Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books; the project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on any computer. As of 23 June 2018, Project Gutenberg reached 57,000 items in its collection of free eBooks; the releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence.
Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the university's Materials Research Lab. Through friendly operators, he received an account with a unlimited amount of computer time. Hart has said he wanted to "give back" this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value, his initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge, to do so by the end of the 20th century. This particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on ARPANET, the computer network that would become the Internet. Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and decided to make works of literature available in electronic form for free, he used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. He named the project after Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution.
By the mid-1990s, Hart was running Project Gutenberg from Illinois Benedictine College. More volunteers had joined the effort. All of the text was entered manually until 1989 when image scanners and optical character recognition software improved and became more available, which made book scanning more feasible. Hart came to an arrangement with Carnegie Mellon University, which agreed to administer Project Gutenberg's finances; as the volume of e-texts increased, volunteers began to take over the project's day-to-day operations that Hart had run. Starting in 2004, an improved online catalog made Project Gutenberg content easier to browse and hyperlink. Project Gutenberg is now hosted by ibiblio at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Italian volunteer Pietro Di Miceli developed and administered the first Project Gutenberg website and started the development of the Project online Catalog. In his ten years in this role, the Project web pages won a number of awards being featured in "best of the Web" listings, contributing to the project's popularity.
Hart died on 6 September 2011 at his home in Urbana, Illinois at the age of 64. In 2000, a non-profit corporation, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, Inc. was chartered in Mississippi, United States to handle the project's legal needs. Donations to it are tax-deductible. Long-time Project Gutenberg volunteer Gregory Newby became the foundation's first CEO. In 2000, Charles Franks founded Distributed Proofreaders, which allowed the proofreading of scanned texts to be distributed among many volunteers over the Internet; this effort increased the number and variety of texts being added to Project Gutenberg, as well as making it easier for new volunteers to start contributing. DP became affiliated with Project Gutenberg in 2002; as of 2018, the 36,000+ DP-contributed books comprised two-thirds of the nearly 57,000 books in Project Gutenberg. In August 2003, Project Gutenberg created a CD containing 600 of the "best" e-books from the collection; the CD is available for download as an ISO image.
When users are unable to download the CD, they can request to have a copy sent to them, free of charge. In December 2003, a DVD was created containing nearly 10,000 items. At the time, this represented the entire collection. In early 2004, the DVD became available by mail. In July 2007, a new edition of the DVD was released containing over 17,000 books, in April 2010, a dual-layer DVD was released, containing nearly 30,000 items; the majority of the DVDs, all of the CDs mailed by the project, were recorded on recordable media by volunteers. However, the new dual layer DVDs were manufactured, as it proved more economical than having volunteers burn them; as of October 2010, the project has mailed 40,000 discs. As of 2017, the delivery of free CDs has been discontinued, though the ISO image is still available for download; as of August 2015, Project Gutenberg claimed over 57,000 items in its collection, with an average of over 50 new e-books being added each week. These are works of literature from the Western cultural tradition.
In addition to literature such as novels, short stories and drama, Project Gutenberg has cookbooks, reference works and issues of periodicals. The Project Gutenberg collection has a few non-text items such as audio files and music-notation files. Most releases are in English, but there are significant numbers in many other languages; as of April 2016, the non-English languages most represented are: Fren
The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage. Comparative advantage is the economic reality describing the work gains from trade for individuals, firms, or nations, which arise from differences in their factor endowments or technological progress. In an economic model, agents have a comparative advantage over others in producing a particular good if they can produce that good at a lower relative opportunity cost or autarky price, i.e. at a lower relative marginal cost prior to trade. One does not compare the monetary costs of production or the resource costs of production. Instead, one must compare the opportunity costs of producing goods across countries. David Ricardo developed the classical theory of comparative advantage in 1817 to explain why countries engage in international trade when one country's workers are more efficient at producing every single good than workers in other countries.
