Printmaking is the process of creating artworks by printing on paper. Printmaking covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print produced is not considered a "copy" but rather is considered an "original". This is because each print varies to an extent due to variables intrinsic to the printmaking process, because the imagery of a print is not a reproduction of another work but rather is a unique image designed from the start to be expressed in a particular printmaking technique. A print may be known as an impression. Printmaking is not chosen only for its ability to produce multiple impressions, but rather for the unique qualities that each of the printmaking processes lends itself to. Prints are created by transferring ink from a matrix or through a prepared screen to a sheet of paper or other material.
Common types of matrices include: metal plates copper or zinc, or polymer plates for engraving or etching. Screens made of silk or synthetic fabrics are used for the screenprinting process. Other types of matrix substrates and related processes are discussed below. Multiple impressions printed from the same matrix form an edition. Since the late 19th century, artists have signed individual impressions from an edition and number the impressions to form a limited edition. Prints may be printed in book form, such as illustrated books or artist's books. Printmaking techniques are divided into the following basic categories: Relief, where ink is applied to the original surface of the matrix. Relief techniques include woodcut or woodblock as the Asian forms are known, wood engraving and metalcut. Intaglio, where ink is applied beneath the original surface of the matrix. Intaglio techniques include engraving, mezzotint, aquatint. Planographic, where the matrix retains its original surface, but is specially prepared and/or inked to allow for the transfer of the image.
Planographic techniques include lithography and digital techniques. Stencil, where ink or paint is pressed through a prepared screen, including screenprinting and pochoir. Other types of printmaking techniques outside these groups include collagraphy and viscosity printing. Collagraphy is a printmaking technique; this texture is transferred to the paper during the printing process. Contemporary printmaking may include digital printing, photographic mediums, or a combination of digital and traditional processes. Many of these techniques can be combined within the same family. For example, Rembrandt's prints are referred to as "etchings" for convenience, but often include work in engraving and drypoint as well, sometimes have no etching at all. Woodcut, a type of relief print, is the earliest printmaking technique, the only one traditionally used in the Far East, it was first developed as a means of printing patterns on cloth, by the 5th century was used in China for printing text and images on paper.
Woodcuts of images on paper developed around 1400 in Japan, later in Europe. These are the two areas where woodcut has been most extensively used purely as a process for making images without text; the artist draws a design on a plank of wood, or on paper, transferred to the wood. Traditionally the artist handed the work to a specialist cutter, who uses sharp tools to carve away the parts of the block that will not receive ink; the surface of the block is inked with the use of a brayer, a sheet of paper slightly damp, is placed over the block. The block is rubbed with a baren or spoon, or is run through a printing press. If in color, separate blocks can be used for each color, or a technique called reduction printing can be used. Reduction printing is a name used to describe the process of using one block to print several layers of color on one print; this involves cutting a small amount of the block away, printing the block many times over on different sheets before washing the block, cutting more away and printing the next color on top.
This allows the previous color to show through. This process can be repeated many times over; the advantages of this process is that only one block is needed, that different components of an intricate design will line up perfectly. The disadvantage is. Another variation of woodcut printmaking is the cukil technique, made famous by the Taring Padi underground community in Java, Indonesia. Taring Padi Posters resemble intricately printed cartoon posters embedded with political messages. Images—usually resembling a visually complex scenario—are carved unto a wooden surface called cukilan smothered with printer's ink before pressing it unto media such as paper or canvas; the process was developed in Germany in the 1430s from the engraving used by goldsmiths to decorate metalwork. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin to cut the design into the surface of a metal plate, traditionally made of copper. Engraving using a burin is a difficult skill to learn. Gravers come in a variety of sizes that yield different line types.
The burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line, characterized by
Self Publish, Be Happy
Self Publish, Be Happy is an organisation founded by Bruno Ceschel in 2010 that aims to help aspiring photographers to self-publish their own books. It does so through workshops, exhibitions, live events, on/offline projects and publicising of books, it is based on Ridley Road, in Dalston, where it keeps a library of some 2000 donated self-published zines and books. Since 2012 Self Publish, Be Happy has published photography books as SPBH Editions. Ceschel is Antonio de Luca its art director, it has published books by Broomberg & Chanarin, Cristina de Middel, Mariah Robertson, Lorenzo Vitturi and others. SPBH produces various series of publications — SPBH Book Club, which are sold as part of a yearly subscription as well as sold separately. In November 2015 Ceshel's book Self Publish, Be Happy: A DIY Photobook Manual and Manifesto was published by Aperture. Parr and Badger include Self Publish Be Naughty in the third volume of their photobook history. Critic Sean O'Hagan, writing in The Guardian, said "An accurate measure of SPBH’s importance to the contemporary cottage industry is the array of photobooks they have featured that I would cite as contemporary classics."
Self Publish Be Naughty. London: Self Publish, Be Happy, 2011. OCLC 777945637. 122 photographs from 75 photographers, text. Edition of 1000 copies. AB&OC. SPBH Book Club Vol. I. By Adam Broomberg & Oliver Chanarin. London: Self Publish, Be Happy, 2012. ASIN B00ECAIIFI. Edition of 250 copies. SPBH Book Club Vol. II. By Brad Feuerhelm. London: Self Publish, Be Happy, 2012. Edition of 250 copies. SPBH Book Club Vol. III. By Cristina de Middel. London: Self Publish, Be Happy, 2013. ASIN B00D18UQ0C. Edition of 500 copies. SPBH Book Club Vol. IV. By Mariah Robertson. London: Self Publish, Be Happy, 2013. ASIN B00K8KVUQK. Edition of 500 copies. Dalston Anatomy. By Lorenzo Vitturi. London: Self Publish, Be Happy, 2013. ASIN B00GI7KR6G. Edition of 700 copies. London: Self Publish, Be Happy, 2014. Edition of 1000 copies. SPBH Book Club Vol. V. By Esther Teichmann. London: Self Publish, Be Happy, 2014. ASIN B00MP2Y6J2. Edition of 500 copies. SPBH Book Club Vol. VI. By Melinda Gibson. London: Self Publish, Be Happy, 2014. Edition of 300 copies.
SPBH Book Club Vol. VII. By Lucas Blalock. London: Self Publish, Be Happy, 2014. ASIN B00VA3BUB4. Edition of 300 copies. 2010: Self Publish, Be Happy Weekend, Photographers' Gallery, London, 5–6 June 2010. 2013: Compilation Tokyo, Tokyo, 6–7 April 2013. A SPBH Live event where artists produced a publication live in front of an audience; this event produced Compilation Tokyo with Itami, Koji Kitagawa, Taisuke Koyama, Shinryo Saeki, Masafumi Shirakami, Hirosh Takagi, Hiroshi Takizawa, Kenji Hirasawa, Daisuke Yokota and Anne Schwalbe. 2015: Jimmy Limit with Self Publish, Be Happy, Scotiabank Contact Photography Festival, Canada, 2 May 2015. 2015: Offprint London, Tate Modern, London, 22–25 May 2015. 2015: Business as Usual: Self Publish, Be Happy in Residence, Photographers' Gallery, London, 20–27 November 2015. The SPBH office set up in the gallery, plus daily events. Awards received for Self Publish, Be Happy publications: 2016: Fire in Cairo by Matthew Connors won Artist's Book award, Infinity Awards, International Center of Photography, New York, NY List of self-publishing companies Small press Official website Interview with Bruno Ceschel at Photomonitor.
