each member of the family gifts and paid Homer back with a vibrating chair, along with his forgiveness; the episode was recorded on August 13, 1990. The voice of Herb was provided by guest star Danny DeVito, an American actor, suggested for the role by Simpsons executive producer Sam Simon. Bart's voice actor, Nancy Cartwright, writes in her autobiography My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy that DeVito had to record his lines because he had another appointment, so the staff focused on recording his scenes only instead of the whole episode at once.
Cartwright was a fan of DeVito's and recalls: "This morning, at the table read, I had just filled my plate with assorted fruits when Bonnie said to my backside,'Nancy, I want to introduce you to...' and I turned and knocked over Danny DeVito, all four feet, eleven inches of him. How embarrassing!" While recording the scenes, Cartwright stood directly across the room from DeVito, which she appreciated since she got to see him in action. She thought DeVito "threw his soul" into his performance. While the recording took part, animation director Archer scribbled down some of DeVito's attitudes and facial expressions on a piece of paper as he performed. In one scene of the episode, Herb tells Homer and the rest of the Simpson family to " yourselves at home. We have a tennis court, a swimming pool, a screening room..." Cartwright said of it: This was written with Danny in mind as I have no doubt that he has the aforementioned amenities in real life. He has earned his right to stand tall, it wouldn't have shocked me to see him spew attitude all over us if he wanted to.
But he's a hard worker and he concentrated on the job As the episode came to its climax, we discovered that all the material things
Marjorie Jacqueline "Marge" Simpson is a fictional character in the American animated sitcom The Simpsons and part of the eponymous family. She is voiced by Julie Kavner and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Marge was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters, he named the character after his mother Margaret Groening. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three seasons, the Simpson family received their own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989. Marge is the matriarch of the Simpson family. With her husband Homer, she has three children: Bart and Maggie. Marge is the moralistic force in her family and provides a grounding voice in the midst of her family's antics by trying to maintain order in the Simpson household, she is portrayed as a stereotypical television mother and is included on lists of top "TV moms".
She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise. Marge's distinctive blue beehive hairstyle was inspired by a combination of the Bride's in Bride of Frankenstein and the style that Margaret Groening wore in the 1960s. Julie Kavner, a member of the original cast of The Tracey Ullman Show, was asked to voice Marge so that more voice actors would not be needed. Kavner has won several awards for voicing Marge, including a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992, she was nominated for an Annie Award for Best Voice Acting in an Animated Feature for her performance in The Simpsons Movie. In 2000, along with the rest of her family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; the Simpsons uses a floating timeline, as such the show is assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events have been linked to specific time periods, although this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes.
Marge Simpson is the wife of Homer and mother of Bart and Maggie Simpson. She was raised by her parents and Clancy Bouvier, she has a pair of the joyless Patty and Selma, both of whom vocally disapprove of Homer. In "The Way We Was", it is revealed via flashback that Marge attended Springfield High School, in her final year met Homer Simpson, after they both were sent to detention—Homer for smoking in the bathroom with Barney, Marge for burning her bra in a feminist protest, she was at first wary of Homer, but agreed to go to the prom with him, although she ended up going with Artie Ziff after Homer received tutoring lessons were a means to get to know her better, while knowing that she needed to sleep for a school meet. However, she regretted going with Artie. At the end of the evening, while Artie drove her home after receiving a slap, she spied Homer walking along the side of the road with the corsage meant for her. After hearing her parents voicing their negative opinions about Homer, she took her own car and went back to give him a ride.
She told Homer she should've gone to the prom with him and he fixes her snapped shoulder strap with the corsage. During the ride, he tells her he will kiss her and never be able to let her go. After the two had been dating for several years, Marge discovered she was pregnant with Bart, she and Homer were married in a small wedding chapel across the state line. Bart was born soon after, the couple bought their first house; the episode "That'90s Show" contradicted much of the established back-story. As with many Simpsons characters, Marge's age and birthday changes to serve the story. In season one episodes "Life on the Fast Lane" and "Some Enchanted Evening", Marge was said to be 34. In "Homer's Paternity Coot", Marge states that Emerald would have been her birthstone if she had been born three months placing her birthday sometime in February. In "Regarding Margie", Homer mentioned that Marge was his age, meaning she could have been anywhere between 36 and 40. During this episode, Lisa questions Homer's memory of Marge's birthday.