He demonstrated that if two countries capable of producing two commodities engage in the free market each country will increase its overall consumption by exporting the good for which it has a comparative advantage while importing the other good, provided that there exist differences in labor productivity between both countries. Regarded as one of the most powerful yet counter-intuitive insights in economics, Ricardo's theory implies that comparative advantage rather than absolute advantage is responsible for much of international trade. Adam Smith first alluded to the concept of absolute advantage as the basis for international trade in The Wealth of Nations: If a foreign country can supply us with a commodity cheaper than we ourselves can make it, better buy it off them with some part of the produce of our own industry employed in a way in which we have some advantage; the general industry of the country, being always in proportion to the capital which employs it, will not thereby be diminished but only left to find out the way in which it can be employed with the greatest advantage.
Writing several decades after Smith in 1808, Robert Torrens articulated a preliminary definition of comparative advantage as the loss from the closing of trade: f I wish to know the extent of the advantage, which arises to England, from her giving France a hundred pounds of broadcloth, in exchange for a hundred pounds of lace, I take the quantity of lace which she has acquired by this transaction, compare it with the quantity which she might, at the same expense of labour and capital, have acquired by manufacturing it at home. The lace that remains, beyond what the labour and capital employed on the cloth, might have fabricated at home, is the amount of the advantage which England derives from the exchange. In 1817, David Ricardo published what has since become known as the theory of comparative advantage in his book On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. In a famous example, Ricardo considers a world economy consisting of two countries and England, which produce two goods of identical quality.
In Portugal, the a priori more efficient country, it is possible to produce wine and cloth with less labor than it would take to produce the same quantities in England. However, the relative costs of producing those two goods differ between the countries. In this illustration, England could commit 100 hours of labor to produce one unit of cloth, or produce 5/6 units of wine. Meanwhile, in comparison, Portugal could commit 90 hours of labor to produce one unit of cloth, or produce 9/8 units of wine. So, Portugal possesses an absolute advantage in producing cloth due to fewer labor hours, England has a comparative advantage due to lower opportunity cost. In the absence of trade, England requires 220 hours of work to both produce and consume one unit each of cloth and wine while Portugal requires 170 hours of work to produce and consume the same quantities. England is more efficient at producing cloth than wine, Portugal is more efficient at producing wine than cloth. So, if each country specializes in the good for which it has a comparative advantage the global production of both goods increases, for England can spend 220 labor hours to produce 2.2 units of cloth while Portugal can spend 170 hours to produce 2.125 units of wine.
Moreover, if both countries specialize in the above manner and England trades a unit of its cloth for 5/6 to 9/8 units of Portugal's wine both countries can consume at least a unit each of cloth and wine, with 0 to 0.2 units of cloth and 0 to 0.125 units of wine remaining in each respective country to be consumed or exported. Both England and Portugal can consume more wine and cloth under free trade than in autarky; the Ricardian model is a general equilibrium mathematical model of international trade. Although the idea of the Ricardian model was first presented in the Essay on Profits and in the Principles by David Ricardo, the first mathematical Ricardian model was published by William Whewell in 1833; the earliest test of the Ricardian model was performed by G. D. A MacDougall, published in Economic Journal of 1951 and 1952. In the Ricardian model, trade patterns depend on productivity differences; the following is a typical modern interpretation of the classical Ricardian model. In the interest of simplicity, it uses notation and definitions, such as opportunity cost, unavailable to Ricardo.
The world economy consists of two countries and Foreign, which produce wine and cloth. Labor, the only factor of production, is not internationally. We denote the labor force in Home by
Political philosophy known as political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, justice, rights and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, if they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect, what form it should take, what the law is, what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics, synonymous to the term "political ideology". Political philosophy is a branch of philosophy. Within political science, a strong focus has been placed on the role of political philosophy, moral philosophy and the humanities, although in recent years there has been increased focus to political theory based on quantitative methodological approaches as well as economic theory, the natural sciences and behaviouralism. Indian political philosophy in ancient times demarcated a clear distinction between nation and state religion and state.