Studio Visit: Self Publish Be Happy by Patricia Karallis at Paper Journal
The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-readers designed and marketed by Amazon. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy and read e-books, newspapers and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store; the hardware platform, developed by Amazon subsidiary Lab126, began as a single device in 2007 and now comprises a range of devices, including e-readers with E Ink electronic paper displays and Kindle applications on all major computing platforms. All Kindle devices integrate with Kindle Store content, as of March 2018, the store has over six million e-books available in the United States. In 2004, Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos instructed the company's employees to build the world's best e-reader before Amazon's competitors could. Amazon used the codename Fiona for this e-reader; the Kindle name was devised by branding consultants Michael Karin Hibma. Lab126 asked them to name the product, so Cronan and Hibma suggested Kindle, meaning to light a fire, they felt. Kindle hardware has evolved from the original Kindle introduced in 2007 and the Kindle DX introduced in 2009.
The range includes devices with a keyboard, devices with touch-sensitive, lighted high-resolution screens, a tablet computer with the Kindle app, low-priced devices with a touch-sensitive screen. However, the Kindle e-reader has always been a single-purpose device for reading – rather than being multipurpose hardware that might create distractions while reading. Amazon has introduced Kindle apps for use on various devices and platforms, including Microsoft Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, BlackBerry 10 and Windows Phone. Amazon has a cloud reader to allow users to read e-books using modern web browsers; this article focuses on Amazon's E Ink e-readers. Amazon released the Kindle, its first e-reader, on November 19, 2007, for US$399, it sold out in five and a half hours. The device remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008; the device features a 6-inch 4-level grayscale E Ink display, with 250 MB of internal storage, which can hold 200 non-illustrated titles. It has a speaker and a headphone jack that allows the user to listen to audio files on Kindle.
It is the only Kindle via an SD card slot. The device's Whispernet feature was co-designed with Qualcomm, Kindle was the first device to include free U. S.-wide 3G data access to browse and download e-books from Amazon's Kindle Store. Amazon did not sell the first generation Kindle outside the U. S. On February 10, 2009, Amazon announced the second generation Kindle, it became available for purchase on February 23, 2009. The Kindle 2 features a text-to-speech option to read the text aloud, 2 GB of internal memory of which 1.4 GB is user-accessible. By Amazon's estimates, the Kindle 2 can hold about 1,500 non-illustrated books. Unlike the first generation Kindle, Kindle 2 does not have a slot for SD memory cards, it was slimmer than the original Kindle. The Kindle 2 features a Freescale 532 MHz, ARM-11 90 nm processor, 32 MB main memory, 2 GB flash memory and a 3.7 V 1,530 mAh lithium polymer battery. To promote the Kindle 2, in February 2009 author Stephen King released Ur, his then-new novella, available through the Kindle Store.
On July 8, 2009, Amazon reduced price of the Kindle 2 from $359 to $299 in October 2009, Amazon further reduced the price to $259. The Kindle 2 had a manufacturing materials cost estimated at $185.49, in 2009 by iSuppli. On October 22, 2009, Amazon stopped selling the original Kindle 2 and sold the Kindle 2 international version worldwide. On November 24, 2009, Amazon released a firmware update for the Kindle 2 that increased battery life by 85% and introduced native PDF file support for the device. On October 7, 2009, Amazon announced an international version of the Kindle 2 with the ability to download e-books wirelessly in over 100 countries, it became available October 19, 2009. The international Kindle 2 is physically the same as the U. S.-only Kindle 2. The original Kindle 2 used CDMA2000 for use on the Sprint network; the international version used standard GSM and 3G GSM, enabling it to be used on AT&T's U. S. mobile network and internationally in 100 other countries. The international version of the Kindle 2 is believed to have a higher display contrast, although Amazon did not advertise this.
A review by Gadget lab disputes that the contrast was higher and states that the font appears to be fuzzier than that of the first Kindle. The review goes on to say that changes to the Kindle 2 have made it harder to read the smaller font sizes that most books use; some writers discuss. Amazon announced the Kindle DX on May 6, 2009; this device supports PDF files. It is marketed as more suitable for displaying textbook content, it has an accelerometer, which enables the user to seamlessly rotate pages between landscape and portrait orientations when the Kindle DX is turned on its side and it includes built-in speakers. The device can only connect to Whispernet in the U. S. On January 19, 2010, the Kindle DX international version was released in over 100 countries; the Kindle DX international version is the same as the Kindle DX except for having support for international 3G data. On July 1, 2010, Amazon released the Kindle DX Graphite globally; the DXG has an E Ink display with 50% better contrast ratio due to
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
An electronic book known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops and smartphones. In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online. With e-books, users can browse through titles online, when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book.