When he can not remember, Marge yells. In the season eighteen episode "Marge Gamer" she states that she and actor Randy Quaid share the same birthdate. Marge has been nonworking for most of the series, choosing to be a homemaker and take care of her family. However, she has held several one-episode jobs in the course of the series; these include working as a nuclear technician alongside Homer at Springfield Nuclear Power Plant in "Marge Gets a Job". While Marge has never expressed discontent with her role as a homemaker, she has become bored with it. In "The Springfield Connection", Marge decided that she needed more excitement in her life and became a police officer. However, by the end of the episode, she quit. Matt Groening first conceived Marge and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986 in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks' office. Groe
Monty Python were a British surreal comedy group who created their sketch comedy show Monty Python's Flying Circus, which first aired on the BBC in 1969. Forty-five episodes were made over four series; the Python phenomenon developed from the television series into something larger in scope and impact, including touring stage shows, numerous albums, several books, musicals. The Pythons' influence on comedy has been compared to the Beatles' influence on music, their sketch show has been referred to as "not only one of the more enduring icons of 1970s British popular culture, but an important moment in the evolution of television comedy". Broadcast by the BBC between 1969 and 1974, Monty Python's Flying Circus was conceived and performed by its members Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, Michael Palin. Loosely structured as a sketch show, but with an innovative stream-of-consciousness approach, aided by Gilliam's animation, it pushed the boundaries of what was acceptable in style and content.
A self-contained comedy team responsible for both writing and performing their work, the Pythons had creative control which allowed them to experiment with form and content, discarding rules of television comedy. Following their television work, they began making films, which include Monty Python and the Holy Grail, Life of Brian and The Meaning of Life, their influence on British comedy has been apparent for years, while in North America, it has coloured the work of cult performers from the early editions of Saturday Night Live through to more recent absurdist trends in television comedy. "Pythonesque" has entered the English lexicon as a result. In a 2005 poll of over 300 comics, comedy writers and directors throughout the English-speaking world to find "The Comedian's Comedian", three of the six Pythons members were voted to be among the top 50 greatest comedians ever: Cleese at No. 2, Idle at No. 21, Palin at No. 30. Jones and Palin met at Oxford University. Chapman and Cleese met at Cambridge University.
Idle was at Cambridge, but started a year after Chapman and Cleese. Cleese met Gilliam in New York City while on tour with the Cambridge University Footlights revue Cambridge Circus. Chapman and Idle were members of the Footlights, which at that time included the future Goodies, Jonathan Lynn. During Idle's presidency of the club, feminist writer Germaine Greer and broadcaster Clive James were members. Recordings of Footlights' revues at Pembroke College include sketches and performances by Cleese and Idle, along with tapes of Idle's performances in some of the drama society's theatrical productions, are kept in the archives of the Pembroke Players; the six Python members appeared in or wrote these shows before Flying Circus: I'm Sorry, I'll Read That Again – The Frost Report – – At Last the 1948 Show – Twice a Fortnight Do Not Adjust Your Set – + Bonzo Dog Band: musical interludes We Have Ways of Making You Laugh – How to Irritate People – The Complete and Utter History of Britain Doctor in the House The BBC’s satirical television show, The Frost Report, broadcast from March 1966 to December 1967, is credited as first uniting the British Pythons and providing an environment in which they could develop their particular styles.
Following the success of Do Not Adjust Your Set, broadcast on ITV in the UK from December 1967 to May 1969, ITV offered Gilliam, Idle and Palin their own late-night adult comedy series together. At the same time and Cleese were offered a show by the BBC, impressed by their work on The Frost Report and At Last the 1948 Show. Cleese was reluctant to do a two-man show for various reasons, including Chapman's difficult and erratic personality. Cleese had fond memories of working with Palin on How to Irritate People and invited him to join the team. With no studio available at ITV until summer 1970 for the late-night show, Palin agreed to join Cleese and Chapman, suggested the involvement of his writing partner Jones and colleague Idle—who in turn wanted Gilliam to provide animations for the projected series. Much has been made of the fact that the Monty Python troupe is the result of Cleese's desire to work with Palin and the chance circumstances that brought the other four members into the fold.