The constitutions of Hindu states evolved over time and were based on political and legal treatises and prevalent social institutions. The institutions of state were broadly divided into governance, defense and order. Mantranga, the principal governing body of these states, consisted of the King, Prime Minister, Commander in chief of army, Chief Priest of the King; the Prime Minister headed the committee of ministers along with head of executive. Chanakya was a 4th-century BC Indian political philosopher; the Arthashastra provides an account of the science of politics for a wise ruler, policies for foreign affairs and wars, the system of a spy state and surveillance and economic stability of the state. Chanakya quotes several authorities including Bruhaspati, Prachetasa Manu and Ambi, described himself as a descendant of a lineage of political philosophers, with his father Chanaka being his immediate predecessor. Another influential extant Indian treatise on political philosophy is the Sukra Neeti.
An example of a code of law in ancient India is the Laws of Manu. Chinese political philosophy dates back to the Spring and Autumn period with Confucius in the 6th century BC. Chinese political philosophy was developed as a response to the social and political breakdown of the country characteristic of the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period; the major philosophies during the period, Legalism, Mohism and Taoism, each had a political aspect to their philosophical schools. Philosophers such as Confucius and Mozi, focused on political unity and political stability as the basis of their political philosophies. Confucianism advocated a hierarchical, meritocratic government based on empathy and interpersonal relationships. Legalism advocated a authoritarian government based on draconian punishments and laws. Mohism advocated a decentralized government centered on frugality and ascetism; the Agrarians advocated egalitarianism. Taoism advocated a proto-anarchism. Legalism was the dominant political philosophy of the Qin Dynasty, but was replaced by State Confucianism in the Han Dynasty.
Prior to China's adoption of communism, State Confucianism remained the dominant political philosophy of China up to the 20th century. Western political philosophy originates in the philosophy of ancient Greece, where political philosophy dates back to at least Plato. Ancient Greece was dominated by city-states, which experimented with various forms of political organization, grouped by Plato into five categories of descending stability and morality: monarchy, oligarchy and tyranny. One of the first important classical works of political philosophy is Plato's Republic, followed by Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and Politics. Roman political philosophy was influenced by the Roman statesman Cicero; the early Christian philosophy of Augustine of Hippo was influenced by Plato. A key change brought about by Christian thought was the moderation of the Stoicism and theory of justice of the Roman world, as well emphasis on the role of the state in applying mercy as a moral example. Augustine preached that one was not a member of his or her city, but was either a citizen of the City of God or the City of Man.
Augustine's City of God is an influential work of this period that attacked the thesis, held by many Christian Romans, that the Christian view could be realized on Earth. Thomas Aquinas meticulously dealt with the varieties of philosophy of law. According to Aquinas, there are four kinds of law: Eternal law Divine positive law Natural law Human law Aquinas never discusses the nature or categorization of canon law. There is scholarly debate surrounding the place of canon law within the Thomistic jurisprudential framework. Aquinas was an influential thinker in the Natural Law tradition; the rise of Islam, based on both the Qur'an and Muhammad altered the power balances and perceptions of origin of power in the Mediterranean region. Early Islamic philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between science and religion, the process of ijtihad to find truth—in effect all philosophy was "political" as it had real implications for governance. T
David Ricardo was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill. Born in London, Ricardo was the third of 17 children of a Sephardic Jewish family of Portuguese origin who had relocated from the Dutch Republic, his father, Abraham Ricardo, was a successful stockbroker. He began working with his father at the age of 14. At age 21, Ricardo eloped with a Quaker, Priscilla Anne Wilkinson, against his father's wishes, converted to the Unitarian faith; this religious difference resulted in estrangement from his family, he was led to adopt a position of independence. His father disowned him and his mother never spoke to him again. Following this estrangement he went into business for himself with the support of Lubbocks and Forster, an eminent banking house, he made the bulk of his fortune as a result of speculation on the outcome of the Battle of Waterloo. The Sunday Times reported in Ricardo's obituary, published on 14 September 1823, that during the Battle of Waterloo Ricardo "netted upwards of a million sterling", a huge sum at the time.