At the start of 2012 in the U. S. more e-books were published online. The main reasons for people buying e-books online are lower prices, increased comfort and a larger selection of titles. With e-books, "lectronic bookmarks make referencing easier, e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages." "Although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is suited for e-book delivery because it can be searched" for keywords. In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied; the amount of e-book reading is increasing in the U. S.. This is increasing, because by 2014 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, compared to 30% owning such devices in 2013. E-books are referred to as "ebooks", "eBooks", "Ebooks", "e-Books", "e-journals", "e-editions" or as "digital books"; the devices that are designed for reading e-books are called "e-readers", "ebook device" or "eReaders". Some trace the idea of an e-reader that would enable a reader to view books on a screen to a 1930 manifesto by Bob Brown, written after watching his first "talkie".
He titled it The Readies, playing off the idea of the "talkie". In his book, Brown says movies have outmaneuvered the book by creating the "talkies" and, as a result, reading should find a new medium: “A simple reading machine which I can carry or move around, attach to any old electric light plug and read hundred-thousand-word novels in 10 minutes if I want to, I want to.” Brown's notion, was much more focused on reforming orthography and vocabulary, than on medium: introducing huge numbers of portmanteau symbols to replace normal words, punctuation to simulate action or movement. E-readers never followed a model at all like Brown's. Brown predicted the miniaturization and portability of e-readers. In an article, Jennifer Schuessler writes, "The machine, Brown argued, would allow readers to adjust the type size, avoid paper cuts and save trees, all while hastening the day when words could be'recorded directly on the palpitating ether.'" He felt the e-reader should bring a new life to reading.
Schuessler relates it to a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or an new song as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song. The inventor of the first e-book is not agreed upon; some notable candidates include the following: In 1949, Ángela Ruiz Robles, a teacher from Ferrol, patented the Enciclopedia Mecánica, or the Mechanical Encyclopedia, a mechanical device which operated on compressed air where text and graphics were contained on spools that users would load onto rotating spindles. Her idea was to create a device which would decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school; the final device would include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading. Her device was never put into production but one of her prototypes is kept in the National Museum of Science and Technology in La Coruna, Spain; the first e-book may be the Index Thomisticus, a annotated electronic index to the works of Thomas Aquinas, prepared by Roberto Busa, S.
J. beginning in 1949 and completed in the 1970s. Although stored on a single computer, a distributable CD-ROM version appeared in 1989. However, this work is sometimes omitted. In 2005, the Index was published online. Alternatively, some historians consider electronic books to have started in the early 1960s, with the NLS project headed by Doug Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute, the Hypertext Editing System and FRESS projects headed by Andries van Dam at Brown University. FRESS documents were structure-oriented rather than line-oriented. All these systems provided extensive hyperlinking and other capabilities. Van Dam is thought to have coined the term "electronic book", it was established enough to use in an article title by 1985. FRESS was used for reading extensive primary texts on
Wattpad is an Internet community for readers and writers to publish new user-generated stories in different genres, including classics, general fiction, historical fiction, non-fiction, fan-fiction, spiritual and teen fiction. It aims to create social communities around stories for both established writers; the platform claims to have an audience of more than 70 million users, who can directly interact with the writers and share their opinions with fellow readers. Although available in over 50 languages, 77% of its content is written in English. A number of Wattpad users are translating stories to continue to build the platform. From December 2006 to 2019, the former tagline for the Wattpad website was "Stories you'll love." As of February/March 2019 during its rebrand to present, it is now "Where stories live". Wattpad originated as the result of a collaboration between Allen Lau and Ivan Yuen, their current headquarters, as of 2019, was based in Ontario. In February 2007, Wattpad announced the addition of over 17,000 e-books from Project Gutenberg making them available to mobile users.