By contrast, according to John Cleese's autobiography, the origins of Monty Python lay in the admiration that writing partners Cleese and Chapman had for the new type of comedy being done on Do Not Adjust Your Set. According to their official website, the group was born from a Kashmir tandoori restaurant in Hampstead in 1969; the Pythons had a definite idea about. They were admirers of the work of Pete
The Simpsons (season 2)
The Simpsons' second season aired on the Fox network between October 11, 1990 and July 11, 1991, contained 22 episodes, beginning with "Bart Gets an "F"". Another episode, "Blood Feud", aired during the summer after the official season finale; the executive producers for the second production season were Matt Groening, James L. Brooks, Sam Simon, EPs for the previous season; the DVD box set was released on August 6, 2002 in Region 1, July 8, 2002 in Region 2 and in September, 2002 in Region 4. The episode "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program, was nominated in the "Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Comedy Series or a Special" category. "Two Cars in Every Garage and Three Eyes on Every Fish" was the first episode produced for the season, but "Bart Gets an "F"" aired first because Bart was popular at the time and the producers had wanted to premiere with a Bart themed episode. The second season featured a new opening sequence, shortened by fifteen seconds from its original length of 1 minute, 30 seconds.
The opening sequence for the first season showed Bart stealing a "Bus Stop" sign. Starting with this season, there were three versions of the opening: a full 1 minute 15 second long version, a 45-second version and a 25-second version; this gave the show's editors more leeway. The season saw the introduction of several new recurring characters, including Mayor Quimby and Kodos, Maude Flanders and Marty, Dr. Hibbert, Roger Meyers, Jr. Sideshow Mel, Lionel Hutz, Dr. Nick Riviera, Blue Haired Lawyer, Rainier Wolfcastle, Troy McClure, Groundskeeper Willie, Hans Moleman, Professor Frink and Comic Book Guy. Due to the show's success during its abbreviated first season, Fox decided to move The Simpsons from its Sunday night lineup; the move came as the still-fledgling network was adding two additional nights of programming to its lineup, one of, Thursday. Fox placed The Simpsons in the leadoff position of their lineup for their initial Thursday offerings, with the new sitcom Babes and a new Aaron Spelling-produced drama, Beverly Hills 90210, offering competition for the lineups fielded by the other networks including ratings champion NBC.
The Simpsons settled into the 8:00 PM position, which put it in direct competition with the five-time defending #1 show in all of television, The Cosby Show. Many of the producers, including James L. Brooks, were against the move because The Simpsons had been in the top 10 while airing on Sunday and they felt the move would destroy its ratings. All through the summer of 1990, several news outlets published stories about the supposed "Bill vs. Bart" rivalry. At the time, NBC had 208 television stations, while Fox only had 133."Bart Gets an "F"" was the first episode to air against The Cosby Show and averaged an 18.4 Nielsen rating and 29% of the audience. In the weeks ratings, it finished tied for eighth behind The Cosby Show. However, an estimated 33.6 million viewers watched the episode, making it the number one show in terms of actual viewers that week. At the time, it was the most watched episode in the history of Fox; the next week, "Simpson and Delilah" had a 16.2 rating and 25% share while the Cosby Show managed to maintain its 18.5 rating.
However, viewer-wise, The Simpsons won again with 29.9 million viewers. The next week, "Treehouse of Horror" fell in the ratings. Ratings wise, new episodes of The Cosby Show beat The Simpsons every time during the second season and The Simpsons fell out of the top 10."Three Men and a Comic Book" would boast the only victory over The Cosby Show, finishing 23rd in the weekly ratings while a rerun of Cosby finished 26th. At the end of the season, Cosby averaged as the fifth highest rated show on television while The Simpsons was 38th, it would not be until the third season episode "Homer at the Bat" that The Simpsons would beat The Cosby Show in the ratings. The show remained in its Thursday timeslot until the sixth season. On aggregate review website Metacritic, a site which uses a weighted mean score, the season scored a 91/100 based on seven critics, indicating "universal acclaim"; the DVD boxset for season two was released by 20th Century Fox in the United States and Canada on August 6, 2002, eleven years after it had completed broadcast on television.
As well as every episode from the season, the DVD release features bonus material including commentaries for every episode. Bibliography Season 2 at The Simpsons.com Season 2 at the BBC Season 2 at TV.com