He retired, his position on the floor no longer tenable, subsequently purchased Gatcombe Park, an estate in Gloucestershire, now owned by Princess Anne, the Princess Royal and retired to the country. He was appointed High Sheriff of Gloucestershire for 1818–19. In August 1818 he bought Lord Portarlington's seat in Parliament for £4,000, as part of the terms of a loan of £25,000, his record in Parliament was that of an earnest reformer. He held the seat until his death five years later. Ricardo was a close friend of James Mill. Other notable friends included Jeremy Bentham and Thomas Malthus, with whom Ricardo had a considerable debate over such things as the role of landowners in a society, he was a member of Malthus' Political Economy Club, a member of the King of Clubs. He was one of the original members of The Geological Society, his youngest sister was author Sarah Ricardo-Porter. He voted with opposition in support of the liberal movements in Naples, 21 Feb. and Sicily, 21 June, for inquiry into the administration of justice in Tobago, 6 June.
He divided for repeal of the Blasphemous and Seditious Libels Act, 8 May, inquiry into the Peterloo massacre, 16 May, abolition of the death penalty for forgery, 25 May, 4 June 1821. He adamantly supported the implementation of free trade, he voted against renewal of the sugar duties, 9 Feb. and objected to the higher duty on East as opposed to West Indian produce, 4 May 1821. He opposed the timber duties, he voted silently for parliamentary reform, 25 Apr. 3 June, spoke in its favour at the Westminster anniversary reform dinner, 23 May 1822. He again voted for 4 June, his friend John Louis Mallett commented: " … he meets you upon every subject that he has studied with a mind made up, opinions in the nature of mathematical truths. He spoke of parliamentary reform and ballot as a man who would bring such things about, destroy the existing system tomorrow, if it were in his power, without the slightest doubt on the result … It is this quality of the man’s mind, his entire disregard of experience and practice, which makes me doubtful of his opinions on political economy."
Ten years after retiring and four years after entering Parliament Ricardo died from an infection of the middle ear that spread into the brain and induced septicaemia. He was 51, he had eight children, including three sons, of whom Osman Ricardo and another David Ricardo, became Members of Parliament, while the third, Mortimer Ricardo, served as an officer in the Life Guards and was a deputy lieutenant for Oxfordshire. Ricardo is buried in an ornate grave in the churchyard of Saint Nicholas in Hardenhuish, now a suburb of Chippenham, Wiltshire. At the time of his death his fortune was estimated at about £600,000. Ricardo became interested in economics after reading Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1799, he wrote his first economics article at age 37, firstly in The Morning Chronicle advocating reduction in the note-issuing of the Bank of England and publishing "The High Price of Bullion, a Proof of the Depreciation of Bank Notes" in 1810. He was an abolitionist, speaking at a meeting of the Court of the East India Company in March 1823, where he said he regarded slavery as a stain on the character of the nation.
His sister, had married David Samuda who came from a slave-owning family with a substantial number of slaves in Jamaica. Ricardo's most famous work is his Principles of Political Taxation, he advanced a labor theory of value: The value of a commodity, or the quantity of any other commodity for which it will exchange, depends on the relative quantity of labour, necessary for its production, not on the greater or less compensation, paid for that labour. Ricardo's note to Section VI: Mr. Malthus appears to think that it is a part of my doctrine, that the cost and value of a thing be the same. Ricardo contributed to the development of theories of rent and profits, he defined rent as "the difference between the produce obtained by the employment of two equal quantities of capital and labor." Ricardo believed that the process of economic development, which increased land utilization and led to the cultivation of poorer land, principally benefited landowners. According to Ricardo, such premium over "real social value", reaped due to ownership constitutes value to an individual but is at best a paper
Real wages are wages adjusted for inflation, or, wages in terms of the amount of goods and services that can be bought. This term is used in contrast to unadjusted wages; because it has been adjusted to account for changes in the prices of goods and services, real wages provide a clearer representation of an individual's wages in terms of what they can afford to buy with those wages – in terms of the amount of goods and services that can be bought. However, real wages suffer the disadvantage of not being well defined, since the amount of inflation is itself not well defined. Hence real wage defined as the total amount of goods and services that can be bought with a wage, is not defined; this is because changes in the relative prices. Despite difficulty in defining one value for the real wage, in some cases a real wage can be said to have unequivocally increased; this is true if: After the change, the worker can now afford any bundle of goods and services that he could just afford before the change, still have money left over.