According to a June 2009 Wattpad press release, the mobile application had been downloaded over 5 million times. In March 2009, an iPhone version was released; this was followed by the launch on BlackBerry App World in April 2009, Google Android in June 2009 and Apple iPad in April 2010. In December 2015, Windows Phone 8.1 and Windows 10 Mobile Version was released. Wattpad has more than 65 million users who as part of the Wattpad community collectively spend 15 billion minutes each month using Wattpad; as of 2018 Wattpad there are more than 400 million story uploads on Wattpad. As of January 2018, Wattpad had received USD $117.8M in funding from investors. In 2011, Wattpad announced that it received $3.5M in total funding from its current investors, from W Media Ventures, Golden Venture Partners, Union Square Ventures." In June 2012, Wattpad raised $17.3M from a group of venture funds led by Khosla Ventures. In April 2014, Wattpad announced $46M in Series C funding led by OMERS ventures. In January 2018, Wattpad announced USD $51M in funding from Tencent Holdings Limited, BDC, Globe Telecom's Kickstart Ventures, Peterson Group and existing investor Raine.
In December 2011, Toronto-based Wattpad was selected as the hottest Digital Media company in the country at the Canadian Innovation Exchange. In the same year, co-founder and CEO Ivan Yuen was recognized as a top Canadian entrepreneur at the Impact Infused Awards, sponsored by Deloitte. In March 2014, Wattpad signed a contract with Pop Fiction, an imprint of Summit Media, to print Filipino Wattpad stories in the Philippines. Other publishers from the Philippines publish stories from Wattpad. Since some Wattpad stories have been adapted into teleseries. Filipino television network TV5, in partnership with Wattpad and Life is Beautiful Publishing Company launched Wattpad Presents, a series of Wattpad stories turned into TV dramas. Wattpad stories aired on the show are those that were published by LIB Publishing. ABS-CBN made several adaptation of Wattpad stories such as "My App Boyfie" by Noreen Capili, starring James Reid and Nadine Lustre, the coming-of-age series Bagito starring Nash Aguas, Alexa Ilacad and Ella Cruz.
Pop Fiction's best-selling book, "She's Dating the Gangster", written by Bianca Bernardino as a Wattpad original, became the first Wattpad story adapted into a full-length motion picture starring Kathryn Bernardo and Daniel Padilla. The movie adaptation was produced by Star Cinema. Liza Soberano and Enrique Gil starred on the film "Just The Way You Are", based on the Wattpad story "The Bet" by Ilurvbooks. "Chasing Red" was published by a Wattpad user. In February 2015, Wattpad launched a second standalone app called "After Dark"; the app focuses on the romance genre and is intended for adult readers. On February 21, 2017, Wattpad launched. Tap offers stories in the form of text messages as if reading a private conversation on someone else's phone; the app was an early success. On July 28, 2017, Tap launched'Tap Originals', a series of original stories produced by its top-tier writers every single week, with some of those series working on an episode-by-episode basis; some of Tap's most successful original series include The Babysitter and Charlie, Charlie.
On November 13, 2018, Wattpad Next Beta was launched to selected countries for early testing such as United States, Mexico, United Kingdom, the Philippines. The launch of the Next Beta has over 50 selected stories to be paid with WattPad Coins, that can be earned by having your reader spend Wattpad Coins to show them support or by purchasing them with real-world currency to unlock participating Next Beta stories; this has been launched to create a way for writers to earn money through their work and to provide support for readers. WattPad has planned a fast-follow launch for Wattpad Next in Spanish-speaking regions and to expand the program, which will be available globally in 2019; as of January 2019: 85% of its traffic and usage comes from mobile devices, the site has 70 million monthly users, there are over 565 million story uploads in total, there are over 65 million users. 70% of users are female. 80% of whom are millennials or Gen Z. The most voted stories appear on the "What's Hot List".