In such a situation, real wage increases no matter. Inflation could be calculated based on any good or service or combination thereof, real wage has still increased; this of course leaves many scenarios where real wage increasing, decreasing or staying the same depends upon how inflation is calculated. These are the scenarios where the worker can buy some of the bundles that he could just afford before and still have money left, but at the same time he cannot afford some of the bundles that he could before; this happens. The use of adjusted figures is used in undertaking some forms of economic analysis. For example, to report on the relative economic successes of two nations, real wage figures are more useful than nominal figures; the importance of considering real wages appears when looking at the history of a single country. If only nominal wages are considered, the conclusion has to be that people used to be poorer than today. However, the cost of living was much lower. To have an accurate view of a nation's wealth in any given year, inflation has to be taken into account and real wages must be used as one measuring stick.
An alternative is to look at how much time it took to earn enough money to buy various items in the past, one version of the definition of real wages as the amount of goods or services that can be bought. Such an analysis shows that for most items, it takes much less work time to earn them now than it did decades ago, at least in the United States. Real wages are a useful economic measure, as opposed to nominal wages, which show the monetary value of wages in that year. Consider an example economy with the following wages over three years. Assume that the inflation in this economy is 2% per year: Year 1: $20,000 Year 2: $20,400 Year 3: $20,808Real Wage = W/i. If the figures shown are real wages wages have increased by 2% after inflation has been taken into account. In effect, an individual making this wage has more ability to buy goods and services than the previous year. However, if the figures shown are nominal wages real wages are not increasing at all. In absolute dollar amounts, an individual is bringing home more money each year, but the increases in inflation zeroes out the increases in their salary.
Given that inflation is increasing at the same pace as wages, an individual cannot afford to increase their consumption in such a scenario. The nominal wage increases a worker sees in his paycheck may give a misleading impression of whether he is "getting ahead" or "falling behind" over time. For example, the average worker’s paycheck increased 2.7% in 2005, while it increased 2.1% in 2015, creating an impression for some workers that they were "falling behind". However, inflation was 3.4% in 2005, while it was only 0.1% in 2015, so workers were "getting ahead" with lower nominal paycheck increases in 2015 compared to 2005. Following the recession of 2008 real wages globally have stagnated with a world average real wage growth rate of 2% in 2013. Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Latin America have all experienced real wage growth of under 0.9% in 2013, whilst the developed countries of the OECD have experienced real wage growth of 0.2% in the same period. The International Labour Organisation has stated that wage stagnation has resulted in "a declining share of GDP going to labour while an increasing share goes to capital in developed economies."The Economic Policy Institute has blamed "intentional policy choices" by governments for real wage stagnation in this period.
Stating "the abandonment of full employment as a main objective of economic policymaking, declining union density, various labor market policies and business practices, policies that have allowed CEOs and finance executives to capture larger shares of economic growth, globalization policies" have resulted in stagnant real wages in a time of increasing productivity. The Economic Policy Institute stated wages have stagnated in the United States since the mid 1970s, failing to keep up with productivity. According to them, between 1973 and 2013, productivity grew 74.4% and hourly compensation grew 9.2%, contradicting economic theory that those two should rise together. However, the Heritage Foundation says these claims rest on misinterpreted economic statistics. According to them, productivity grew 100% between 19
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law and government. As a discipline, political economy originated in moral philosophy, in the 18th century, to explore the administration of states' wealth, with "political" signifying the Greek word polity and "economy" signifying the Greek word "okonomie"; the earliest works of political economy are attributed to the British scholars Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, although they were preceded by the work of the French physiocrats, such as François Quesnay and Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot. In the late 19th century, the term "economics" began to replace the term "political economy" with the rise of mathematical modelling coinciding with the publication of an influential textbook by Alfred Marshall in 1890. Earlier, William Stanley Jevons, a proponent of mathematical methods applied to the subject, advocated economics for brevity and with the hope of the term becoming "the recognised name of a science".
Citation measurement metrics from Google Ngram Viewer indicate that use of the term "economics" began to overshadow "political economy" around 1910, becoming the preferred term for the discipline by 1920. Today, the term "economics" refers to the narrow study of the economy absent other political and social considerations while the term "political economy" represents a distinct and competing approach. Political economy, where it is not used as a synonym for economics, may refer to different things. From an academic standpoint, the term may reference Marxian economics, applied public choice approaches emanating from the Chicago school and the Virginia school. In common parlance, "political economy" may refer to the advice given by economists to the government or public on general economic policy or on specific economic proposals developed by political scientists. A growing mainstream literature from the 1970s has expanded beyond the model of economic policy in which planners maximize utility of a representative individual toward examining how political forces affect the choice of economic policies as to distributional conflicts and political institutions.
It is available as a stand-alone area of study in certain universities. Political economy meant the study of the conditions under which production or consumption within limited parameters was organized in nation-states. In that way, political economy expanded the emphasis of economics, which comes from the Greek oikos and nomos. Political economy was thus meant to express the laws of production of wealth at the state level, just as economics was the ordering of the home; the phrase économie politique first appeared in France in 1615 with the well-known book by Antoine de Montchrétien, Traité de l’economie politique. The French physiocrats were the first exponents of political economy, although the intellectual responses of Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, David Ricardo, Henry George and Karl Marx to the physiocrats receives much greater attention; the world's first professorship in political economy was established in 1754 at the University of Naples Federico II in southern Italy. The Neapolitan philosopher Antonio Genovesi was the first tenured professor.
In 1763, Joseph von Sonnenfels was appointed a Political Economy chair at the University of Vienna, Austria. Thomas Malthus, in 1805, became England's first professor of political economy, at the East India Company College, Hertfordshire. In its contemporary meaning, political economy refers to different yet related approaches to studying economic and related behaviours, ranging from the combination of economics with other fields to the use of different, fundamental assumptions that challenge earlier economic assumptions: Political economy most refers to interdisciplinary studies drawing upon economics and political science in explaining how political institutions, the political environment, the economic system—capitalist, communist, or mixed—influence each other; the Journal of Economic Literature classification codes associate political economy with three sub-areas: the role of government and/or class and power relationships in resource allocation for each type of economic system. Much of the political economy approach is derived from public choice theory on the one hand and radical political economics on the other hand, both dating from the 1960s.
Public choice theory is a microfoundations theory, intertwined with political economy. Both approaches model voters and bureaucrats as behaving in self-interested ways, in contrast to a view, ascribed to earlier mainstream economists, of government officials trying to maximize individual utilities from some kind of social welfare function; as such and political scientists associate political economy with approaches using rational-choice assumptions in game theory and in examining phenomena beyond economics' standard remit, such as government failure and complex decision making in which context the term "positive political economy" is common. Other "traditional" topics include analysis of such public policy issues as economic regulation, rent-seeking, market protection, institutional corruption and distributional politics. Empirical analysis includes the influence of elections on the choice of economic policy and forecasting models of electoral outcome
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill cited as J. S. Mill, was a British philosopher, political economist, civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed to social theory, political theory, political economy. Dubbed "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century", Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state and social control. Mill was a proponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by his predecessor Jeremy Bentham, he contributed to the investigation of scientific methodology, though his knowledge of the topic was based on the writings of others, notably William Whewell, John Herschel, Auguste Comte, research carried out for Mill by Alexander Bain. Mill engaged in written debate with Whewell. A member of the Liberal Party, he was the second Member of Parliament to call for women's suffrage after Henry Hunt in 1832. John Stuart Mill was born at 13 Rodney Street in Pentonville, the eldest son of the Scottish philosopher and economist James Mill, Harriet Barrow.