According to the profiles visible on the site, many of these authors are teenagers. Wattpad section has a Featured Story list, which promotes content reviewed and approved by staff and an editorial review board. Many of th
Self-publishing is the publication of media by its author without the involvement of an established publisher. In common parlance, the term refers to physical written media, such as books and magazines, or digital media, such as e-books and websites, it can apply to albums, brochures, video content, zines, or uploading images to a website. Unlike the traditional publishing model, in which control of the publication is shared with a publisher, the author controls the entire process, including design, distribution and public relations; the author may perform these activities they may outsource these tasks. In traditional publishing, the publisher bears the costs, such as editing and paying advances, reaps a substantial share of the profits; the $1 billion market of self-publishing has changed in the past two decades with new technologies such as the Internet providing increasing alternatives to traditional publishing. Self-publishing is becoming the first choice for writers. Most self-published books sell few copies, although there are a dozen books that sell into the millions.
The quality of self-published works varies with many low quality titles on the market. Self-publishing is not a new phenomenon. In 1759, British satirist Laurence Sterne's self-published the first two volumes of Tristram Shandy. While most novels were distributed by established publishers, there have been authors who chose to self-publish, or who chose to start their own presses, such as John Locke, Jane Austen, Emily Dickinson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Martin Luther, Marcel Proust, Derek Walcott, Walt Whitman. In 1908, Ezra Pound sold A Lume Spento for six pence each. Franklin Hiram King's book Farmers of Forty Centuries was self-published in 1911, was subsequently published commercially. In 1931 the author of The Joy of Cooking paid a local printing company to print 3000 copies. In 1941, writer Virginia Woolf chose to self-publish her final novel Between the Acts on her Hogarth Press, in effect starting her own press. Five years ago, self-publishing was a scar. Now it's a tattoo. Up until two decades ago, self-publishing used to be described by the negative term vanity press, with the connotation that the only reason that a book was being printed was to satisfy the author's personal ego.
Authors were considered to have been insufficiently talented to have been published the "proper" way via an established publishing house. Traditional publishers paid authors a percentage of the sales of their books, so publishers would select only those authors whose books they believed were to sell well; as a result, it was difficult for an unknown author to get a publishing contract under these circumstances. So-called vanity publishers offered an alternative: they would publish any book in exchange for an upfront payment by the author. With this arrangement, the author would not own the print run of finished books, would not control how they were distributed. Critics of vanity publishers included James D. Macdonald, who claimed that vanity publishing violated Yog's Law which states that "Money should flow toward the author." Vanity publishing required a one-time payment of $5,000 to $10,000 to do a print run of 1000 books. Self-published books have had a negative stigma. To be sure, self-publishing is sometimes seen as a sign that an author believes in her work.
Part of the reason for the negative stigma is that many self-published books in past decades, were of dubious quality. For example, in 1995, a retired TV repairman self-published his autobiography in which he described how he had been stepped on by a horse when he was a boy, how he had been murdered by his stepfather when he was a young man in Mexico, how his ex-wife had clawed his face with her fingernails; the repairman spent $10,000 to have his 150-page masterpiece printed up, for promotion purposes, he sent copies to a local library, to the White House, to everybody with the repairman's same last name. These efforts did not lead anywhere. In the first decade of the 21st century, self-publishing was seen as a "mark of failure", although there are many indicators that this is changing; the image of self-publishing has been improving, since many well-known writers, who generate high quality content, have first started by self-publishing, or have switched from traditional publishing to self-publishing.
According to some views, the stigma of self-publishing is gone while others feel that self-publishing still has a way to go to cultivate respectability. Book critic Ron Charles in the Washington Post complained in an opinion piece that "No, I don't want to read your self-published book", citing concerns that there were too many published authors, that self-published books lacked quality, were published by authors with little understanding of the audience or the market, but the negative stigma has been receding with the advent of dozens of authors who have self-published their way to literary success. Breakaway bestsellers such as Fifty Shades of Grey and The Martian were first self-published, helping to lend respectability to self-publishing in general. Further, with new avenues of self-publishing