John Stuart was educated by his father, with the advice and assistance of Jeremy Bentham and Francis Place. He was given an rigorous upbringing, was deliberately shielded from association with children his own age other than his siblings, his father, a follower of Bentham and an adherent of associationism, had as his explicit aim to create a genius intellect that would carry on the cause of utilitarianism and its implementation after he and Bentham had died. Mill was a notably precocious child, he describes his education in his autobiography. At the age of three he was taught Greek. By the age of eight, he had read Aesop's Fables, Xenophon's Anabasis, the whole of Herodotus, was acquainted with Lucian, Diogenes Laërtius and six dialogues of Plato, he had read a great deal of history in English and had been taught arithmetic and astronomy. At the age of eight, Mill began studying Latin, the works of Euclid, algebra, was appointed schoolmaster to the younger children of the family, his main reading was still history, but he went through all the taught Latin and Greek authors and by the age of ten could read Plato and Demosthenes with ease.
His father thought that it was important for Mill to study and compose poetry. One of Mill's earliest poetic compositions was a continuation of the Iliad. In his spare time he enjoyed reading about natural sciences and popular novels, such as Don Quixote and Robinson Crusoe, his father's work, The History of British India was published in 1818. In the following year he was introduced to political economy and studied Adam Smith and David Ricardo with his father completing their classical economic view of factors of production. Mill's comptes rendus of his daily economy lessons helped his father in writing Elements of Political Economy in 1821, a textbook to promote the ideas of Ricardian economics. Ricardo, a close friend of his father, used to invite the young Mill to his house for a walk in order to talk about political economy. At the age of fourteen, Mill stayed a year in France with the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, brother of Jeremy Bentham; the mountain scenery he saw led to a lifelong taste for mountain landscapes.
The lively and friendly way of life of the French left a deep impression on him. In Montpellier, he attended the winter courses on chemistry, logic of the Faculté des Sciences, as well as taking a course in higher mathematics. While coming and going from France, he stayed in Paris for a few days in the house of the renowned economist Jean-Baptiste Say, a friend of Mill's father. There he met many leaders of the Liberal party, as well as other notable Parisians, including Henri Saint-Simon. Mill went through months of pondered suicide at twenty years of age. According to the opening paragraphs of Chapter V of his autobiography, he had asked himself whether the creation of a just society, his life's objective, would make him happy, his heart answered "no", unsurprisingly he lost the happiness of striving towards this objective. The poetry of William Wordsworth showed him that beauty generates compassion for others and stimulates joy. John Stuart Mill's Mental Breakdown, Victorian Unconversions, Romantic Poetry With renewed joy he continued to work towards a just society, but with more relish for the journey.
He considered this one of the most pivotal shifts in his thinking. In fact, many of the differences between him and his father stemmed from this expanded source of joy. Mill had been engaged in a pen-friendship with Auguste Comte, the founder of positivism and sociology, since Mill first contacted Comte in November 1841. Comte's sociologie was more an early philosophy of science than we know it today, the positive philosophy aided in Mill's broad rejection of Benthamism; as a nonconformist who refused to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England, Mill was not eligible to study at the University of Oxford or the University of Cambridge. Instead he followed his father to work for the East India Company, attended University College, London, to hear the lectures of John Austin, the first Professor of Jurisprudence, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1856. Mill's career as a colonial administrator at the British East India Company spanned from when he was 17 years old in 1823 until 1858, when the Compan